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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452340/congenital-abnormalities-of-the-male-reproductive-system-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Ran S Rotem, Gabriel Chodick, Michael Davidovitch, Russ Hauser, Brent A Coull, Marc G Weisskopf
Androgens have an extensive influence on brain development in regions of the brain that are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their etiological involvement remains unclear. Hypospadias (abnormal positioning of the urethral opening) and cryptorchidism (undescended testes) are 2 relatively common male birth defects that are strongly associated with prenatal androgen deficiencies. Having either disorder is a proxy indicator of atypical gestational androgen exposure, yet the association between these disorders and autism has not been extensively studied...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452336/invited-commentary-male-reproductive-system-congenital-malformations-and-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Laura A Schieve, Stuart K Shapira
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent developmental disorder. Studies indicate that while ASD etiology has a genetic component, the risk is polygenic, with gene-environment interactions being likely. The prenatal period is a critical exposure window for nongenetic risk factors. Previous studies have found positive associations between congenital malformations (all types) and ASD; a few also found specific associations between genitourinary system malformations and ASD; and one study found an association between hypospadias and ASD...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444200/loss-of-sirt3-accelerates-arterial-thrombosis-by-increasing-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-plasma-tissue-factor-activity
#3
Daniel S Gaul, Julien Weber, Lambertus J Van Tits, Susanna Sluka, Lisa Pasterk, Martin F Reiner, Natacha Calatayud, Christine Lohmann, Roland Klingenberg, Jürgen Pahla, Daria Vdovenko, Felix C Tanner, Giovanni G Camici, Urs Eriksson, Johan Auwerx, François Mach, Stephan Windecker, Nicolas Rodondi, Thomas F L Uuml Scher, Stephan Winnik, Christian M Matter
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase that reduces oxidative stress by activation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Oxidative stress enhances arterial thrombosis. This study investigated the effects of genetic Sirt3 deletion on arterial thrombosis in mice in an inflammatory setting and assessed the clinical relevance of these findings in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and Results: Using a laser-induced carotid thrombosis model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, in vivo time to thrombotic occlusion in Sirt3-/- mice (n = 6) was reduced by half compared to Sirt3+/+ wildtype (WT, n = 8, p<0...
February 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442531/the-impact-of-pneumatic-tube-transport-on-whole-blood-coagulation-and-platelet-function-assays
#4
Peter H Nissen, Dorte E Wulff, Niels Tørring, Anne-Mette Hvas
Pneumatic tube is an attractive way to transport blood samples from the emergency department to the central laboratory facility. We aimed to investigate the impact of pneumatic tube transportation on blood samples for analysis of whole blood coagulation and platelet function. We included 21 healthy adult individuals and measured global coagulation assays by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) using impedance aggregometry (ROTEM Platelet), on samples transported manually or by pneumatic tube transport...
February 14, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434525/detecting-clinically-relevant-rivaroxaban-or-dabigatran-levels-by-routine-coagulation-tests-or-thromboelastography-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Yvonne M C Henskens, Anouk J W Gulpen, René van Oerle, Rick Wetzels, Paul Verhezen, Henri Spronk, Simon Schalla, Harry J Crijns, Hugo Ten Cate, Arina Ten Cate-Hoek
Background: Traditional coagulation tests are included in emergency guidelines for management of patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) who experience acute bleeding or require surgery. We determined the ability of traditional coagulation tests and fast whole blood thromboelastography (ROTEM®) to screen for anticoagulation activity of dabigatran and rivaroxaban as low as 30 ng/mL. Methods: One hundred eighty-four citrated blood samples (75 dabigatran, 109 rivaroxaban) were collected from patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), to perform screening tests from different manufacturers, (diluted, D) PT, aPTT, TT and ROTEM®...
2018: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434374/reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-axonal-regeneration-through-the-release-of-exosomal-nadph-oxidase-2-complexes-into-injured-axons
#6
Arnau Hervera, Francesco De Virgiliis, Ilaria Palmisano, Luming Zhou, Elena Tantardini, Guiping Kong, Thomas Hutson, Matt C Danzi, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Celio X C Santos, Alexander N Kapustin, Roland A Fleck, José Antonio Del Río, Thomas Carroll, Vance Lemmon, John L Bixby, Ajay M Shah, Mike Fainzilber, Simone Di Giovanni
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to tissue damage and remodelling mediated by the inflammatory response after injury. Here we show that ROS, which promote axonal dieback and degeneration after injury, are also required for axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal injury. We find that ROS production in the injured sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia requires CX3CR1-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Next, exosomes containing functional NADPH oxidase 2 complexes are released from macrophages and incorporated into injured axons via endocytosis...
February 12, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426286/monitoring-of-argatroban-and-lepirudin-anticoagulation-in-critically-ill-patients-by-conventional-laboratory-parameters-and-rotational-thromboelastometry-a-prospectively-controlled-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#7
Martin Beiderlinden, Patrick Werner, Astrid Bahlmann, Johann Kemper, Tobias Brezina, Maximilian Schäfer, Klaus Görlinger, Holger Seidel, Peter Kienbaum, Tanja A Treschan
BACKGROUND: Argatroban or lepirudin anticoagulation therapy in patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) or HIT suspect is typically monitored using the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Although aPTT correlates well with plasma levels of argatroban and lepirudin in healthy volunteers, it might not be the method of choice in critically ill patients. However, in-vivo data is lacking for this patient population. Therefore, we studied in vivo whether ROTEM or global clotting times would provide an alternative for monitoring the anticoagulant intensity effects in critically ill patients...
February 9, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420227/azithromycin-and-metronidazole-versus-metronidazole-based-therapy-for-the-induction-of-remission-in-mild-to-moderate-paediatric-crohn-s-disease-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Arie Levine, Michal Kori, Jarek Kierkus, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Malgorzata Sladek, Johanna C Escher, Eytan Wine, Baruch Yerushalmi, Jorge Amil Dias, Ron Shaoul, Gigi Veereman Wauters, Mona Boaz, Guila Abitbol, Athos Bousvaros, Dan Turner
OBJECTIVE: Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis associated with dysbiosis and presence of pathobionts in the lumen, intracellular compartments and epithelial biofilms. Azithromycin is active in all three compartments. Our goal was to evaluate if azithromycin-based therapy can improve response and induce remission compared with metronidazole alone in paediatric CD. DESIGN: This blinded randomised controlled trial allocated children 5-18 years with 10<Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI)≤40 to azithromycin 7...
February 2, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410833/the-contextual-separation-of-lateral-white-line-patterns-in-chameleons
#9
Tammy Keren-Rotem, Uri Roll, Amos Bouskila, Eli Geffen
While many animals display different colour patterns that signal different messages, some species use various tactics to separate between colour and pattern displays. The common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) is capable of rapidly changing and separating among displays of colour patterns and ornaments. We used chameleons to study the contextual role of separation among colour and pattern displays. Specifically, we studied the predominant white badge, which is composed of multiple parts, during different seasons and in different social contexts...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409702/telangiectatic-matting-is-associated-with-hypersensitivity-and-a-bleeding-tendency
#10
Pooja Kadam, Jerrick Lim, Ian Paver, David E Connor, Kurosh Parsi
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the pathogenesis of telangiectatic matting (TM) and identify possible risk factors. METHODS: This study had two parts. The clinical records of consecutive patients were retrospectively analysed to identify risk factors for TM. In the second part, the haemostatic and coagulation profile of the subset of patients with TM were analysed and compared with controls using standard coagulation tests, platelet function and a global assay of coagulation (rotational thromboelastometry, ROTEM)...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402705/treatment-tailoring-for-factor-v-deficient-patients-and-perioperative-management-using-global-hemostatic-coagulation-assays
#11
Sarina Levy-Mendelovich, Assaf Arie Barg, Nurit Rosenberg, Einat Avishai, Jacob Luboshitz, Mudi Misgav, Gili Kenet, Tami Livnat
INTRODUCTION: Congenital factor V deficiency (FVD) is a rare bleeding disorder with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000,000 in the general population. Since the common coagulation tests do not correlate with the bleeding tendency there is an unmet need to predict FVD patients' bleeding hazard prior to surgical interventions. AIM: To optimize treatment prior to surgical interventions, using global coagulation assays, thrombin generation (TG) and rotating thromboelastogram (ROTEM)...
February 2, 2018: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396858/recapitulating-the-clinical-scenario-of-brca-associated-pancreatic-cancer-in-pre-clinical-models
#12
Talia Golan, Chani Stossel, Dikla Atias, Ella Buzhor, Sharon Halperin, Keren Cohen, Maria Raitses-Gurevich, Yulia Glick, Stephen Raskin, Daniel Yehuda, Anna Feldman, Michael Schvimer, Eitan Friedman, Rotem Karni, Julie M Wilson, Robert E Denroche, Ilinca Lungu, John M S Bartlett, Faridah Mbabaali, Steven Gallinger, Raanan Berger
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. BRCA-associated PDAC comprises a clinically relevant subtype. A portion of these patients are highly susceptible to DNA damaging therapeutics, however, responses are heterogeneous and clinical resistance evolves. We have developed unique patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models from metastatic lesions of germline BRCA-mutated patients obtained at distinct time points; before treatment and at progression. Thus, closely mimicking clinical scenarios, to further investigate treatment naïve and resistant patients...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386507/practical-device-independent-quantum-cryptography-via-entropy-accumulation
#13
Rotem Arnon-Friedman, Frédéric Dupuis, Omar Fawzi, Renato Renner, Thomas Vidick
Device-independent cryptography goes beyond conventional quantum cryptography by providing security that holds independently of the quality of the underlying physical devices. Device-independent protocols are based on the quantum phenomena of non-locality and the violation of Bell inequalities. This high level of security could so far only be established under conditions which are not achievable experimentally. Here we present a property of entropy, termed "entropy accumulation", which asserts that the total amount of entropy of a large system is the sum of its parts...
January 31, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386330/sam68-is-required-for-regulation-of-pumilio-by-the-norad-long-noncoding-rna
#14
Ailone Tichon, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Lovorka Stojic, Igor Ulitsky
The number of known long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) functions is rapidly growing, but how those functions are encoded in their sequence and structure remains poorly understood. NORAD (noncoding RNA activated by DNA damage) is a recently characterized, abundant, and highly conserved lncRNA that is required for proper mitotic divisions in human cells. NORAD acts in the cytoplasm and antagonizes repressors from the Pumilio family that bind at least 17 sites spread through 12 repetitive units in NORAD sequence. Here we study conserved sequences in NORAD repeats, identify additional interacting partners, and characterize the interaction between NORAD and the RNA-binding protein SAM68 (KHDRBS1), which is required for NORAD function in antagonizing Pumilio...
January 31, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386022/thromboelastometric-assessment-of-hemostasis-following-hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-4-administration-as-a-constant-rate-infusion-in-hypoalbuminemic-dogs
#15
Angelica Botto, Barbara Bruno, Cristiana Maurella, Fulvio Riondato, Alberto Tarducci, Giulio Mengozzi, Antonio Borrelli
BACKGROUND: The primary aim was to evaluate by means of thromboelastometry (ROTEM) the effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 administered as a constant rate infusion (CRI) on hemostasis in hypoalbuminemic dogs. The second aim was to use ROTEM analysis to detect whether all hypoalbuminemic dogs of our population were hypercoagulable. RESULTS: The study sample was 20 hypoalbuminemic dogs (albumin < 2 g/dl) with normal perfusion parameters and requiring intravenous fluid therapy...
January 31, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385635/deciphering-genetic-factors-that-determine-melon-fruit-quality-traits-using-rna-seq-based-high-resolution-qtl-and-eqtl-mapping
#16
Navot Galpaz, Itay Gonda, Doron Shem-Tov, Omer Barad, Galil Tzuri, Shery Lev, Zhangjun Fei, Yimin Xu, Nadia Lombardi, Linyong Mao, Chen Jiao, Rotem Harel-Beja, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Oren Tzfadia, Einat Bar, Ayala Meir, Uzi Sa'ar, Aaron Fait, Eran Halperin, Merav Kenigswald, Elazar Fallik, Guy Kol, Gil Ronen, Yosef Burger, Amit Gur, Ya'akov Tadmor, Vitaly Portnoy, Arthur A Schaffer, Efraim Lewinsohn, James J Giovannoni, Nurit Katzir
Combined quantitative trait loci (QTL) and expression-QTL (eQTL) mapping analysis was performed to identify genetic factors affecting melon (Cucumis melo) fruit quality, by linking genotypic, metabolic and transcriptomic data from a melon recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of fruit from 96 RILs yielded a highly saturated collection of >58,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, identifying 6,636 recombination events that separated the genome into 3,663 genomic bins. Bin-based QTL analysis of 79 RILs and 129 fruit-quality traits affecting taste, aroma and color resulted in the mapping of 241 QTL...
January 31, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384890/nutrition-in-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-position-paper-on-behalf-of-the-porto-ibd-group-of-espghan
#17
Erasmo Miele, Raanan Shamir, Marina Aloi, Amit Assa, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Lissy de Ridder, Johanna C Escher, Iva Hojsak, Sanja Kolaček, Sibylle Koletzko, Arie Levine, Paolo Lionetti, Massimo Martinelli, Frank Ruemmele, Richard K Russell, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Johan van Limbergen, Gigi Veereman, Annamaria Staiano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A growing body of evidence supports the need for detailed attention to nutrition and diet in children with IBD. We aimed to define the steps in instituting dietary or nutritional management in light of the current evidence and to offer a useful and practical guide to physicians and dieticians involved in the care of paediatric IBD patients. METHODS: A group of 20 experts in paediatric IBD participated in an iterative consensus process including 2 face-to-face meetings, following an open call to ESPGHAN Porto, IBD Interest and Nutrition Committee...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377186/positive-stereotypes-negative-outcomes-reminders-of-the-positive-components-of-complementary-gender-stereotypes-impair-performance-in-counter-stereotypical-tasks
#18
Rotem Kahalon, Nurit Shnabel, Julia C Becker
Gender stereotypes are complementary: Women are perceived to be communal but not agentic, whereas men are perceived to be agentic but not communal. The present research tested whether exposure to reminders of the positive components of these gender stereotypes can lead to stereotype threat and subsequent performance deficits on the complementary dimension. Study 1 (N = 116 female participants) revealed that compared to a control/no-stereotype condition, exposure to reminders of the stereotype about women's communality (but not to reminders of the stereotype about women's beauty) impaired women's math performance...
January 26, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371424/systematic-discovery-of-antiphage-defense-systems-in-the-microbial-pangenome
#19
Shany Doron, Sarah Melamed, Gal Ofir, Azita Leavitt, Anna Lopatina, Mai Keren, Gil Amitai, Rotem Sorek
The arms race between bacteria and phages led to the development of sophisticated antiphage defense systems, including CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification systems. Evidence suggests that unknown defense systems are located in "defense islands" in microbial genomes. We comprehensively characterized the bacterial defensive arsenal by examining gene families that are clustered next to known defense genes in prokaryotic genomes. Candidate defense systems were systematically engineered and validated in model bacteria for their antiphage activities...
January 25, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370064/functional-stability-of-the-teg-6s-hemostasis-analyzer-under-stress
#20
Michael Adam Meledeo, Grantham C Peltier, Colby S McIntosh, Chet R Voelker, James A Bynum, Andrew P Cap
BACKGROUND: Viscoelastic measurements of coagulation provide much needed information, including guidance for triage and insight into bleeding disorders. The current clinical standards for these devices are the TEG 5000 and the ROTEM delta, but a new product, the TEG 6s, has recently come to market, designed to simplify the user experience, reduce the required blood volume, and conduct multiple assays simultaneously. This study compares the performance of these three devices and examines the resiliency of the TEG 6s under various stresses...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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