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global health policy

Natalie Offord, Zoe Wyrko, Tom Downes, Adrian Hopper, Paul Harriman, Adam L Gordon
The number of people aged over 60 years worldwide is projected to rise from 605 million in 2000 to almost 2 billion by 2050, while those over 80 years will quadruple to 395 million. Two-thirds of UK acute hospital admissions are over 65, the highest consultation rate in general practice is in those aged 85-89 and the average age of elective surgical patients is increasing. Adjusting medical systems to meet the demographic imperative has been recognised by the World Health Organisation to be the next global healthcare priority and is a key feature of discussions on policy, health services structures, workforce reconfiguration and frontline care delivery...
2016: Acute Medicine
Jane Landon, Tim Lobstein, Fiona Godfrey, Paula Johns, Chris Brookes, David Jernigan
Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children...
October 18, 2016: Addiction
Brid O' Brien, Margaret M Graham, Sile Mary Kelly
AIM: To explore nurses' use of the World Health Organization safety checklist in the perioperative setting. BACKGROUND: Promoting quality and safety in health care has received worldwide attention. The World Health Organization surgical safety checklist (2009) is promoted for reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality. The checklist has been introduced in Irish perioperative settings. METHOD(S): A descriptive, qualitative approach was utilised...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
Lisa G Rosas, Deborah Salvo, Sandra J Winter, David Cortes, Juan Rivera, Nicole M Rodriguez, Abby C King
Middle- and low-income countries bear 80 % of the global chronic disease burden. Population-level, multi-sectoral approaches to promoting healthful lifestyles that take into local physical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics of both the environment and the population are needed. The "Nuestra Voz (Our Voice)" is one such approach that involves neighborhood residents acting as "citizen scientists" to systematically gather information on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in their neighborhoods and then use their data to collectively advocate for local environmental- and policy-level changes to support active living...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Hiral Shah, Emiliano Albanese, Cynthia Duggan, Igor Rudan, Kenneth M Langa, Maria C Carrillo, Kit Yee Chan, Yves Joanette, Martin Prince, Martin Rossor, Shekhar Saxena, Heather M Snyder, Reisa Sperling, Mathew Varghese, Huali Wang, Marc Wortmann, Tarun Dua
At the First WHO Ministerial Conference on Global Action Against Dementia in March, 2015, 160 delegates, including representatives from 80 WHO Member States and four UN agencies, agreed on a call for action to reduce the global burden of dementia by fostering a collective effort to advance research. To drive this effort, we completed a globally representative research prioritisation exercise using an adapted version of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We elicited 863 research questions from 201 participants and consolidated these questions into 59 thematic research avenues, which were scored anonymously by 162 researchers and stakeholders from 39 countries according to five criteria...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Jessica Taaffe, David Wilson
Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B and C virus is increasingly becoming a significant global health threat, with widespread prevalence that may have severe disease and economic impacts in the future. Yet, preventative measures are not implemented universally and high costs of medicines limits treatment efforts. The global response to HIV/AIDS faced similar issues, but overcame them through a global movement that brought attention to the crisis and ultimately resulted in the creation and implementation of and access to better tools for HIV prevention and treatment...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
Mark Hanson, Mary Barker, Jodie M Dodd, Shiriki Kumanyika, Shane Norris, Eric Steegers, Judith Stephenson, Shakila Thangaratinam, Huixia Yang
Prevention of obesity in women of reproductive age is widely recognised to be important both for their health and for that of their offspring. Weight-control interventions, including drug treatment, in pregnant women who are obese or overweight have not had sufficient impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes, which suggests that the focus for intervention should include preconception or post-partum periods. Further research is needed into the long-term effects of nutritional and lifestyle interventions before conception...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Ethel M Brinda, Anto P Rajkumar, Jǿrn Attermann, Ulf G Gerdtham, Ulrika Enemark, Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs...
July 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Barbara Stetson, Karl E Minges, Caroline R Richardson
Accelerating diabetes rates have resulted in a global public health epidemic. Lifestyle change is a cornerstone of care, yet regimen demands may result in adherence difficulties. Distress, depression, and other psychosocial concerns are higher in those with diabetes. While interventions, such as the Diabetes Prevention Program appear to be effective, further research is needed to support the translation of interventions to prevent diabetes. Studies assessing optimal approaches to promoting effective decision making, coping and adherence are needed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Ana V Diez Roux, Mahasin S Mujahid, Jana A Hirsch, Kari Moore, Latetia V Moore
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death and a major source of health disparities in the Unites States and globally. Efforts to reduce CVD risk and eliminate cardiovascular health disparities have increasingly emphasized the importance of the social determinants of health. Neighborhood environments have emerged as a possible target for prevention and policy efforts. Hence there is a need to better understand the role of neighborhood environments in shaping cardiovascular risk...
September 2016: Global Heart
Adesola O Olumide, Emmanuel S Adebayo, Oladosu A Ojengbede
Photovoice is a participatory action research method in which people are given cameras and asked to take pictures of specific issues within their community. It is often used among marginalised populations. This method helps people capture specific issues within their community using photographs, critically discuss these issues within a group and present their findings to inform policies within their community. Photovoice has been used in developed countries and among adult participants; however, the extent to which it has been used in developing countries and among adolescent participants is yet to be extensively reported...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Mary E Torrence
This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Maureen O'Leary, Karen Edmond, Sian Floyd, Lisa Hurt, Caitlin Shannon, Gyan Thomas, Sam Newton, Betty Kirkwood, Sara Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Global vaccination policy advocates for identifying and targeting groups who are underserved by vaccination to increase equity and uptake. We investigated whether birth weight and other factors are determinants of neonatal BCG vaccination in order to identify infants underserved by vaccination. METHODS: We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted ORs (AORs) for the association between birth weight (categorised as non-low birth weight (NLBW) (≥2...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Jodie Oliver-Baxter, Lynsey Brown, Ellen McIntyre
Primary healthcare research strives for high-quality, priority-driven research to inform policy and practice. This relies on a robust and sustainable workforce to tackle complex problems faced in primary health care locally and globally. The current study investigated characteristics, experiences and career paths of the Australian primary healthcare research workforce. Thirty-seven former Research Higher Degree students from University Departments of General Practice and Rural Health completed a survey. Number of provisions for researchers and career path clarity were associated with job satisfaction...
October 14, 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Renata Micha, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Peilin Shi, Habibul Ahsan, Nagalla Balakrishna, Ginnela N V Brahmam, Yu Chen, Ashkan Afshin, Saman Fahimi, Goodarz Danaei, John W Powles, Majid Ezzati, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. METHODS: We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Rachel Kidman
BACKGROUND: Studies in South Asia suggest that child marriage is a strong risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), but evidence outside the region is lacking. METHODS: This study uses standardized data from demographic and health surveys in 34 countries to test the hypothesis that young women (age 20-24) who married as children are at increased risk of past year physical and/or sexual IPV as compared with those women who married as adults. RESULTS: Globally, 9% of respondents were married before they turned 15; another 25% were married between the ages of 15 and 17...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Sandra J Tanenbaum
The formulation of the triple aim responds to three problems facing the US health care system: high cost, low quality, and poor health status. The purpose of this article is to analyze the potential of the health care system to achieve the triple aim and, specifically, the attempt to improve population health by rewarding providers who contain costs. The first section of the article will consider the task of improving population health through the health care system. The second section of the article will discuss CMS's efforts to pay providers to achieve the triple aim, that is, to improve health care and population health while containing cost...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
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