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Aedes aegypti

Maggy T Sikulu-Lord, Masabho P Milali, Michael Henry, Robert A Wirtz, Leon E Hugo, Floyd E Dowell, Gregor J Devine
Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Kayvan Etebari, Sultan Asad, Guangmei Zhang, Sassan Asgari
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are appearing as an important class of regulatory RNAs with a variety of biological functions. The aim of this study was to identify the lincRNA profile in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and evaluate their potential role in host-pathogen interaction. The majority of previous RNA-Seq transcriptome studies in Ae. aegypti have focused on the expression pattern of annotated protein coding genes under different biological conditions. Here, we used 35 publically available RNA-Seq datasets with relatively high depth to screen the Ae...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dennis Pérez, Marta Castro, Ángel Manuel Álvarez, Lizet Sánchez, María Eugenia Toledo, Damayanti Matos, Patrick Van der Stuyft, Pierre Lefèvre
Objective To identify facilitators and barriers to the process of translating community empowerment strategies into the practice of the national Aedes aegypti control program in Cuba. Methods A case study of the process was conducted from 2005 to 2009 at national and provincial levels of the control program. Data from participant observation, in-depth interviews, and document analysis were triangulated and analyzed inductively and deductively. Results The main facilitators identified included a proposal for an empowerment strategy effective in reducing Aedes aegypti infestation, which was explained in such a way that it could be implemented by program staff; and a control program with national coverage capable of implementing the proposal...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Takashi Suzuki, Joseph H Osei, Akihiro Sasaki, Michelle Adimazoya, Maxwell Appawu, Daniel Boakye, Nobuo Ohta, Samuel Dadzie
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Charles Lowell Cantrell, Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones, Abbas Ali
Hierochloë odorata (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae), commonly known as sweetgrass, has documented use as an insect repellent by the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta. Both the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta would use braided plant material in a sachet in clothing or burn them from one end as incense, air/clothing freshener, and insect repellent. This study evaluated the insect repellent properties of this plant using an in vitro mosquito Aedes aegypti feeding bioassay-directed approach to identify the compound(s) responsible for the observed activities...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
David Baca-Carrasco, Jorge X Velasco-Hernández
Since the first major outbreak reported on the island Yap in 2007, the Zika virus spread has alerted the scientific community worldwide. Zika is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; particularly in Central and South America, the main vector is the same mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya, Aedes aegypti. Seeking to understand the dynamics of spread of the Zika, in this paper, three mathematical models are presented, in which vector transmission of the virus, sexual contact transmission and migration are considered...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Letícia B Smith, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of important human disease viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes, especially during disease outbreaks. Herein, we review the status of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti and A. albopictus, mechanisms of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance alleles and provide suggestions for future research. The widespread use of pyrethroids has given rise to many populations with varying levels of resistance worldwide, albeit with substantial geographical variation...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed
The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in South America is one of the most serious public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak of West Africa [2014]. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family and has two lineages (Asian and African). The virus was first discovered in Uganda [1947] and the first human infection was identified in Nigeria [1952]. The current epidemic is the third of its type after that of Yap Island, Micronesia [2007] and French Polynesia [2013]. Phylogenetic studies revealed that the current strain shares about 99...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Kerri L Coon, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes are insects of interest because several species vector disease-causing pathogens to humans and other vertebrates. We previously reported that mosquitoes from long-term laboratory cultures require living bacteria in their gut to develop, but development does not depend on particular species of bacteria. Here, we focused on three distinct but interrelated areas of study to better understand the role of bacteria in mosquito development by studying field and laboratory populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus from the Southeastern United States...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Lizandra Makowski Steffler, Silvio Santana Dolabella, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla, Carine Spenassatto Dreyer, Edilson Divino Araújo, Rosane Gomes Oliveira, Walter Fabrício Silva Martins, Roseli La Corte
BACKGROUND: The study of the genetic structure of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding their population dynamics as well as for the analysis of factors responsible for their resistance and ecological adaptation. The use of molecular markers in identifying differences amongst populations of Ae. aegypti in different geographical areas as well as the temporal variation of the vector populations has contributed to the improvement of vector control strategies. The present study aims to determine the genetic variability of Ae...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Isabel E Olivera, Katrina C Fins, Sara A Rodriguez, Sumayyah K Abiff, Jaime L Tartar, Aurélien Tartar
BACKGROUND: Although interest in animal pathogenic oomycetes is increasing, the molecular basis mediating oomycete-animal relationships remains virtually unknown. Crinkler (CRN) genes, which have been traditionally associated with the cytotoxic activity displayed by plant pathogenic oomycetes, were recently detected in transcriptome sequences from the entomopathogenic oomycete Lagenidium giganteum, suggesting that these genes may represent virulence factors conserved in both animal and plant pathogenic oomycetes...
October 6, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Melinda K Butterworth, Cory W Morin, Andrew C Comrie
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, caused by a mosquito-transmitted virus, is an increasing health concern in the Americas. Meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation can impact disease distribution and abundance through biophysical impacts on the vector and virus. Such tightly coupled links may facilitate further spread of dengue fever under a changing climate. In the southeastern United States, the dengue vector is widely established and exists on the current fringe of dengue transmission...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
K C N Rabêlo, C M R Albuquerque, V B Tavares, S M Santos, C A Souza, T C Oliveira, R R Moura, L A C Brandão, S Crovella
Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Ieda P Ribeiro, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Rosilainy Surubi Fernandes, Stéphanie Silva Campos, Keli Antunes Barbosa da Silva, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Myrna C Bonaldo, Patrícia Brasil, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira
Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused a major epidemic in Brazil and several other American countries. ZIKV is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. In this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of ZIKV suspected cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2015 to May 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. Three pools of Aedes aegypti were found with the ZIKV genome, one of which had only one male. This finding supports the occurrence of vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV in Ae...
October 3, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jirod Nararak, Sunaiyana Sathantriphop, Monthathip Kongmee, Michael J Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1-5% concentrations (90...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Lucie Vaníčková, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology International
Esther Schnettler, Vatipally B Sreenu, Timothy Mottram, Melanie McFarlane
Mosquito-borne viruses are known to cause disease in humans and livestock and are often difficult to control due the lack of specific antivirals and vaccines. The Wolbachia endosymbiont has been widely studied for its ability to restrict positive strand RNA virus infection in mosquitoes, although little is known about the precise antiviral mechanism. In recent years, a variety of insect-specific viruses have been discovered in mosquitoes and an interaction with mosquito-borne viruses have been reported for some of them; however nothing is known about the effect of Wolbachia on insect specific virus infection in mosquitoes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Peiwen Liu, Yunqiao Dong, Jinbao Gu, Santhosh Puthiyakunnon, Yang Wu, Xiao-Guang Chen
BACKGROUND: In eukaryotic organisms, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) control the activities of mobile genetic elements and ensure genome maintenance. Recent evidence indicates that piRNAs are involved in multiple biological pathways, including transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, sex determination and even interactions between host and pathogens. Aedes albopictus is a major invasive species that transmits a number of viral diseases in humans. Ae. albopictus has the largest genome and the highest abundance of repetitive sequences when compared with members that belong to Culicidae with a published genome...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Marianel L Falvo, Ronaldo A Pereira-Junior, Juscelino Rodrigues, Claudia C López Lastra, Juan J García, Éverton K K Fernandes, Christian Luz
AIMS: Control of diurnal Aedes aegypti with mycoinsecticides should consider the exposure of fungus-treated adults to sunlight, and especially to UV-B radiation that might affect activity of conidia applied on the mosquito's surface. METHODS AND RESULTS: Germination of M. anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia on SDAY medium was not affected at the lowest level of radiation with UV-B, 0.69 kJ m(-2) , but was retarded and reduced at higher 2.075 and 4.15 kJ m(-2) , and completely inhibited at ≥ 8...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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