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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454060/aop-db-a-database-resource-for-the-exploration-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-through-integrated-association-networks
#1
Maureen E Pittman, Stephen W Edwards, Cataia Ives, Holly M Mortensen
The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework describes the progression of a toxicity pathway from molecular perturbation to population-level outcome in a series of measurable, mechanistic responses. The controlled, computer-readable vocabulary that defines an AOP has the ability to, automatically and on a large scale, integrate AOP knowledge with publically available sources of biological high-throughput data and its derived associations. To support the discovery and development of putative (existing) and potential AOPs, we introduce the AOP-DB, an exploratory database resource that aggregates association relationships between genes and their related chemicals, diseases, pathways, species orthology information, ontologies, and gene interactions...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453298/urban-green-spaces-and-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#2
Marion Porcherie, Mathilde Lejeune, Marion Gaudel, Jeanine Pommier, Emmanuelle Faure, Zoé Heritage, Stéphane Rican, Jean Simos, Nicola Luca Cantoreggi, Anne Roué Le Gall, Linda Cambon, Jean-Philippe Regnaux
INTRODUCTION: Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447720/no-257-ultrasonographic-cervical-length-assessment-in-predicting-preterm-birth-in-singleton-pregnancies
#3
Kenneth Lim, Kimberly Butt, Joan M Crane
OBJECTIVES: To review (1) the use of ultrasonographic-derived cervical length measurement in predicting preterm birth and (2) interventions associated with a short cervical length. OUTCOMES: Reduction in rates of prematurity and/or better identification of those at risk, as well as possible prevention of unnecessary interventions. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library up to December 2009, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (preterm labour, ultrasound, cervix, incompetent cervix, transvaginal, transperineal, cervical length, fibronectin)...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447718/no-240-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pregnancy
#4
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446152/loss-of-philological-purity-hybrid-vigor-or-mongrelism
#5
Paul E Neumann
Although disparaged by philologists, hybrid words enrich technical and scientific vocabularies. They are common, so, like it or not, they are here to stay. On the other hand, where there are pre-existing purebred compound or affixed words, they should generally be given preference over hybrids. Some adjectives (e.g., laryngeus and sphenoideus) are discussed to illustrate these recommendations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 15, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444698/using-owl-reasoning-to-support-the-generation-of-novel-gene-sets-for-enrichment-analysis
#6
David J Osumi-Sutherland, Enrico Ponta, Melanie Courtot, Helen Parkinson, Laura Badi
BACKGROUND: The Gene Ontology (GO) consists of over 40,000 terms for biological processes, cell components and gene product activities linked into a graph structure by over 90,000 relationships. It has been used to annotate the functions and cellular locations of several million gene products. The graph structure is used by a variety of tools to group annotated genes into sets whose products share function or location. These gene sets are widely used to interpret the results of genomics experiments by assessing which sets are significantly over- or under-represented in results lists...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444184/qualitative-thematic-analysis-of-the-phenomenology-of-near-death-experiences
#7
Helena Cassol, Benoît Pétré, Sophie Degrange, Charlotte Martial, Vanessa Charland-Verville, François Lallier, Isabelle Bragard, Michèle Guillaume, Steven Laureys
Near-death experiences (NDEs) refer to profound psychological events that can have an important impact on the experiencers' (NDErs) lives. Previous studies have shown that NDEs memories are phenomenologically rich. In the present study, we therefore aimed to extract the common themes (referred to as "features" in the NDE literature) reported by NDErs by analyzing all the concepts stored in the narratives of their experiences. A qualitative thematic analysis has been carried out on 34 cardiac arrest survivors' NDE narratives...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443692/executive-function-and-childhood-stuttering-parent-ratings-and-evidence-from-a-behavioral-task
#8
Katerina Ntourou, Julie D Anderson, Stacy A Wagovich
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the executive function (EF) abilities of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) using a parent-report questionnaire and a behavioral task. METHOD: Participants were 75 CWS and 75 CWNS between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 (years; months). Parents rated their children's EF abilities using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003). Children's ability to integrate cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory was measured using a behavioral task, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS; Cameron Ponitz, McClelland, Matthews, & Morrison, 2009)...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443620/transforming-patient-compliance-research-in-an-era-of-biomedicalization
#9
Karen Lutfey Spencer
The term patient noncompliance emerged in the 1970s as a tool for analyzing why people do not follow medical directives. Despite its early popularity, the term has languished in sociology while flourishing in biomedical arenas. It seems flaccid in a contemporary healthcare context as it overestimates physician authority and is tone-deaf to biomedicalization. I draw from sociological and anthropological traditions, as well as qualitative interviews with terminally ill patients ( N = 26) and their caregivers ( N = 16), to consider facets of a biomedicalized health experience and implications for an updated vision of compliance...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441027/pragmatically-framed-cross-situational-noun-learning-using-computational-reinforcement-models
#10
Shamima Najnin, Bonny Banerjee
Cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theories are prominent mechanisms for learning word meanings (i.e., word-object pairs). In this paper, the role of reinforcement is investigated for early word-learning by an artificial agent. When exposed to a group of speakers, the agent comes to understand an initial set of vocabulary items belonging to the language used by the group. Both cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theory are taken into account. As social cues, joint attention and prosodic cues in caregiver's speech are considered...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440116/improving-interpretation-of-cardiac-phenotypes-and-enhancing-discovery-with-expanded-knowledge-in-the-gene-ontology
#11
Ruth C Lovering, Paola Roncaglia, Douglas G Howe, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Varsha K Khodiyar, Tanya Z Berardini, Susan Tweedie, Rebecca E Foulger, David Osumi-Sutherland, Nancy H Campbell, Rachael P Huntley, Philippa J Talmud, Judith A Blake, Ross Breckenridge, Paul R Riley, Pier D Lambiase, Perry M Elliott, Lucie Clapp, Andrew Tinker, David P Hill
BACKGROUND: A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439328/impact-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-general-anesthesia-on-brain-networks-cognitive-efficiency-and-ventricular-volume-predict-functional-connectivity-decline-in-older-adults
#12
Haiqing Huang, Jared Tanner, Hari Parvataneni, Mark Rice, Ann Horgas, Mingzhou Ding, Catherine Price
 Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), we explored: 1) pre- to post-operative changes in functional connectivity in default mode, salience, and central executive networks after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with general anesthesia, and 2) the contribution of cognitive/brain reserve metrics these resting state functional declines. Individuals age 60 and older electing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n = 48) and non-surgery peers with osteoarthritis (n = 45) completed baseline cognitive testing and baseline and post-surgery (post-baseline, 48-h post-surgery) brain MRI...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433798/screening-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-during-transthoracic-echocardiography-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Christos Argyriou, George S Georgiadis, Nikolaos Kontopodis, Arun D Pherwani, Joost A Van Herwaarden, Constantijn E V B Hazenberg, George A Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) may be an effective targeted screening strategy. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the feasibility of AAA screening during TTE and to estimate the prevalence of AAA in patients undergoing TTE. METHODS: Electronic bibliographic sources were interrogated using a combination of free text and controlled vocabulary searches to identify studies reporting on AAA screening during TTE...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432593/selective-difficulties-in-lexical-retrieval-and-nonverbal-executive-functioning-in-children-with-hbss-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Barbara Arfé, Maria Montanaro, Elena Mottura, Michele Scaltritti, Renzo Manara, Giuseppe Basso, Laura Sainati, Raffaella Colombatti
Language deficits in multilingual children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that selective language deficits in this population could relate to an impaired frontal lobe functioning often associated with high-risk homozygous HbS disease (HbSS). In all, 32 children from immigrant communities with HbSS SCD aged 6 to 12 years (mean age = 9.03, n = 9 with silent infarcts) and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (mean age = 9.14) were tested on their naming skills, phonological and semantic fluency, attention, and selected executive functions (response inhibition and planning skills)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432427/brain-entropy-and-human-intelligence-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#15
Glenn N Saxe, Daniel Calderone, Leah J Morales
Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431573/palliative-care-specialist-series-top-10-tips-palliative-care-clinicians-should-know-about-radiation-oncology
#16
Kavita V Dharmarajan, Shayna E Rich, Candice A Johnstone, Lauren M Hertan, Randy Wei, Lauren E Colbert, Joshua A Jones, Arif H Kamal, Christopher A Jones
As palliative care (PC) moves upstream in the course of advanced illness, it is critical that PC providers have a broad understanding of curative and palliative treatments for serious diseases. Possessing a working knowledge of radiation therapy (RT), one of the three pillars of cancer care, is crucial to PC providers given RT's role in both the curative and palliative settings. This article provides PC providers with a primer on the vocabulary of RT; the team of people involved in the planning of RT; and common indications, benefits, and side effects of treatment...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429062/towards-precision-medicine-a-new-biomedical-cosmology
#17
M W Vegter
Precision Medicine has become a common label for data-intensive and patient-driven biomedical research. Its intended future is reflected in endeavours such as the Precision Medicine Initiative in the USA. This article addresses the question whether it is possible to discern a new 'medical cosmology' in Precision Medicine, a concept that was developed by Nicholas Jewson to describe comprehensive transformations involving various dimensions of biomedical knowledge and practice, such as vocabularies, the roles of patients and physicians and the conceptualisation of disease...
February 10, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429008/from-using-tools-to-using-language-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism
#18
Laura Sparaci, Jessie B Northrup, Olga Capirci, Jana M Iverson
Forty-one high-risk infants (HR) with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were observed longitudinally at 10, 12, 18 and 24 months of age during a tool use task in a play-like scenario. Changes in grasp types and functional actions produced with a spoon were assessed during elicited tool use. Outcome and vocabulary measures were available at 36 months, distinguishing: 11 HR-ASD, 15 HR-language delay and 15 HR-no delay. Fewer HR-ASD infants produced grasp types facilitating spoon use at 24 months and functional actions at 10 months than HR-no delay...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427532/a-pilot-study-of-high-dose-intravenous-immunoglobulin-5-for-autism-impact-on-autism-spectrum-and-markers-of-neuroinflammation
#19
Isaac R Melamed, Melinda Heffron, Alessandro Testori, Kellie Lipe
Research has shown that a subset of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population presents with immune dysregulation. To explore this topic further, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in children with ASD. In this study, participants were recruited based on a diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Participants also showed evidence of immune dysfunction based on abnormal levels of specific biomarkers, including CD40 ligand (CD154), lymphocyte stimulation, and T or B cell dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427233/an-online-risk-index-for-the-cross-sectional-prediction-of-new-hiv-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-diagnoses-across-u-s-counties-and-across-years
#20
Man-Pui Sally Chan, Sophie Lohmann, Alex Morales, Chengxiang Zhai, Lyle Ungar, David R Holtgrave, Dolores Albarracín
The present study evaluated the potential use of Twitter data for providing risk indices of STIs. We developed online risk indices (ORIs) based on tweets to predict new HIV, gonorrhea, and chlamydia diagnoses, across U.S. counties and across 5 years. We analyzed over one hundred million tweets from 2009 to 2013 using open-vocabulary techniques and estimated the ORIs for a particular year by entering tweets from the same year into multiple semantic models (one for each year). The ORIs were moderately to strongly associated with the actual rates (...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
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