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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821523/effectiveness-of-a-pragmatic-school-based-universal-resilience-intervention-in-reducing-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-substance-use-in-a-population-of-adolescents-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Rebecca Kate Hodder, Megan Freund, Jenny Bowman, Luke Wolfenden, Elizabeth Campbell, Julia Dray, Christophe Lecathelinais, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia, John Wiggers
OBJECTIVES: Initiation of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use typically occurs during adolescence, with the school setting recommended to reduce adolescent substance use. Strengthening individual (eg, problem solving) and environmental (eg, caring relationships at school) resilience protective factors of adolescents has been suggested as a strategy for reducing substance use by adolescents; however, few studies have examined this potential. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal 'resilience' intervention in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use, and increasing the individual and environmental protective factors of students...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821469/a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-a-middle-school-gender-violence-prevention-program-design-rationale-and-sample-characteristics
#2
Kaleab Z Abebe, Kelley A Jones, Samantha Ciaravino, Lisa Ripper, Taylor Paglisotti, Sarah Elizabeth Morrow, Melanie Grafals, Courtney Van Dusen, Elizabeth Miller
INTRODUCTION: High rates of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youth. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test an athletic coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program in 41 middle schools (38 clusters). Trained coaches talk to their male athletes about 1) what constitutes harmful vs. respectful relationship behaviors, 2) dispelling myths that glorify male sexual aggression and promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and 3) positive bystander intervention when aggressive male behaviors toward females are witnessed...
August 15, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820771/sexual-violence-among-college-students-an-examination-of-individual-and-institutional-level-factors-associated-with-perpetration
#3
Carolyn M Porta, Michelle A Mathiason, Katherine Lust, Marla E Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence incidents involving college students have received media attention and increased awareness of this public health problem in the United States; prevention efforts are needed that target potential perpetrators. We examined characteristics of self-reported perpetrators of sexual violence on campuses. METHODS: This study used a secondary data analysis of the 2015 College Student Health Survey, an annual survey, which was completed by students attending 17 colleges/universities in Minnesota...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818063/variations-in-adolescents-motivational-characteristics-across-gender-and-physical-activity-patterns-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#4
Margaret Lawler, Caroline Heary, Elizabeth Nixon
BACKGROUND: Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA) that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents' PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents' leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. METHODS: Nine hundred ninety-five students (61...
August 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816599/adolescent-marijuana-use-and-perceived-ease-of-access-before-and-after-recreational-marijuana-implementation-in-colorado
#5
Scott B Harpin, Ashley Brooks-Russell, Ming Ma, Katherine A James, Arnold H Levinson
BACKGROUND: As of January 1, 2017, eight states have approved laws for recreational marijuana use. While the social impacts of these changes remain under debate, the influence on adolescent marijuana use is a key policy and health issue across the U.S. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in adolescent marijuana-use behaviors in the first year after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, and to analyze the effect of retail marijuana store proximity on youth use and perceptions...
August 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816109/assessing-the-validity-of-commercial-and-municipal-food-environment-data-sets-in-vancouver-canada
#6
Madeleine Ig Daepp, Jennifer Black
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed systematic bias and the effects of data set error on the validity of food environment measures in two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets. DESIGN: Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and concordance were calculated by comparing two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets with ground-truthed data collected within 800 m buffers surrounding twenty-six schools. Logistic regression examined associations of sensitivity and PPV with commercial density and neighbourhood socio-economic deprivation...
August 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814162/insights-on-the-intersection-of-health-equity-and-school-nutrition-policy-implementation-an-exploratory-qualitative-secondary-analysis
#7
Yuka Asada, Alejandro Hughes, Jamie Chriqui
BACKGROUND: Recent federal policies aimed to ensure that all children have equitable access to healthy school nutrition environments. However, historically, disparities have persisted in the quality of school nutrition environments across geographic and socioeconomic groups. There is limited literature addressing if and how recent efforts to reform the school nutrition environment have influenced such disparities. The main objective of this study was to explore stakeholders' insights on how school nutrition reform intersected with issues of inequity...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812974/the-psychological-effects-of-unemployment-and-unsatisfactory-employment-on-young-adults-findings-from-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#8
Anthony H Winefield, Paul H Delfabbro, Helen R Winefield, David Duong, Catia Malvaso
The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last compulsory year of high school aged around 15 years and at Time 10 they were aged around 25 years. Results confirmed those from an earlier longitudinal study showing that the transition from school to satisfactory employment was associated with significant improvements in psychological well-being, whereas transition from school to unemployment or unsatisfactory employment showed no change in psychological well-being...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812186/the-european-board-of-interventional-radiology-examination-a-cross-sectional-web-based-survey
#9
Emma Tong, Muirne Spooner, Otto Van Delden, Raman Uberoi, Mark Sheehan, Damien C O'Neill, Michael Lee
INTRODUCTION: The Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe established the European Board of Interventional Radiology (EBIR) as an international examination in Interventional Radiology (IR), in 2010. The main objective of this study was to examine candidates' variables which could influence examination success. The secondary objective was to evaluate candidate feedback. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional web-based survey incorporating 30 questions which reviewed candidates' demographics; use of English language; education; and radiology training...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810807/exploratory-analyses-of-risk-behaviors-among-glbt-youth-attending-a-drop-in-center
#10
J Michael Wilkerson, Sylvia M Lawler, Kim A Romijnders, Amber B Armstead, Jessica Bauldry
This exploratory study examines measures of one drop-in center's efforts to improve health outcomes of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth by facilitating out-group secondary social ties. Hatch Youth, located in Houston, Texas, aims to increase self-esteem and decrease negative health outcomes by encouraging GLBT youth to be part of Houston's greater GLBT community. Survey data ( N = 614) collected between October 2003 and April 2013 were entered into logistic regression models. Attending Hatch Youth for 6 or more months was associated with having a social group outside of school (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807006/the-impact-of-active-stakeholder-involvement-on-recruitment-retention-and-engagement-of-schools-children-and-their-families-in-the-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-healthy-lifestyles-programme-help-a-school-based-intervention-to-prevent-obesity
#11
J Lloyd, C McHugh, J Minton, H Eke, K Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention...
August 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806725/link-between-perceived-smoking-behaviour-at-school-and-students-smoking-status-a-large-survey-among-italian-adolescents
#12
I Backhaus, V D'Egidio, D Grassucci, M Gelardini, C Ardizzone, G La Torre
OBJECTIVES: To investigate a possible link between sociodemographic factors, the perception of smoking habits at school and smoking status of Italian adolescents attending secondary school. STUDY DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was employed to gather information on age, gender, smoking status and to examine the perception of smoking behaviour on the school premises. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for the univariate analysis and logistic and multinomial regressions for the multivariate analysis...
August 11, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806366/african-american-veterans-storytelling-a-multisite-randomized-trial-to-improve-hypertension
#13
Thomas K Houston, Gemmae M Fix, Stephanie L Shimada, Judith A Long, Howard S Gordon, Charlene Pope, Julie Volkman, Jeroan J Allison, Kathryn DeLaughter, Michelle Orner, Barbara G Bokhour
BACKGROUND: Disparities in hypertension control persist for African American Veterans. OBJECTIVE: To enhance cultural relevance of hypertension control self-management education, in a multisite, stratified randomized trial, we tested an interactive Veteran-to-Veteran storytelling digital video disk (DVD) intervention created with Veteran partners, versus an education-only DVD comparison. METHODS: At 3 VA facilities, African American Veterans with uncontrolled hypertension were randomized to storytelling DVD intervention or didactic comparison DVD and followed for 6 months...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806126/development-and-validation-of-an-instrument-to-assess-the-impact-of-cyberbullying-the-cybervictimization-emotional-impact-scale
#14
Paz Elipe, Joaquín A Mora-Merchán, Lydia Nacimiento
Cyberbullying is a phenomenon with important adverse consequences on victims. The emotional impact of this phenomenon has been well established. However, there is to date no instrument with good psychometric properties tested to assess such impact. The objective of this study was developing and testing the psychometric properties of an instrument to assess the emotional impact of cyberbullying: the "Cybervictimization Emotional Impact Scale, CVEIS." The sample included 1,016 Compulsory Secondary Education students (52...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805356/immersion-medicine-programme-for-secondary-students
#15
Paras S Minhas, Nathan Kim, Jayson Myers, Wendy Caceres, Marina Martin, Baldeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Although the proportion of ethnicities representing under-represented minorities in medicine (URM) in the general population has significantly increased, URM enrolment in medical schools within the USA has remained stagnant in recent years. METHODS: This study sought to examine the effect of an immersion in community medicine (ICM) programme on secondary school students' desire to enter the field of medicine and serve their communities. The authors asked all 69 ICM alumni to complete a 14-question survey consisting of six demographic, four programme and four career questions, rated on a Likert scale of 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree), coupled with optional free-text questions...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805125/utilizing-mental-health-professionals-to-help-prevent-the-next-attacks
#16
Stevan Weine, David P Eisenman, La Tina Jackson, Janni Kinsler, Chloe Polutnik
Recent high-profile cases and scientific research on lone actor terrorist attackers have indicated that there may be an association with mental illness. Simultaneously, countering violent extremism (CVE) initiatives have recently been placing more emphasis on building intervention (aka secondary prevention) programmes to address this matter, with mental health professionals possibly playing important roles in preventing lone actor terrorist attacks. Mental health professionals can contribute to intervention programmes, as practitioners and as leaders, but more so by drawing upon the threat assessment model, than because of a possible association with mental illness...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804599/circulating-exosome-microrna-associated-with-heart-failure-secondary-to-myxomatous-mitral-valve-disease-in-a-naturally-occurring-canine-model
#17
Vicky K Yang, Kerry A Loughran, Dawn M Meola, Christine M Juhr, Kristen E Thane, Airiel M Davis, Andrew M Hoffman
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is functionally and histologically identical to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in humans. Currently, there are no medical treatments that can delay the progression of this valvular disease or associated cardiac remodelling. Therefore, there is a need to understand the molecular pathology associated with MMVD and MVP better, and thus identify potential therapeutic targets. Circulating exosomes contain small RNA, including miRNA, which reflect cell physiology and pathology...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803573/the-school-environment-and-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-among-guatemalan-adolescents
#18
Katelyn M Godin, Violeta Chacón, Joaquin Barnoya, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to examine Guatemalan adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), identify which individual-level characteristics are associated with SSB consumption and describe school characteristics that may influence students' SSB consumption. DESIGN: Within this observational pilot study, a questionnaire was used to assess students' consumption of three varieties of SSB (soft drinks, energy drinks, sweetened coffees/teas), as well as a variety of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802728/mental-health-problems-in-college-freshmen-prevalence-and-academic-functioning
#19
Ronny Bruffaerts, Philippe Mortier, Glenn Kiekens, Randy P Auerbach, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, Jennifer G Green, Matthew K Nock, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems in college and their associations with academic performance are not well understood. The main aim of this study was to investigate to what extent mental health problems are associated with academic functioning. METHODS: As part of the World Mental Health Surveys International College Student project, 12-month mental health problems among freshmen (N = 4921) was assessed in an e-survey of students at KU Leuven University in Leuven, Belgium...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802592/gender-differences-in-sexual-behaviors-in-korean-adolescents
#20
Eunyoung Hong, Youngmi Kang
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to identify whether there are gender differences in sexual behaviors among Korean adolescents and to explore the factors that influence safe sex practices across both sexes. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted using nationally representative data obtained from the 2014 Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Sample consisted of 3,210 adolescents who had experience of sexual intercourse. The dependent variable in this study was practicing safe sex...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
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