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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911490/what-does-it-take-to-learn-a-word
#1
REVIEW
Larissa K Samuelson, Bob McMurray
Vocabulary learning is deceptively hard, but toddlers often make it look easy. Prior theories proposed that children's rapid acquisition of words is based on language-specific knowledge and constraints. In contrast, more recent work converges on the view that word learning proceeds via domain-general processes that are tuned to richly structured-not impoverished-input. We argue that new theoretical insights, coupled with methodological tools, have pushed the field toward an appreciation of simple, content-free processes working together as a system to support the acquisition of words...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910735/birth-of-the-cool-a-two-centuries-decline-in-emotional-expression-in-anglophone-fiction
#2
Olivier Morin, Alberto Acerbi
The presence of emotional words and content in stories has been shown to enhance a story's memorability, and its cultural success. Yet, recent cultural trends run in the opposite direction. Using the Google Books corpus, coupled with two metadata-rich corpora of Anglophone fiction books, we show a decrease in emotionality in English-speaking literature starting plausibly in the nineteenth century. We show that this decrease cannot be explained by changes unrelated to emotionality (such as demographic dynamics concerning age or gender balance, changes in vocabulary richness, or changes in the prevalence of literary genres), and that, in our three corpora, the decrease is driven almost entirely by a decline in the proportion of positive emotion-related words, while the frequency of negative emotion-related words shows little if any decline...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908296/smoking-in-pregnancy-adolescent-mental-health-and-cognitive-performance-in-young-adult-offspring-results-from-a-matched-sample-within-a-finnish-cohort
#3
Hugh Ramsay, Jennifer H Barnett, Graham K Murray, Pirjo Mäki, Tuula Hurtig, Tanja Nordström, Jouko Miettunen, Vesa Kiviniemi, Solja Niemelä, Zdenka Pausova, Tomas Paus, Juha Veijola
BACKGROUND: The association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) and adult cognition is debated, including if there are differences according to sex. We aimed to determine if there are associations between PEMCS and cognition in early adulthood in men and women and examine if observed associations were mediated by adolescent mental health factors that are associated with cognition, namely psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), inattention and hyperactivity, and other externalizing behaviors...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908072/perceptual-attributes-for-the-comparison-of-head-related-transfer-functions
#4
Laurent S R Simon, Nick Zacharov, Brian F G Katz
The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection may go beyond simple localization. In this study, the authors develop a list of attributes which qualify the perceived differences between HRTFs, providing a qualitative understanding of the perceptual variance of non-individual binaural renderings...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#5
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906933/anterior-cingulotomy-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-intractable-pain-a-systematic-review
#6
Justin Sharim, Nader Pouratian
BACKGROUND: Anterior cingulotomy for chronic pain aims to modulate patients' attention or emotional reaction to pain rather than to modulate pain intensity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy, both short- and long-term, of anterior cingulotomy in the treatment of chronic pain. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: This systematic review assessed studies reporting anterior cingulotomy for the treatment of chronic pain...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903489/finding-important-terms-for-patients-in-their-electronic-health-records-a-learning-to-rank-approach-using-expert-annotations
#7
Jinying Chen, Jiaping Zheng, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Many health organizations allow patients to access their own electronic health record (EHR) notes through online patient portals as a way to enhance patient-centered care. However, EHR notes are typically long and contain abundant medical jargon that can be difficult for patients to understand. In addition, many medical terms in patients' notes are not directly related to their health care needs. One way to help patients better comprehend their own notes is to reduce information overload and help them focus on medical terms that matter most to them...
November 30, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899678/virus-variation-resource-improved-response-to-emergent-viral-outbreaks
#8
Eneida L Hatcher, Sergey A Zhdanov, Yiming Bao, Olga Blinkova, Eric P Nawrocki, Yuri Ostapchuck, Alejandro A Schäffer, J Rodney Brister
The Virus Variation Resource is a value-added viral sequence data resource hosted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The resource is located at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/variation/ and includes modules for seven viral groups: influenza virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebolavirus, MERS coronavirus, Rotavirus A and Zika virus Each module is supported by pipelines that scan newly released GenBank records, annotate genes and proteins and parse sample descriptors and then map them to controlled vocabulary...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899602/the-human-phenotype-ontology-in-2017
#9
Sebastian Köhler, Nicole A Vasilevsky, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, Julie McMurry, Ségolène Aymé, Gareth Baynam, Susan M Bello, Cornelius F Boerkoel, Kym M Boycott, Michael Brudno, Orion J Buske, Patrick F Chinnery, Valentina Cipriani, Laureen E Connell, Hugh J S Dawkins, Laura E DeMare, Andrew D Devereau, Bert B A de Vries, Helen V Firth, Kathleen Freson, Daniel Greene, Ada Hamosh, Ingo Helbig, Courtney Hum, Johanna A Jähn, Roger James, Roland Krause, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Hanns Lochmüller, Gholson J Lyon, Soichi Ogishima, Annie Olry, Willem H Ouwehand, Nikolas Pontikos, Ana Rath, Franz Schaefer, Richard H Scott, Michael Segal, Panagiotis I Sergouniotis, Richard Sever, Cynthia L Smith, Volker Straub, Rachel Thompson, Catherine Turner, Ernest Turro, Marijcke W M Veltman, Tom Vulliamy, Jing Yu, Julie von Ziegenweidt, Andreas Zankl, Stephan Züchner, Tomasz Zemojtel, Julius O B Jacobsen, Tudor Groza, Damian Smedley, Christopher J Mungall, Melissa Haendel, Peter N Robinson
Deep phenotyping has been defined as the precise and comprehensive analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in which the individual components of the phenotype are observed and described. The three components of the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO; www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) project are the phenotype vocabulary, disease-phenotype annotations and the algorithms that operate on these. These components are being used for computational deep phenotyping and precision medicine as well as integration of clinical data into translational research...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898180/apical-negative-pressure-irrigation-versus-syringe-irrigation-a-systematic-review-of-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-the-root-canal-system
#10
REVIEW
E Konstantinidi, Z Psimma, L E Chávez de Paz, C Boutsioukis
The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically analyse the published data on the treatment outcome (primary outcome) and on the cleaning and disinfection of root canals (secondary outcomes) achieved by negative pressure irrigation as compared to syringe irrigation. An electronic search was conducted in EMBASE, LILACS, Pubmed, SciELO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge using both free-text keywords and controlled vocabulary. Additional studies were sought through hand-searching of endodontic journals and of the relevant chapters of endodontic textbooks...
November 28, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897438/the-relationship-between-cognitive-ability-and-experiences-of-vaginal-oral-and-anal-sex-in-the-united-states
#11
Nicole Fran Kahn, Carolyn Tucker Halpern
Few studies have investigated the sexual development of populations with low cognitive abilities in the United States. This article examines the relationship between cognitive ability and various sexual experiences from adolescence (ages 12 to 18) to early adulthood (ages 28 to 34). Data were from 13,845 respondents interviewed at Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a probability sample of adolescents in the United States followed from adolescence to adulthood...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893237/emergence-of-japanese-infants-prosodic-preferences-in-infant-directed-vocabulary
#12
Akiko Hayashi, Reiko Mazuka
The article examines the role of infant-directed vocabulary (IDV) in infants language acquisition, specifically addressing the question of whether IDV forms that are not prominent in adult language may nonetheless be useful to the process of acquisition. Japanese IDV offers a good test case, as IDV characteristically takes a bisyllabic H(eavy)-L(ight) form that is rare in adult speech. In 5 experiments using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP), 8- to 10-month-old Japanese infants, but not 4- to 6-month-olds, were found to show a preference for bisyllabic H-L words over other types of words...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893086/the-composition-of-early-vocabulary-in-spanish-children-with-down-syndrome-and-their-peers-with-typical-development
#13
Elena Checa, Miguel Galeote, Pilar Soto
Purpose: There are very few studies, and at present none in Spanish, on vocabulary composition in children with Down syndrome (DS). Nor has the topic been widely assessed in Spanish-speaking children with typical development (TD). This study analyzed the composition of early vocabularies in a large sample of Spanish-speaking children with DS and compared it with that of children with TD. Method: We studied 108 children with DS and 108 children with TD with mental ages between 8 and 29 months, matched for size of productive vocabulary and gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884866/a-case-of-specific-language-impairment-in-a-deaf-signer-of-american-sign-language
#14
David Quinto-Pozos, Jenny L Singleton, Peter C Hauser
This article describes the case of a deaf native signer of American Sign Language (ASL) with a specific language impairment (SLI). School records documented normal cognitive development but atypical language development. Data include school records; interviews with the child, his mother, and school professionals; ASL and English evaluations; and a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychoeducational evaluation, and they span an approximate period of 7.5 years (11;10-19;6) including scores from school records (11;10-16;5) and a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884812/consumers-use-of-umls-concepts-on-social-media-diabetes-related-textual-data-analysis-in-blog-and-social-q-a-sites
#15
Min Sook Park, Zhe He, Zhiwei Chen, Sanghee Oh, Jiang Bian
BACKGROUND: The widely known terminology gap between health professionals and health consumers hinders effective information seeking for consumers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to better understand consumers' usage of medical concepts by evaluating the coverage of concepts and semantic types of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) on diabetes-related postings in 2 types of social media: blogs and social question and answer (Q&A). METHODS: We collected 2 types of social media data: (1) a total of 3711 blogs tagged with "diabetes" on Tumblr posted between February and October 2015; and (2) a total of 58,422 questions and associated answers posted between 2009 and 2014 in the diabetes category of Yahoo! Answers...
November 24, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881481/emotion-understanding-in-preschool-children-with-mild-to-severe-hearing-loss
#16
Nina J Laugen, Karl H Jacobsen, Carolien Rieffe, Lars Wichstrøm
Deaf and hard of hearing school-aged children are at risk for delayed development of emotion understanding; however, little is known about this during the preschool years. We compared the level of emotion understanding in a group of 35 4-5-year-old children who use hearing aids to that of 130 children with typical hearing. Moreover, we investigated the parents' perception of their child's level of emotion understanding. Children were assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Parents were presented with the same test and asked to guess what their child answered on each item...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880881/learning-language-from-within-children-use-semantic-generalizations-to-infer-word-meanings
#17
Mahesh Srinivasan, Sara Al-Mughairy, Ruthe Foushee, David Barner
One reason that word learning presents a challenge for children is because pairings between word forms and meanings are arbitrary conventions that children must learn via observation - e.g., the fact that "shovel" labels shovels. The present studies explore cases in which children might bypass observational learning and spontaneously infer new word meanings: By exploiting the fact that many words are flexible and systematically encode multiple, related meanings. For example, words like shovel and hammer are nouns for instruments, and verbs for activities involving those instruments...
November 20, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877877/materials-inspired-by-mathematics
#18
Motoko Kotani, Susumu Ikeda
Our world is transforming into an interacting system of the physical world and the digital world. What will be the materials science in the new era? With the rising expectations of the rapid development of computers, information science and mathematical science including statistics and probability theory, 'data-driven materials design' has become a common term. There is knowledge and experience gained in the physical world in the form of know-how and recipes for the creation of material. An important key is how we establish vocabulary and grammar to translate them into the language of the digital world...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876547/scheduling-terminology-for-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery-are-we-speaking-a-universal-language
#19
T E Howe, I Varley, J E Allen, A Glossop, A McKechnie
Use of a universal vocabulary to assist with the scheduling of operations has been shown to considerably reduce delays and improve the use of theatre resources. Within the UK the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) has established a classification to assist with the triage of both emergency and non-emergency operating lists. We completed a survey to assess the uptake and understanding of this classification when scheduling maxillofacial operations. From a list of eight scheduling terms, respondents had to choose one each for 20 different clinical situations (that represented equally) immediate, urgent, expedited, and elective operations as defined by them...
November 19, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875191/visualization-as-seen-through-its-research-paper-keywords
#20
Petra Isenberg, Tobias Isenberg, Michael Sedlmair, Jian Chen, Torsten Moller
We present the results of a comprehensive multi-pass analysis of visualization paper keywords supplied by authors for their papers published in the IEEE Visualization conference series (now called IEEE VIS) between 1990-2015. From this analysis we derived a set of visualization topics that we discuss in the context of the current taxonomy that is used to categorize papers and assign reviewers in the IEEE VIS reviewing process. We point out missing and overemphasized topics in the current taxonomy and start a discussion on the importance of establishing common visualization terminology...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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