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Kelly Y An, Mich C E Monette
OBJECTIVE: To determine cognitive outcomes in older adults (≥ 50 years old) having sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) using meta-analysis. METHODS: MedLine and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify studies comparing neuropsychological profiles in older adults with and without a history of TBI across various injury severities and times post-injury. Ten studies (n = 717) meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Tests were divided into functional modalities and average effect sizes were calculated across studies on a test-by-test basis...
April 20, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Viraj Bhise, Suja S Rajan, Dean F Sittig, Viralkumar Vaghani, Robert O Morgan, Arushi Khanna, Hardeep Singh
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic uncertainty is common in primary care. Because it is challenging to measure, there is inadequate scientific understanding of diagnostic decision-making during uncertainty. Our objective was to understand how diagnostic uncertainty was documented in the electronic health record (EHR) and explore a strategy to retrospectively identify it using clinician documentation. METHODS: We reviewed the literature to identify documentation language that could identify both direct expression and indirect inference of diagnostic uncertainty and designed an instrument to facilitate record review...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Paul Conroy, Christina Sotiropoulou Drosopoulou, Gina F Humphreys, Ajay D Halai, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
One-third of stroke survivors experience deficits in word retrieval as a core characteristic of their aphasia, which is frustrating, socially limiting and disabling for their professional and everyday lives. The, as yet, undiscovered 'holy grail' of clinical practice is to establish a treatment that not only improves item naming, but also generalizes to patients' connected speech. Speech production in healthy participants is a remarkable feat of cognitive processing being both rapid (at least 120 words per minute) and accurate (∼one error per 1000 words)...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jessica W Trussell, Jason Nordhaus, Alison Brusehaber, Brittany Amari
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students have exhibited a morphological knowledge delay that begins in preschool and persists through college. Morphological knowledge is critical to vocabulary understanding and text comprehension in the science classroom. We investigated the effects of morphological instruction, commonly referred to as Word Detectives, on the morphological knowledge of college-age DHH students in a science course. We implemented a multiple probe across behaviors single-case experimental design study with nine student participants...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Mengru Han, Nivja H de Jong, René Kager
Tonal information is essential to early word learning in tone languages. Although numerous studies have investigated the intonational and segmental properties of infant-directed speech (IDS), only a few studies have explored the properties of lexical tones in IDS. These studies mostly focused on the first year of life; thus little is known about how lexical tones in IDS change as children's vocabulary acquisition accelerates in the second year (Goldfield and Reznick, 1990; Bloom, 2001). The present study examines whether Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS addressing 18- and 24-month-old children-at which age children are learning words at a rapid speed-vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laura Daniela Vergara-Mendez, Claudia Talero-Gutiérrez, Alberto Velez-Van-Meerbeke
We describe a case of a six-year-old girl who presents multiple dysmorphic features characteristic of Down's syndrome. She has a significant general developmental delay, with a score that correspond to 32 months of developmental age. This delay is especially in language, with a very scant vocabulary. She communicates with some hand sign words or pointing, although her auditory responses in hearing test were normal. Two previous karyotype studies showed 47, XXX, +21 anomalies. This double trisomy is a rare condition described in isolated cases in the literature and none of these refers to the developmental aspects of these children (Balwan et al...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
Nathan P Golightly, Avery Bell, Anna I Bischoff, Parker D Hollingsworth, Stephen R Piccolo
One important use of genome-wide transcriptional profiles is to identify relationships between transcription levels and patient outcomes. These translational insights can guide the development of biomarkers for clinical application. Data from thousands of translational-biomarker studies have been deposited in public repositories, enabling reuse. However, data-reuse efforts require considerable time and expertise because transcriptional data are generated using heterogeneous profiling technologies, preprocessed using diverse normalization procedures, and annotated in non-standard ways...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Data
Insook Cho, Eun-Hee Boo, Soo-Youn Lee, Patricia C Dykes
Objective: Representing nursing data sets in a standard way will help to facilitate sharing relevant information across settings. We aimed to populate nursing process and outcome metrics with electronic health record (EHR) data and then compare the results with event reporting systems. Methods: We used the "eMeasure" development process of the National Quality Forum adopted by the American Nurses Association. We used operational definitions of quality measures from the American Nurses Association and the US Institute for Healthcare Improvement and employed concept mapping of local data elements to 2 controlled vocabularies to define a standard data dictionary: (1) Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and (2) International Classification for Nursing Practice...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Kyle MacDonald, Todd LaMarr, David Corina, Virginia A Marchman, Anne Fernald
When children interpret spoken language in real time, linguistic information drives rapid shifts in visual attention to objects in the visual world. This language-vision interaction can provide insights into children's developing efficiency in language comprehension. But how does language influence visual attention when the linguistic signal and the visual world are both processed via the visual channel? Here, we measured eye movements during real-time comprehension of a visual-manual language, American Sign Language (ASL), by 29 native ASL-learning children (16-53 mos, 16 deaf, 13 hearing) and 16 fluent deaf adult signers...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Science
Dorthe Bleses, Werner Vach, Philip S Dale
Vocabulary input frequency influences age of acquisition, and is also an essential control for investigating the influence of other factors. We propose a new method of frequency estimation, self-report. 918 Danish-speaking parents of 12-36-month-old children estimated their frequency of use of 725 words. Self-report was substantially correlated with both language sample based frequencies (0.67) and frequencies of a large written corpus of Danish (0.58). Correlations within vocabulary categories between frequency and age of acquisition, restricted to words occurring in the language samples, were comparable for the two estimates...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Child Language
A A Chepelyuk, M G Vinogradova, T V Kovalenok, O A Dorofeeva, M V Metlina, G G Neznamov
AIM: To study the relationship between cognitive functions and psychopathological disturbances in anxiety disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: WAIS, the modified Witkin's Embedded figures test, a symptom scale (Yu.A. Aleksandrovsky et al. 1984) were administered to 111 patients, including 37 with generalized anxiety disorders (GAD, ICD-10 F41.1), 36 with anxiety-phobic disorders (AFD, ICD-10 F40) and 38 with anxiety-hypochondriac disorders (AHD, ICD-10 F45.2), and to 114 healthy people...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Christian Keinki, Richard Zowalla, Monika Pobiruchin, Jutta Huebner, Martin Wiesner
Understandable health information is essential for treatment adherence and improved health outcomes. For readability testing, several instruments analyze the complexity of sentence structures, e.g., Flesch-Reading Ease (FRE) or Vienna-Formula (WSTF). Moreover, the vocabulary is of high relevance for readers. The aim of this study is to investigate the agreement of sentence structure and vocabulary-based (SVM) instruments. A total of 52 freely available German patient information booklets on cancer were collected from the Internet...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Meredith Minear, Jennifer H Coane, Sarah C Boland, Leah H Cooney, Marissa Albat
The authors examined whether individual differences in fluid intelligence (gF) modulate the testing effect. Participants studied Swahili-English word pairs and repeatedly studied half the pairs or attempted retrieval, with feedback, for the remaining half. Word pairs were easy or difficult to learn. Overall, participants showed a benefit of testing over restudy. However, almost 1/3 of the sample had a negative testing effect and benefitted more from restudy than testing, as well as performing better overall...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Gary M Oppenheim
With 40,000 words in the average vocabulary, how can speakers find the specific words that they want so quickly and easily? Cumulative semantic interference in language production provides a clue: when naming a large series of pictures, with a few mammals sprinkled about, naming each subsequent mammal becomes slower and more error-prone. Such interference mirrors predictions from an incremental learning algorithm applied to meaning-driven retrieval from an established vocabulary, suggesting retrieval benefits from a constant, implicit, re-optimization process (Oppenheim et al...
April 4, 2018: Cognition
Lucía I Méndez, Elizabeth R Crais, Kirsten Kainz
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: First, we replicated in a new sample our previous findings that a culturally and linguistically responsive (CLR) bilingual approach for English vocabulary instruction for preschool Latino dual language learners was effective. Subsequently, we investigated whether the positive effect of CLR instruction varies as a function of individual child characteristics, including baseline vocabulary levels and gender. Method: Using a randomized pretest-posttest follow-up group design, we first replicated our previous study (N = 42) with a new sample by randomly assigning 35 Spanish-speaking Latino preschoolers to a CLR bilingual group or an English-only group...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Jongmin Jung, David J Ertmer
Purpose: This study sought to expand understanding of the impact of cochlear implantation on grammatical acquisition by comparing young children who have vocabularies of comparable size. Two research questions were investigated: (a) Do young cochlear implant (CI) recipients have grammatical skills comparable to those of children with normal hearing (NH) matched by spoken vocabulary size? (b) Do these groups show associations between vocabulary size and grammatical measures? Method: The participants included 13 CI recipients at 24 months postactivation (chronological ages = 33-60 months; M = 44...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Gabriela Simon-Cereijido, Lucía I Méndez
Purpose: This study examined the nature of the relation between language-specific vocabulary and conceptual lexical-semantic skills with grammatical abilities within and across languages in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). Method: Sixty-one typically developing, Spanish-English speaking DLLs from preschools serving low-income families participated in the study. Lexical, semantic, and grammar skills were assessed toward the end of the fall in both Spanish and English using normative and researcher-developed assessment instruments...
April 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Idoia Berges, Jesus Bermúdez, Arantza Illarramendi
BACKGROUND: Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations...
February 2018: Methods of Information in Medicine
Margaret Friend, Erin Smolak, Yushuang Liu, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger
Recent studies demonstrate that emerging literacy depends on earlier language achievement. Importantly, most extant work focuses on parent-reported production prior to 30 months of age. Of interest is whether and how directly assessed vocabulary comprehension in the 2nd year of life supports vocabulary and kindergarten readiness in the 4th year. We first contrasted orthogonal indices of parent-reported production and directly assessed vocabulary comprehension and found that comprehension was a stronger predictor of child outcomes...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Stephen W Briner, Michael C Schutzenhofer, Sandra M Virtue
This study explored the relation between general knowledge and the hemispheric processing of metaphoric expressions in college age students. We hypothesized that prior knowledge influences how the hemispheres process metaphors in these individuals. In this study, 97 young (college-aged) adults completed a general knowledge and vocabulary test, and were then divided into high-knowledge/high-vocabulary and low-knowledge/low-vocabulary groups. Next, participants viewed word pairs consisting of conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, word pairs with a literal meaning, and unrelated word pairs...
March 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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