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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454165/pituitary-gland-shrinkage-in-bipolar-disorder-the-role-of-gender
#1
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Gian Mario Mandolini, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Veronica Marinelli, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) has been consistently reported in mood disorders. However, only few studies investigated the Pituitary gland (PG) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the results are so far contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the integrity of the PG as well as the role of gender and the impact of clinical measurements on this structure in a sample of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 34 BD patients and 41 HC underwent a 1...
February 14, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395488/anteroventral-bed-nuclei-of-the-stria-terminalis-neurocircuitry-towards-an-integration-of-hpa-axis-modulation-with-coping-behaviors-curt-richter-award-paper-2017
#2
REVIEW
Jason J Radley, Shane B Johnson
A network of interconnected cell groups in the limbic forebrain regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and behavioral responses to emotionally stressful experiences, and chronic disruption of these systems chronically is implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses. A significant challenge has been to unravel the circuitry and mechanisms providing for regulation of HPA activity, as these limbic forebrain regions do not provide any direct innervation of HPA effector cell groups in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)...
December 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390057/enhanced-hypothalamic-nmda-receptor-activity-contributes-to-hyperactivity-of-hpa-axis-in-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#3
Jing-Jing Zhou, Yonggang Gao, Xiangjian Zhang, Therese A Kosten, De-Pei Li
Chronic stress stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and leads to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the mechanisms underlying this action are unknown. Because chronic stress enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in various brain regions, we hypothesized that augmented NMDAR activity contributes to the hyperactivity of PVN-CRH neurons and the HPA axis in chronic stress. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on PVN-CRH neurons expressing CRH promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein in brain slices from rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and unstressed rats...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194183/hyperactivity-of-the-sympatho-adrenomedullary-system-without-any-modification-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-following-food-restriction-among-high-level-weightlifters
#4
Alexandre Durguerian, Edith Filaire, Catherine Drogou, Fabien Sauvet, Clément Bougard, Mounir Chennaoui
We examined the effects of six days of food restriction on salivary α-amylase (sAA), cortisol and dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA) awakening responses, psychological parameters and performance among eleven international weightlifters. Assessments were made at baseline (T1) and 6 days after a normal period of training while maintaining body weight (T2). Then, participants were assigned into two groups depending on whether they lost (Diet group) or maintained (Control group) their body weight. Anthropometric, psychological, physical and physiological assessments were also realized 6 days (T3) following the restricted dietary period for the Diet group...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184805/growth-perturbations-from-stimulant-medications-and-inhaled-corticosteroids
#5
REVIEW
Erin Richardson, Tasa Seibert, Naveen K Uli
Stimulant medications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for the treatment of asthma are two classes of medications that are commonly prescribed in pediatrics. Among other adverse effects of these medications, growth attenuation has long been a focus of investigation. With stimulants, growth deficits of 1-1.4 cm/year have been observed in the short term, mainly in the first 2 years of treatment, in a dose-dependent manner. Long-term studies on stimulants have reported divergent effects on growth, with many studies showing no clinically significant height deficits by adulthood...
October 2017: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163009/regulatory-pathways-of-monoamine-oxidase-a-during-social-stress
#6
REVIEW
Yuki Higuchi, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar
Social stress has a high impact on many biological systems in the brain, including serotonergic (5-HT) system-a major drug target in the current treatment for depression. Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) are well-known stress responses, which are involved in the central 5-HT system. Although, many MAO-A inhibitors have been developed and used in the therapeutics of depression, effective management of depression by modulating the activity of MAO-A has not been achieved...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148047/plasma-copeptin-levels-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome
#7
S Topaloglu Tuac, S Ozben, M Koseoglu Bitnel, A Koksal, E Kucuksayan, A Hanikoğlu, T Ozben
OBJECTIVES: Copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of antidiuretic hormone, is a new biomarker that has been found to be elevated in several disorders and could be related with prognosis. This study aimed to compare plasma copeptin levels in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) with healthy individuals and to investigate whether plasma copeptin levels were associated with the severity of disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 41 patients with primary RLS, who were followed in Bakirkoy Psychiatry and Neurology Research and Training Hospital and 41 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included into the study...
November 17, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138567/resveratrol-ameliorates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-involvement-of-the-hpa-axis-inflammatory-markers-bdnf-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-rats
#8
Xin-Hua Yang, Su-Qi Song, Yun Xu
Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115641/traumatic-stress-affects-alcohol%C3%A2-drinking-behavior-through-cocaine%C3%A2-and-amphetamine%C3%A2-regulated-transcript-55%C3%A2-102-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-rats
#9
Jie Liu, Xue-Ming Hu, Xiao-Jian Li, Hui Zhao
Cumulative evidence has suggested an association between stress and alcohol self‑administration; however, less is known about the role of traumatic stress in alcohol drinking behavior. It has been reported that cocaine‑ and amphetamine‑regulated transcript (CART) 55‑102 may be involved in mediating stress responses and regulating reward and reinforcement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of CART 55‑102 in alcohol drinking behavior of rats in the presence or absence of traumatic stress...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104061/post-weaning-social-isolation-of-rats-leads-to-long-term-disruption-of-the-gut-microbiota-immune-brain-axis
#10
Fionn Dunphy Doherty, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Veronica L Peterson, Orla O'Sullivan, Fiona Crispie, Paul D Cotter, Peter Wigmore, Madeleine V King, John F Cryan, Kevin C F Fone
Early-life stress is an established risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rats produces lasting developmental changes in behavior and brain function that may have translational pathophysiological relevance to alterations seen in schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence supports the premise that gut microbiota influence brain development and function by affecting inflammatory mediators, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurotransmission, but there is little knowledge of whether the microbiota-gut-brain axis might contribute to the development of schizophrenia-related behaviors...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068243/evidence-for-disruption-of-normal-circadian-cortisol-rhythm-in-women-with-obesity
#11
Zain A Al-Safi, Alex Polotsky, Justin Chosich, Lauren Roth, Amanda A Allshouse, Andrew P Bradford, Nanette Santoro
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of comorbidities encountered in obesity, including the relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that we and others have observed. We sought to examine serum cortisol profiles throughout the day and evening in a sample of normal weight women and women with obesity. In this cross-sectional study, regularly cycling obese (n = 12) and normal weight (n = 10) women were recruited. Mean serum cortisol was measured by frequent blood sampling for 16 h (8am-midnight) in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle...
October 25, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053851/escitalopram-ameliorates-hypercortisolemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-low-birth-weight-men-with-limbic-brain-alterations
#12
Christian Selmer Buhl, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Poul Videbech, Allan Vaag, Niels Møller, Sten Lund, Esben Selmer Buhl
CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) is linked to development of insulin resistance and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis hyperactivity. OBJECTIVE: First aim was to study insulin action, LHPA-axis function and limbic brain structures in young, healthy LBW-men vs. normal birth weight controls (NBW) (Part 1). Second aim was to investigate the effects of Escitalopram vs. placebo treatment in LBW with regards to LHPA-axis and insulin sensitivity (Part 2)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049934/molecular-changes-associated-with-escitalopram-response-in-a-stress-based-model-of-depression
#13
Cristina Benatti, Silvia Alboni, Joan M C Blom, Julien Mendlewicz, Fabio Tascedda, Nicoletta Brunello
Converging evidence points at hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and neuroinflammation as important factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this study, we examined the molecular effects associated with a response to a week-long treatment with escitalopram in the chronic escape deficit (CED) model, a validated model of depression based on the induction of an escape deficit after exposure of rats to an unavoidable stress...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041862/impact-of-chronic-maternal-stress-during-early-gestation-on-maternal-fetal-stress-transfer-and-fetal-stress-sensitivity-in-sheep
#14
Michelle Dreiling, Rene Schiffner, Sabine Bischoff, Sven Rupprecht, Nasim Kroegel, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development...
October 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021740/electroacupuncture-alleviates-surgical-trauma-induced-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-hyperactivity-via-microrna-142
#15
Jing Zhu, Zhejun Chen, Zehui Meng, Minda Ju, Mizhen Zhang, Gencheng Wu, Haidong Guo, Zhanzhuang Tian
Electroacupuncture (EA) could improve the hyperactivity of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis induced by hepatectomy. However, its underlying mechanism still remains largely unclear. Here, we found that hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) modulates the function of the HPA axis, while hepatectomy induced an HPA axis disorder and EA application could regulate the hypothalamic CRH. We first demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) target on CRH via bioinformatics analysis and screened them in the primary hypothalamic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971091/the-effects-of-perinatal-oxycodone-exposure-on-behavioral-outcome-in-a-rodent-model
#16
Thitinart Sithisarn, Sandra J Legan, Philip M Westgate, Melinda Wilson, Kristen Wellmann, Henrietta S Bada, Susan Barron
Opiate addiction is now a major public health problem. Perinatal insults and exposure to opiates such as morphine in utero are well known to affect development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the offspring adversely and are associated with a higher risk of developing neurobehavioral problems. Oxycodone is now one of the most frequently abused pain killers during pregnancy; however, limited data are available regarding whether and how perinatal oxycodone exposure (POE) alters neurobehavioral outcomes of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970041/crassifoside-h-improve-the-depressive-like-behavior-of-rats-under-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-possible-involved-mechanisms
#17
Yue Zhang, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Fei Wang, Feng Liu, Chao Shi, Ning Li
Crassifoside (CH) is a novel chlorine-containing compound isolated from rhizomes of Curculigo glabrescens. This study aimed to explore the antidepressant-like effect of CH and involved mechanisms. A rat depression model was established using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm. Behavioral tests including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of CH. The levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT) and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in hypothalamus were measured to determine the activity of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
September 29, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932185/hyperactivity-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-due-to-dysfunction-of-the-hypothalamic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sigma-1-receptor-knockout-mice
#18
Tingting Di, Suyun Zhang, Juan Hong, Tingting Zhang, Ling Chen
Sigma-1 receptor knockout (σ1R-KO) mice exhibit a depressive-like phenotype. Because σ1R is highly expressed in the neuronal cells of hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN), this study investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Here, we show that the levels of basal serum corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) as well as the level of CRF mRNA in PVN did not significantly differ between adult male σ1R-KO mice and wild-type (WT) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910602/hair-cortisol-concentration-in-preschoolers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-roles-of-gender-and-family-adversity
#19
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Isabelle Ruhl, Nadine Skoluda, Urs M Nater, Katja Becker
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and ADHD yielded inconsistent findings, particularly in younger children. This might be due to the heterogeneity of the disorder, making moderator effects of variables probable, which circumscribe more homogenous subgroups. There have been indications of moderator effects on this association by gender of child and exposure to family adversity. Moreover, difficulties in capturing long-term basal HPAA activity in younger children might have contributed to the inconsistencies...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883084/advances-in-risk-oriented-surgery-for-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2
#20
Andreas Machens, Henning Dralle
Genetic association studies hinge on definite clinical case definitions of the disease of interest. This is why more penetrant mutations were overrepresented in early multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2) studies, whereas less penetrant mutations went underrepresented. Enrichment of genetic association studies with advanced disease may produce a flawed understanding of disease evolution, precipitating far-reaching surgical strategies like bilateral total adrenalectomy and 4-gland parathyroidectomy in MEN2. The insight into the natural course of the disease gleaned over the past 25 years caused a paradigm shift in MEN2: from the removal of target organs at the expense of greater operative morbidity to close biochemical surveillance and targeted resection of adrenal tumors and hyperplastic parathyroid glands...
September 7, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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