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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650107/when-cultural-norms-discourage-talking-to-babies-effectiveness-of-a-parenting-program-in-rural-senegal
#1
Ann Weber, Anne Fernald, Yatma Diop
In some areas of rural Africa, long-standing cultural traditions and beliefs may discourage parents from verbally engaging with their young children. This study assessed the effectiveness of a parenting program designed to encourage verbal engagement between caregivers and infants in Wolof-speaking villages in rural Senegal. Caregivers (n = 443) and their 4- to 31-month-old children were observed at baseline in 2013 and 1 year later at follow-up. Results showed that caregivers in program villages nearly doubled the amount of child-directed speech during a play session compared to baseline, whereas caregivers in matched comparison villages showed no change...
June 26, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645027/validity-of-the-growth-model-of-the-computerized-visual-perception-assessment-tool-for-chinese-characters-structures
#2
Huey-Min Wu, Cheng-Hsaun Li, Bor-Chen Kuo, Yu-Mao Yang, Chin-Kai Lin, Wei-Hsiang Wan
Morphological awareness is the foundation for the important developmental skills involved with vocabulary, as well as understanding the meaning of words, orthographic knowledge, reading, and writing. Visual perception of space and radicals in two-dimensional positions of Chinese characters' morphology is very important in identifying Chinese characters. The important predictive variables of special and visual perception in Chinese characters identification were investigated in the growth model in this research...
June 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638330/flat-vs-expressive-storytelling-young-children-s-learning-and-retention-of-a-social-robot-s-narrative
#3
Jacqueline M Kory Westlund, Sooyeon Jeong, Hae W Park, Samuel Ronfard, Aradhana Adhikari, Paul L Harris, David DeSteno, Cynthia L Breazeal
Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children's vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot's active reading was expressive; the robot's voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638329/the-contribution-of-cognitive-factors-to-individual-differences-in-understanding-noise-vocoded-speech-in-young-and-older-adults
#4
Stephanie Rosemann, Carsten Gießing, Jale Özyurt, Rebecca Carroll, Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI). This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637208/unit-conversions-between-loinc-codes
#5
Ronald G Hauser, Douglas B Quine, Alex Ryder, Sheldon Campbell
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) is the most widely used controlled vocabulary to identify laboratory tests. A given laboratory test can often be reported in more than 1 unit of measure (eg, grams or moles), and LOINC defines unique codes for each unit. Consequently, an identical laboratory test performed by 2 different clinical laboratories may have different LOINC codes. The absence of unit conversions between compatible LOINC codes impedes data aggregation and analysis of laboratory results...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635158/prepregnancy-overweight-and-obesity-are-associated-with-impaired-child-neurodevelopment
#6
Elizabeth Marie Widen, Linda Gross Kahn, Piera Cirillo, Barbara Cohn, Katrina Lynn Kezios, Pam Factor-Litvak
The authors examined the relationship of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with child neurodevelopment. Mother-child dyads were a subgroup (n = 2,084) of the Child Health and Development Studies from the Oakland, California, area enrolled during pregnancy from 1959 to 1966 and followed at child age 9 years. Linear regression was used to examine associations between prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Raven Progressive Matrices scores and to evaluate effect modification of GWG by prepregnancy BMI...
June 21, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633958/small-talk-identifying-communication-problems-in-maltreated-children
#7
M Frederico, A L Jackson, C M Black, A Cox, B Joffe
Development of speech and language is rapid in early years, yet if developmental problems in speech and language are not addressed they are likely to continue and impact negatively on a child's overall development and their life trajectory. Children who have experienced abuse and or neglect are particularly vulnerable. The aim of this study was to develop a tool to assist in identifying a child's need for assessment by a speech pathologist so that there could be early identification of problems. A culturally sensitive tool was developed to be completed by the child's carer included questions on language, speech and hearing, voice, fluency, understanding sentences, vocabulary and expression...
June 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633611/rawification-and-the-careful-generation-of-open-government-data
#8
Jérôme Denis, Samuel Goëta
Drawing on a two-year ethnographic study within several French administrations involved in open data programs, this article aims to investigate the conditions of the release of government data - the rawness of which open data policies require. This article describes two sets of phenomena. First, far from being taken for granted, open data emerge in administrations through a progressive process that entails uncertain collective inquiries and extraction work. Second, the opening process draws on a series of transformations, as data are modified to satisfy an important criterion of open data policies: the need for both human and technical intelligibility...
June 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633531/the-effectiveness-of-aided-augmented-input-techniques-for-persons-with-developmental-disabilities-a-systematic-review
#9
Anna A Allen, Ralf W Schlosser, Kristofer L Brock, Howard C Shane
When working with individuals with little or no functional speech, clinicians often recommend that communication partners use the client's augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device when speaking to the client. This is broadly known as "augmented input" and is thought to enhance the client's learning of language form and content. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of augmented input on communication outcomes in persons with developmental disabilities and persons with childhood apraxia of speech who use aided AAC...
June 21, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632910/withdrawn-hypnosis-for-children-undergoing-dental-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Sharifa Al-Harasi, Paul F Ashley, David R Moles, Susan Parekh, Val Walters
BACKGROUND: Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632319/child-shyness-and-peer-likeability-the-moderating-role-of-pragmatics-and-vocabulary
#11
Hoi Shan Cheung, John M Elliott
The association between shyness and children's likeability by peers was examined, with pragmatic difficulty and receptive and expressive vocabularies as moderators. Participants were 164 preschoolers (72 boys, 92 girls) between 52 and 79 months old in Singapore. A cross-informant methodology was used, with peers and teachers contributing to separate peer likeability ratings. The findings highlighted a conceptual distinction between peer- and teacher-rated likeability by peers. For the latter only, a 3-way interaction involving shyness, vocabulary, and pragmatic difficulty was found, indicating that for shy children with low vocabulary scores, those who experienced less pragmatic difficulty tended to be seen by teachers as more well-liked by peers than those with more pragmatic difficulty...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632018/exploring-the-learnability-and-usability-of-a-near-field-communication-based-application-for-semantic-enrichment-in-children-with-language-disorders
#12
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Emilia Biffi, Massimo Molteni, Gianluigi Reni
Recently, a few software applications (apps) have been developed to enhance vocabulary and conceptual networks to address the needs of children with language impairments (LI), but there is no evidence about their impact and their usability in therapy contexts. Here, we try to fill this gap presenting a system aimed at improving the semantic competence and the structural knowledge of children with LI. The goal of the study is to evaluate learnability, usability, user satisfaction and quality of the interaction between the system and the children...
February 13, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630952/estimating-patient-s-health-state-using-latent-structure-inferred-from-clinical-time-series-and-text
#13
Aaron Zalewski, William Long, Alistair E W Johnson, Roger G Mark, Li-Wei H Lehman
Modern intensive care units (ICUs) collect large volumes of data in monitoring critically ill patients. Clinicians in the ICUs face the challenge of interpreting large volumes of high-dimensional data to diagnose and treat patients. In this work, we explore the use of Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP) as a Bayesian nonparametric framework to infer patients' states of health by combining multiple sources of data. In particular, we employ HDP to combine clinical time series and text from the nursing progress notes in a probabilistic topic modeling framework for patient risk stratification...
February 2017: IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626440/executive-function-in-adolescence-associations-with-child-and-family-risk-factors-and-self-regulation-in-early-childhood
#14
Donna Berthelsen, Nicole Hayes, Sonia L J White, Kate E Williams
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624708/individual-differences-in-object-processing-explain-the-relationship-between-early-gaze-following-and-later-language-development
#15
Yuko Okumura, Yasuhiro Kanakogi, Tessei Kobayashi, Shoji Itakura
Gaze-following behaviors play an important role in language development. However, the way in which gaze-following contributes to language development remains unclear. By focusing on two abilities, namely following the gaze direction of others and processing a cued object, the present study investigated how these two influences work together to promote language development in a longitudinal approach on infants from 9 to 18months of age. The results demonstrated that infants who spent more time following the gaze direction toward an object were more efficient in processing the cued object at 9months and had larger vocabularies by 18months...
June 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624322/assessing-pragmatic-communication-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#16
Elizabeth Smith, Kari-Anne B Næss, Christopher Jarrold
PURPOSE: Successful communication depends on language content, language form, and language use (pragmatics). Children with Down syndrome (DS) experience communication difficulties, however little is known about their pragmatic profile, particularly during early school years. The purpose of the present study was to explore the nature of pragmatic communication in children with DS. METHOD: Twenty-nine six-year-old children with DS were assessed, in the areas of 1) initiation, 2) scripted language, 3) understanding context and 4) nonverbal communication, as reported by children's parents via the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (Bishop, 2003)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621001/early-vocabulary-development-in-children-with-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#17
Taina Välimaa, Sari Kunnari, Päivi Laukkanen-Nevala, Eila Lonka
BACKGROUND: Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614575/early-sentence-productions-of-3-and-4-year-old-children-who-use-augmentative-and-alternative-communication
#18
Cathy Binger, Jennifer Kent-Walsh, Marika King, Lindsay Mansfield
Purpose: This study investigated the early rule-based sentence productions of 3- and 4-year-old children with severe speech disorders who used single-meaning graphic symbols to communicate. Method: Ten 3- and 4-year-olds requiring the use of augmentative and alternative communication, who had largely intact receptive language skills, received instruction in producing up to four different semantic-syntactic targets using an Apple iPad with a communication app. A single-case, multiple-probe, across-targets design was used to assess the progress of each participant and target...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612476/association-between-speech-language-general-cognitive-functioning-and-behaviour-problems-in-individuals-with-williams-syndrome
#19
N F Rossi, C M Giacheti
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. METHODS: The study's participants were 26 individuals with WS and their parents. General cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale...
July 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612343/mild-moderate-congenital-hearing-loss-secular-trends-in-outcomes-across-four-systems-of-detection
#20
P Carew, F K Mensah, G Rance, T Flynn, Z Poulakis, M Wake
BACKGROUND: Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) targets moderate or greater hearing loss. However, UNHS also frequently detects children with mild loss that results in many receiving early treatment. The benefits of this approach are not yet established. We aimed to (i) compare language and psychosocial outcomes between four hearing loss detection systems for children aged 5-8 years with congenital mild-moderate hearing loss; (ii) determine whether age of detection predicts outcomes; and (iii) compare outcomes between children identified via well-established UNHS and the general population...
June 14, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
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