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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822884/with-directed-study-before-a-4-day-operating-room-management-course-trust-in-the-content-did-not-change-progressively-during-the-classroom-time
#1
Franklin Dexter, Richard H Epstein, Brenda G Fahy, Lyn M Van Swol
STUDY OBJECTIVE: A 4-day course in operating room (OR) management is sufficient to provide anesthesiologists with the knowledge and problem solving skills needed to participate in projects of the systems-based-practice competency. Anesthesiologists may need to learn fewer topics when the objective is, instead, limited to comprehension of decision-making on the day of surgery, We tested the hypothesis that trust in course content would not increase further after completion of topics related to OR decision-making on the day of surgery...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815123/rapid-and-reusable-text-visualization-and-exploration-development-with-delve
#2
Daniel R Harris, Ramakanth Kavuluru, Jerzy W Jaromczyk, Todd R Johnson
We present DELVE (Document ExpLoration and Visualization Engine), a framework for developing interactive visualizations as modular Web-applications to assist researchers with exploratory literature search. The goal for web-applications driven by DELVE is to better satisfy the information needs of researchers and to help explore and understand the state of research in scientific liter ature by providing immersive visualizations that both contain facets and are driven by facets derived from the literature. We base our framework on principles from user-centered design and human-computer interaction (HCI)...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814992/feasibility-of-a-supplemental-phonological-awareness-intervention-via-telepractice-for-children-with-hearing-loss-a-preliminary-study
#3
Sue Ann S Lee, Brittany Hall, Sherry Sancibrian
The goal of the current study was to examine the feasibility of a telepractice intervention to improve phonological awareness skills in children with hearing loss as compared to a conventional in-person intervention. Twenty children with hearing loss participated in this study. Two groups of ten children each received a supplemental phonological awareness intervention either via telepractice or an in-person service delivery model. Within each of the two groups, five children were enrolled in preschool or kindergarten and five children were enrolled in first or second grade...
2017: International Journal of Telerehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813074/oral-narrative-of-individuals-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#4
Giulia Ganthous, Natalia Freitas Rossi, Célia Maria Giacheti
Purpose: To investigate and compare the oral narrative of individuals with FASD and individuals with typical language development (TLD), as well as to correlate the narrative performance with the score from 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Methods: Participants were 20 individuals with FASD, of both genders, with chronological age between 6 and 16 years, and 20 individuals with TLD, same gender and similar to the FASD group in age and socioeconomic status. The oral narrative was elicited using the book Frog, where are you? and the data were analyzed in terms of macrostructure, microstructure and global coherence level...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808914/from-pleistocene-to-holocene-the-prehistory-of-southwest-asia-in-evolutionary-context
#5
Trevor Watkins
In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, have made substantial sense of the social and cultural evolution of the genus Homo...
August 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808103/a-bioarchitectonic-approach-to-the-modular-engineering-of-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Cheryl A Kerfeld
Dissociating the complexity of metabolic processes into modules is a shift in focus from the single gene/gene product to functional and evolutionary units spanning the scale of biological organization. When viewing the levels of biological organization through this conceptual lens, modules are found across the continuum: domains within proteins, co-regulated groups of functionally associated genes, operons, metabolic pathways and (sub)cellular compartments. Combining modules as components or subsystems of a larger system typically leads to increased complexity and the emergence of new functions...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803620/language-growth-in-english-monolingual-and-spanish-english-bilingual-children-from-2-5-to-5-years
#7
Erika Hoff, Krystal M Ribot
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. STUDY DESIGN: Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802853/diversity-not-quantity-in-caregiver-speech-using-computational-modeling-to-isolate-the-effects-of-the-quantity-and-the-diversity-of-the-input-on-vocabulary-growth
#8
Gary Jones, Caroline F Rowland
Children who hear large amounts of diverse speech learn language more quickly than children who do not. However, high correlations between the amount and the diversity of the input in speech samples makes it difficult to isolate the influence of each. We overcame this problem by controlling the input to a computational model so that amount of exposure to linguistic input (quantity) and the quality of that input (lexical diversity) were independently manipulated. Sublexical, lexical, and multi-word knowledge were charted across development (Study 1), showing that while input quantity may be important early in learning, lexical diversity is ultimately more crucial, a prediction confirmed against children's data (Study 2)...
August 10, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802372/phonological-awareness-in-german-speaking-preschool-children-with-cochlear-implants-3-case-examples
#9
Bianka Wachtlin, Yvonne Turinsky, Frank Herrmann, Blanca Schaefer
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore PA skills German-speaking preschool children with cochlea implants (CIs) and how these skills may be related to their speech and language skills. METHODS: Three monolingual German-speaking pre-school children aged 5;04-6;01 with bilateral CIs were tested. Their cognitive, speech and language skills were assessed. Six subtests of a standardized PA test battery were administered (i.e. rhyme identification, rhyme production; phoneme identification- input and -output; phoneme blending-input and -output)...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802325/snomed2hl7-a-tool-to-normalize-and-bind-snomed-ct-concepts-to-the-hl7-reference-information-model
#10
D Perez-Rey, R Alonso-Calvo, S Paraiso-Medina, C R Munteanu, M Garcia-Remesal
BACKGROUND: Current clinical research and practice requires interoperability among systems in a complex and highly dynamic domain. There has been a significant effort in recent years to develop integrative common data models and domain terminologies. Such efforts have not completely solved the challenges associated with clinical data that are distributed among different and heterogeneous institutions with different systems to encode the information. Currently, when providing homogeneous interfaces to exploit clinical data, certain transformations still involve manual and time-consuming processes that could be automated...
October 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801255/decoding-naturalistic-experiences-from-human-brain-activity-via-distributed-representations-of-words
#11
REVIEW
Satoshi Nishida, Shinji Nishimoto
Natural visual scenes induce rich perceptual experiences that are highly diverse from scene to scene and from person to person. Here, we propose a new framework for decoding such experiences using a distributed representation of words. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity evoked by natural movie scenes. Then, we constructed a high-dimensional feature space of perceptual experiences using skip-gram, a state-of-the-art distributed word embedding model. We built a decoder that associates brain activity with perceptual experiences via the distributed word representation...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798706/age-dependent-positivity-bias-in-children-s-processing-of-emotion-terms
#12
Daniela Bahn, Michael Vesker, José C García Alanis, Gudrun Schwarzer, Christina Kauschke
Emotions play an important role in human communication, and the daily-life interactions of young children often include situations that require the verbalization of emotional states with verbal means, e.g., with emotion terms. Through them, one can express own emotional states and those of others. Thus, the acquisition of emotion terms allows children to participate more intensively in social contexts - a basic requirement for learning new words and for elaborating socio-emotional skills. However, little is known about how children acquire and process this specific word category, which is positioned between concrete and abstract words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796682/a-guide-to-terminology-for-rh-immunoprophylaxis
#13
S Gerald Sandler, John T Queenan
Rh immunoprophylaxis for Rh-negative women requires an understanding of terminology used for Rh blood typing laboratory reports. The pathophysiology of Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn was elucidated by studies in rhesus monkeys. Subsequent studies revealed that the human blood group antigen responsible for Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (D antigen) is related to, but different from, the rhesus monkey antigen. Weak expression of the D antigen on red cells, originally termed D, is currently reported by laboratories as a "serologic weak D phenotype," which can be further defined by RHD genotyping to be either an RHD weak D type or a partial D phenotype...
August 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793161/visuospatial-and-verbal-short-term-memory-correlates-of-vocabulary-ability-in-preschool-children
#14
Stephanie F Stokes, Thomas Klee, Myriam Kornisch, Lisa Furlong
Background: Recent studies indicate that school-age children's patterns of performance on measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) differ across types of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because these disorders are often characterized by early language delay, administering STM and WM tests to toddlers could improve prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Toddler-appropriate verbal, but not visuospatial, STM and WM tasks are available. A toddler-appropriate visuospatial STM test is introduced...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792687/ols-client-and-ols-dialog-open-source-tools-to-annotate-public-omics-datasets
#15
Yasset Perez-Riverol, Tobias Ternent, Maximilian Koch, Harald Barsnes, Olga Vrousgou, Simon Jupp, Juan Antonio Vizcaíno
The availability of user-friendly software to annotate biological datasets and experimental details is becoming essential in data management practices, both in local storage systems and in public databases. The Ontology Lookup Service (OLS, http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ols) is a popular centralized service to query, browse and navigate biomedical ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Recently, the OLS framework has been completely redeveloped (version 3.0), including enhancements in the data model, like the added support for Web Ontology Language (OWL)-based ontologies, among many other improvements...
August 9, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789771/developmental-changes-in-maternal-education-and-minimal-exposure-effects-on-vocabulary-in-english-and-spanish-learning-toddlers
#16
Margaret Friend, Stephanie DeAnda, Natalia Arias-Trejo, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger
The current research follows up on two previous findings: that children with minimal dual-language exposure have smaller receptive vocabularies at 16months of age and that maternal education is a predictor of vocabulary when the dominant language is English but not when it is Spanish. The current study extends this research to 22-month-olds to assess the developmental effects of minimal exposure and maternal education on direct and parent-report measures of vocabulary size. The effects of minimal exposure on vocabulary size are no longer present at 22months of age, whereas maternal education effects remain but only for English speakers...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776756/longitudinal-vocabulary-development-in-australian-urban-aboriginal-children-protective-and-risk-factors
#17
K Short, P Eadie, J Descallar, E Comino, L Kemp
BACKGROUND: Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. AIM: To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development...
August 3, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774649/the-dynamic-imprint-of-word-learning-on-the-dorsal-language-pathway
#18
María-Ángeles Palomar-García, Ana Sanjuán, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, César Ávila
According to Hickok and Poeppel (2007), the acquisition of new vocabulary rests on the dorsal language pathway connecting auditory and motor areas. The present study tested this hypothesis longitudinally by measuring BOLD signal changes during a verbal repetition task and modulation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in the dorsal stream. Thirty-five healthy participants, divided into trained and control groups, completed fMRI sessions on days 1, 10, and 24. Between days 1 and 10, the trained group learned 84 new pseudowords associated with 84 native words...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772245/the-relationship-between-executive-functioning-and-language-examining-vocabulary-syntax-and-language-learning-in-preschoolers-attending-head-start
#19
Lisa J White, Alexandra Alexander, Daryl B Greenfield
Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770642/playing-with-fire-effects-of-negative-mood-induction-and-working-memory-on-vocabulary-acquisition
#20
Zachary F Miller, Jessica K Fox, Jason S Moser, Aline Godfroid
We investigated the impact of emotions on learning vocabulary in an unfamiliar language to better understand affective influences in foreign language acquisition. Seventy native English speakers learned new vocabulary in either a negative or a neutral emotional state. Participants also completed two sets of working memory tasks to examine the potential mediating role of working memory. Results revealed that participants exposed to negative stimuli exhibited difficulty in retrieving and correctly pairing English words with Indonesian words, as reflected in a lower performance on the prompted recall tests and the free recall measure...
August 3, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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