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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345667/the-toxicity-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-to-larvae-of-the-disease-vectors-aedes-aegypti-and-anopheles-gambiae
#1
Zatul-'Iffah Abu Hasan, Helen Williams, Nur M Ismail, Hidayatulfathi Othman, Gyles E Cozier, K Ravi Acharya, R Elwyn Isaac
The control of mosquitoes is threatened by the appearance of insecticide resistance and therefore new control chemicals are urgently required. Here we show that inhibitors of mosquito peptidyl dipeptidase, a peptidase related to mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), are insecticidal to larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. ACE inhibitors (captopril, fosinopril and fosinoprilat) and two peptides (trypsin-modulating oostatic factor/TMOF and a bradykinin-potentiating peptide, BPP-12b) were all inhibitors of the larval ACE activity of both mosquitoes...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342876/increased-activity-of-unlinked-zika-virus-ns2b-ns3-protease-compared-to-linked-zika-virus-protease
#2
Benjamin D Kuiper, Kristin Slater, Nicholas Spellmon, Joshua Holcomb, Prasanna Medapureddy, Kendall M Muzzarelli, Zhe Yang, Reuben Ovadia, Franck Amblard, Iulia A Kovari, Raymond F Schinazi, Ladislau C Kovari
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus spread by daytime-active Aedes spp. mosquitoes such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Previously thought to be a mild infection, the latest ZIKV outbreak in the Americas is causally associated with more severe symptoms as well as severe birth defects, such as microcephaly. Currently no vaccine or antiviral exists. However, recent progress has demonstrated the viral NS2B/NS3 protease may be a suitable target for the development of small-molecule antiviral agents. To better understand the ZIKV protease, we expressed, purified, and characterized unlinked and linked NS2B/NS3 protease corresponding to an isolate from the recent outbreak in Puerto Rico...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341392/novel-synthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-using-artemisia-vulgaris-l-leaf-extract-and-their-efficacy-of-larvicidal-activity-against-dengue-fever-vector-aedes-aegypti-l
#3
B Sundararajan, B D Ranjitha Kumari
The Aedes aegypti L. mosquito transmits dengue and yellow fever, which cause millions of death every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread worldwide particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates areas. The present study denotes a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Artemisia vulgaris L. leaf extract as reducing agent. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339472/vector-status-of-aedes-species-determines-geographical-risk-of-autochthonous-zika-virus-establishment
#4
Lauren Gardner, Nan Chen, Sahotra Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The 2015-16 Zika virus pandemic originating in Latin America led to predictions of a catastrophic global spread of the disease. Since the current outbreak began in Brazil in May 2015 local transmission of Zika has been reported in over 60 countries and territories, with over 750 thousand confirmed and suspected cases. As a result of its range expansion attention has focused on possible modes of transmission, of which the arthropod vector-based disease spread cycle involving Aedes species is believed to be the most important...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339458/rapid-surveillance-for-vector-presence-rsvp-development-of-a-novel-system-for-detecting-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus
#5
Brian L Montgomery, Martin A Shivas, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jim Edwards, Nicholas A Hamilton, Cassie C Jansen, Jamie L McMahon, David Warrilow, Andrew F van den Hurk
BACKGROUND: The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP) system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap) samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338754/spatial-quantification-of-the-world-population-potentially-exposed-to-zika-virus
#6
Alberto J Alaniz, Antonella Bacigalupo, Pedro E Cattan
Background: Zika virus is an emerging Flaviviridae virus, which has spread rapidly in the last few years. It has raised concern because it has been associated with fetus microcephaly when pregnant women are infected. The main vector is the mosquito Aedes aegypti , distributed in tropical areas. Methods: Niche modelling techniques were used to estimate the potential distribution area of A. aegypti. This was overlapped with human population density, determining areas of potential transmission risk worldwide...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336562/de-novo-assembly-of-the-aedes-aegypti-genome-using-hi-c-yields-chromosome-length-scaffolds
#7
Olga Dudchenko, Sanjit S Batra, Arina D Omer, Sarah K Nyquist, Marie Hoeger, Neva C Durand, Muhammad S Shamim, Ido Machol, Eric S Lander, Aviva Presser Aiden, Erez Lieberman Aiden
The Zika outbreak, spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, highlights the need to create high-quality assemblies of large genomes in a rapid and cost-effective fashion. Here, we combine Hi-C data with existing draft assemblies to generate chromosome-length scaffolds. We validate this method by assembling a human genome, de novo, from short reads alone (67X coverage). We then combine our method with draft sequences to create genome assemblies of the mosquito disease vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, each consisting of three scaffolds corresponding to the three chromosomes in each species...
March 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334229/functional-and-nonfunctional-forms-of-cquior91-an-odorant-selectivity-subunit-of-culex-quinquefasciatus
#8
David T Hughes, Julien Pelletier, Suhaila Rahman, Sisi Chen, Walter S Leal, Charles W Luetje
In Culex quinquefasciatus, CquiOR91 is the ortholog of 2 larvae-specific odorant receptors (ORs) from Anopheles gambiae (Agam\Or40, previously shown to respond to several odorant ligands including the broad-spectrum repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET) and Aedes aegypti (Aaeg\Or40). When we cloned full-length CquiOR91 from a Culex quinquefasciatus larval head RNA sample, we found 2 alleles of this OR, differing at 9 residues. Functional analysis using the Xenopus oocyte expression system and 2-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology revealed one allele (CquiOR91...
March 3, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333938/the-relationship-between-entomological-indicators-of-aedes-aegypti-abundance-and-dengue-virus-infection
#9
Elizabeth A Cromwell, Steven T Stoddard, Christopher M Barker, Annelies Van Rie, William B Messer, Steven R Meshnick, Amy C Morrison, Thomas W Scott
Routine entomological monitoring data are used to quantify the abundance of Ae. aegypti. The public health utility of these indicators is based on the assumption that greater mosquito abundance increases the risk of human DENV transmission, and therefore reducing exposure to the vector decreases incidence of infection. Entomological survey data from two longitudinal cohort studies in Iquitos, Peru, linked with 8,153 paired serological samples taken approximately six months apart were analyzed. Indicators of Ae...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332822/screening-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-using-attenuated-total-reflection-mid-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Aazam Khoshmanesh, Dale Christensen, David Perez-Guaita, Iñaki Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Scott L O'Neill, Don McNaughton, Bayden R Wood
Dengue fever is the most common mosquito transmitted viral infection afflicting humans, estimated to generate around 390 million infections each year in over 100 countries. The introduction of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has the potential to greatly reduce the public health burden of the disease. This approach requires extensive PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing of the Wolbachia-infection status of mosquitoes in areas where Wolbachia-A. aegypti are released. Here we report the first example of small organism mid-infrared spectroscopy where we have applied Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate modelling methods to determine sex, age and the presence of Wolbachia (wMel strain) in laboratory mosquitoes and sex and age in field mosquitoes...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332087/boswellia-ovalifoliolata-burseraceae-essential-oil-as-an-eco-friendly-larvicide-toxicity-against-six-mosquito-vectors-of-public-health-importance-non-target-mosquito-fishes-backswimmers-and-water-bugs
#11
Giovanni Benelli, Mohan Rajeswary, Periasamy Vijayan, Sengamalai Senthilmurugan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Marimuthu Govindarajan
The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS revealed that the B...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331047/ascension-island-a-survey-to-assess-the-presence-of-zika-virus-vectors
#12
G Bullivant, A F Martinou
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Following concerns regarding the spread of Zika virus, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the Ascension Island, South Atlantic. This was to determine if vectors of the virus such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the Island. METHODS: An extensive survey of residential areas and natural habitats was initiated in order to collect mosquito larvae and adults by methods such as larval sampling, adult trapping and human landing catches...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327810/spatial-temporal-analysis-of-dengue-deaths-identifying-social-vulnerabilities
#13
Maria do Socorro da Silva, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, José Aquino, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Emanuele Bani, Emnielle Pinto Borges Moreira, Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros, Zulimar Márita Ribeiro Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Currently, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and zika virus represent serious public health issues in Brazil, despite efforts to control the vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. METHODS: This was a descriptive and ecological study of dengue deaths occurring from 2002 to 2013 in São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil. Geoprocessing software was used to draw maps, linking the geo-referenced deaths with urban/social data at census tract level. RESULTS: There were 74 deaths, concentrated in areas of social vulnerability...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327173/a-new-paradigm-for-aedes-spp-surveillance-using-gravid-ovipositing-sticky-trap-and-ns1-antigen-test-kit
#14
Sai Ming Lau, Tock H Chua, Wan-Yussof Sulaiman, Sylvia Joanne, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Karuthan Chinna, Balan Venugopalan, Indra Vythilingam
BACKGROUND: Dengue remains a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia and has increased 37-fold in Malaysia compared to decades ago. New strategies are urgently needed for early detection and control of dengue epidemics. METHODS: We conducted a two year study in a high human density dengue-endemic urban area in Selangor, where Gravid Ovipositing Sticky (GOS) traps were set up to capture adult Aedes spp. mosquitoes. All Aedes mosquitoes were tested using the NS1 dengue antigen test kit...
March 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323468/potential-high-risk-areas-for-zika-virus-transmission-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#15
Enbal Shacham, Erik J Nelson, Daniel F Hoft, Mario Schootman, Alexander Garza
OBJECTIVES: To understand where transmission of Zika virus has the highest likelihood to occur in the contiguous United States with regard to its transmission both sexually and via Aedes aegypti mosquito bites. METHODS: We evaluated the 2 routes of transmission risk with predictors of sexually transmitted infections (percentage women of childbearing age, birthrate, gonorrhea and chlamydia rates, concentrated disadvantage) as a surrogate for unprotected sexual activity and the demographic distribution of the A...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322690/biologic-evidence-required-for-zika-disease-enhancement-by-dengue-antibodies
#16
Scott B Halstead
The sudden appearance of overt human Zika virus infections that cross the placenta to damage fetal tissues, target sexual organs, and are followed in some instances by Guillain-Barré syndrome raises questions regarding whether these outcomes are caused by genetic mutations or if prior infection by other flaviviruses affects disease outcome. Because dengue and Zika viruses co-circulate in the urban Aedes aegypti mosquito-human cycle, a logical question, as suggested by in vitro data, is whether dengue virus infections result in antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus infections...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320313/retention-of-duplicated-long-wavelength-opsins-in-mosquito-lineages-by-positive-selection-and-differential-expression
#17
Gloria I Giraldo-Calderón, Michael J Zanis, Catherine A Hill
BACKGROUND: Opsins are light sensitive receptors associated with visual processes. Insects typically possess opsins that are stimulated by ultraviolet, short and long wavelength (LW) radiation. Six putative LW-sensitive opsins predicted in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and eight in the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, suggest gene expansion in the Family Culicidae (mosquitoes) relative to other insects. Here we report the first detailed molecular and evolutionary analyses of LW opsins in three mosquito vectors, with a goal to understanding the molecular basis of opsin-mediated visual processes that could be exploited for mosquito control...
March 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316881/occurrence-of-concurrent-infections-with-multiple-serotypes-of-dengue-viruses-during-2013-2015-in-northern-kerala-india
#18
Manchala Nageswar Reddy, Ranjeet Dungdung, Lathika Valliyott, Rajendra Pilankatta
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a global human public health threat, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of sequential infection by more than one serotype of dengue virus (DENV) is a major contributing factor for the induction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), two major medical conditions caused by DENV infection. However, there is no specific drug or vaccine available against dengue infection. There are reports indicating the increased incidence of concurrent infection of dengue in several tropical and subtropical regions...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315189/frequency-of-aedes-sp-linnaeus-diptera-culicidae-and-associated-entomofauna-in-bromeliads-from-a-forest-patch-within-a-densely-urbanized-area
#19
T N Docile, R Figueiró, N A Honório, D F Baptista, G Pereira, J A A Dos Santos, C T Codeço
Little is known about the relationship between the presence of Aedes, abiotic factors and the entomofauna existing in phytotelmatas. The aim of this study was to identify biotic and abiotic factors associated with the presence of Aedes in bromeliads sites located in a forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the study area, eight bromeliads from the Aechmea genus were chosen and kept in landscape form. Physical and chemical variables were measured. Collected aquatic insects were identified according to the literature...
March 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314109/a-dynamic-survival-detection-and-analysis-system-for-mosquito-larvae-viability-in-drug-assays
#20
Biao Guo, Yuesheng Zhu, Guibo Luo, Xiaorong Zuo
Bioinformatics studies have emerged in the domain of larval behavior analysis in recent years. A dynamic survival detection and analysis system for automatically monitoring a large amount of mosquito larvae in bioassays with multiwell plates by acquiring and processing videos is proposed in this article. In our system, equipment is designed for acquiring the video of the mosquito larvae in several multiwell plates simultaneously by a camera, and a video analysis module is developed for detecting the survival states of larvae in each well in real time...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Technol
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