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New drugs of 2015

Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Paolo Deluca
The Internet has played a major role in the distribution of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), and crypto markets are increasingly used for the anonymous sale of drugs, including NPS. This study explores the availability of individual NPS and vendors on the crypto markets and considers whether crypto markets are a reliable platform for the sale of NPS. Data was collected from 22 crypto markets that were accessed through the hidden web using the Onion Router (Tor). Data collection took place bimonthly from October 2015 to October 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA ( C omputer A ssisted S olutions for S tudying the A vailability a N d D ist R ibution of novel psycho A ctive substances) project...
March 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shan Xing, Gregory S Calip, Alex D Leow, Shiyun Kim, Glen T Schumock, Daniel R Touchette, Todd A Lee
AIMS: To compare adherence and persistence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) between patients who are new users of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) versus new users of other depression therapies in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Adults 18-64 years with previously-treated T2DM and MDD (past OAD and SSRI/SNRI use) who are new users of SGA or non-SGA therapies (bupropion, lithium, mirtazapine, thyroid hormone, tricyclic antidepressant) were identified in the 2009-2015 MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Scott Pardo, Rimma M Shaginian, David A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Diabetes treatment is intended to maintain near-normal glycemic levels. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) allows patients to track their BG levels compared with glycemic targets and is associated with improved health outcomes. Because of the importance of SMBG, it is essential that results are accurate to prevent errors in nutritional intake and drug dosing. This study presents a new methodology to evaluate the accuracy of BG monitoring systems (BGMSs). METHODS: Sensitivity analyses were performed using real and simulated BGMS data to compute probabilities that, for any BG value, the BGMS result would be within prescribed error bounds and confidence limits compared with laboratory reference values...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore
Persons with HIV who have entered care but have viral load > 1500 copies/mL may be the source of the majority of new HIV infections in the United States. We followed patients engaged in continuity care in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between January 2010 and August 2015. We estimated person-time spent with viral load > 1500 copies/mL while in care after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, while in care, and while alive. Person-time was classified according to the most recent viral load measurement...
March 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Hao-Hsin Wu, Yi-Ting Shen, Chien-Shun Chiou, Chi-Tai Fang, Yi-Chun Lo
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported since the late 1990s. HIV infection is an important risk factor. Since 2014, the global shigellosis epidemic has intensified. Whether chemsex (the use of crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate or mephedrone to enhance sex) is a new risk factor has not been previously examined. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Taiwan. Acute shigellosis cases diagnosed during the 2015 outbreak among MSM living with HIV were compared with those without shigellosis...
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Fatemeh Riyahi Zaniani, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
Background: Increasing drug resistance is an important factor in the complexity of tuberculosis (TB) control. The identification of disease transmission type, recurrence of a previous infection, or new transmission of the disease is the key factor in the control of TB. In this study, we aimed to identify the genetic diversity of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Isfahan province of Iran through the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing method based on 24 loci...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Aldo Bonaventura, Fabrizio Montecucco
Corticosteroids are widely diffused drugs. An important side effect is the impairment of glycemic control both in patients with known diabetes and in normoglycemic ones potentially leading to steroid-induced diabetes mellitus (SIDM). In this review based on papers released on PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from January 2015 to October 2017, we summarized and discussed main updates about the definition, the diagnosis, and the pathophysiology of steroid-induced hyperglycemia (SIH), with a look to new therapies. Main alterations responsible for the diabetogenic effect of corticosteroids are a negative impact on insulin sensitivity along with a derangement on insulin secretion, explaining the typical post-prandial hyperglycemia linked to the promotion of gluconeogenesis...
March 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Mehdi Moini
In the past few years, there has been a significant effort by the forensic science community to develop new scientific techniques for the analysis of forensic evidence. Forensic chemists have been spearheaded to develop information-rich confirmatory technologies and techniques and apply them to a broad array of forensic challenges. The purpose of these confirmatory techniques is to provide alternatives to presumptive techniques that rely on data such as color changes, pattern matching, or retention time alone, which are prone to more false positives...
March 12, 2018: Electrophoresis
Flavia Mayer, Ursula Kirchmayer, Paola Coletta, Nera Agabiti, Valeria Belleudi, Giovanna Cappai, Mirko Di Martino, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Marina Davoli, Elisabetta Patorno
BACKGROUND: Real-time monitoring is used to the ends of postmarketing observational research on newly marketed drugs. We implemented a pilot near-real-time monitoring program on the test case of oral anticoagulants. Specifically, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants compared to vitamin K antagonists in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation secondary prevention during 2013-2015 in the Lazio Region, Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort study was conducted using a sequential propensity-score-matched new user parallel-cohort design...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Kimberly Blackwell, Joseph Gligorov, Ira Jacobs, Chris Twelves
Trastuzumab improves survival outcomes for patients with HER2-positive (HER2+ ) breast cancer, yet not all such women receive this important therapy. Trastuzumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1998 and the European Medicines Agency in 2000 as treatment for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Observational studies between 2000 and 2015 in patients with HER2+ MBC suggest that nearly 12% in the United States, 27% to 54% in Europe, and 27.1% to 49.2% in China did not receive trastuzumab or any other HER2-targeted agent as first- and/or later-line for treatment of metastatic disease...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Anna Zuk, Paul M Palevsky, Linda Fried, Frank E Harrell, Samina Khan, Dianne B McKay, Luke Devey, Lakhmir Chawla, Mark de Caestecker, James S Kaufman, B Taylor Thompson, Anupam Agarwal, Tom Greene, Mark Douglas Okusa, Joseph V Bonventre, Laura M Dember, Kathleen D Liu, Benjamin D Humphreys, Daniel Gossett, Yining Xie, Jenna M Norton, Paul L Kimmel, Robert A Star
AKI is a complex clinical condition associated with high mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Despite improvements in methodology and design of clinical trials, and advances in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of rodent AKI, no pharmacologic agent exists for the prevention or treatment of AKI in humans. To address the barriers that affect successful clinical translation of drug targets identified and validated in preclinical animal models of AKI in this patient population, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases convened the "AKI Outcomes: Overcoming Barriers in AKI" workshop on February 10-12, 2015...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Matthew W Marney, Robert P Metzger, David Hecht, Faramarz Valafar
WHO reported 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.8 million deaths in 2015, making M. tuberculosis the most successful human pathogen with highest mortality among infectious diseases [1,2]. Drug-resistant TB is a major threat to global TB control [2,3]. Recently Torres et al. [4] identified 14 novel substitutions in M. tuberculosis-KatG (the enzyme associated with resistance to isoniazid-an important first-line anti-TB drug) and demonstrated that 12 of the 14 can cause INH-resistance in M. smegmatis...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Kimberly Y Won, Keri Robinson, Katy L Hamlin, Joseph Tufa, Margaret Seespesara, Ryan E Wiegand, Katherine Gass, Joseph Kubofcik, Thomas B Nutman, Patrick J Lammie, Saipale Fuimaono
BACKGROUND: Current WHO recommendations for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance advise programs to implement activities to monitor for new foci of transmission after stopping mass drug administration (MDA). A current need in the global effort to eliminate LF is to standardize diagnostic tools and surveillance activities beyond the recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS). METHODOLOGY: TAS was first conducted in American Samoa in 2011 (TAS 1) and a repeat TAS was carried out in 2015 (TAS 2)...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gerhard Selhorst, Fabian Schmidtler, Armin Ott, Evelyn Hitzke, June Tomelden, Diethmar Antoni, Ellen Hoffmann, Johannes Rieber
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor is a mainstay of the prevention of stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In the 2015 European guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), prasugrel (PRA) and ticagrelor (TICA) combined with aspirin are recommended as first-line therapy. Clopidogrel (CLO) is recommended as an alternative medication for patients with contradictions to these new drugs. This single-center study analyzed the platelet function of 809 ACS patients undergoing PCI and treatment with DAPT...
March 9, 2018: Platelets
Jeffrey Wagner, John Marquart, Julia Ruby, Austin Lammers, Sham Mailankody, Victoria Kaestner, Vinay Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences between recommendations by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCNN) guidelines and Food and Drug Administration approvals of anticancer drugs, and the evidence cited by the NCCN to justify recommendations where differences exist. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: National Comprehensive Cancer Network and FDA. PARTICIPANTS: 47 new molecular entities approved by the FDA between 2011 and 2015...
March 7, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Giuliano Ramadori, Patrizia Bosio, Federico Moriconi, Ihtzaz A Malik
BACKGROUND: After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), recurrent HCC mostly develops within 2 years. All cases of de novo HCC described so far occurred later than 2 years after OLT. Prevention of post-transplantation HCC has usually been tried to achieve by curing or controlling recurrent liver disease. This has been rationale for treatment with interferon (IFN)/ribavirin of HCV-recurrence in patients after OLT, transplanted for advanced HCV-induced liver disease and/or HCC...
March 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Luca Depietri, Marco Marietta, Stefania Scarlini, Matteo Marcacci, Elena Corradini, Antonello Pietrangelo, Paolo Ventura
International guidelines recommend the use of pharmacological prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The same international guidelines suggest the employment of standardized risk assessment models (RAMs) when evaluating the administration of pharmacological prophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients. The Padua Prediction Score and the Improve Bleeding Score have been indicated as the best available RAMs to predict thrombotic and haemorrhagic risk in hospitalized medical patients, but it is still unknown whether their combined use may lead to a significant reduction in thrombotic and haemorrhagic events...
March 3, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Maja Hellfritzsch, Lotte Rasmussen, Jesper Hallas, Anton Pottegård
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge on adverse effects (AEs) related to non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in real-world populations is sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify signals of potential AEs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) initiating NOAC treatment using a hypothesis-free screening approach. METHODS: Using the nationwide Danish registries, we identified patients with AF initiating dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban between 2011 and 2015 (n = 50,627)...
March 1, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Kylie Elizabeth Hunter, Anna Lene Seidler, Lisa M Askie
OBJECTIVES: To analyse prospective versus retrospective trial registration trends on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) and to evaluate the reasons for non-compliance with prospective registration. DESIGN: Part 1: Descriptive analysis of trial registration trends from 2006 to 2015. Part 2: Online registrant survey. PARTICIPANTS: Part 1: All interventional trials registered on ANZCTR from 2006 to 2015. Part 2: Random sample of those who had retrospectively registered a trial on ANZCTR between 2010 and 2015...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Emmanuelle Cambau, Paul Saunderson, Masanori Matsuoka, Stewart T Cole, Masanori Kai, Philip Suffys, Patricia S Rosa, Diana Williams, Umesh D Gupta, Mallika Lavania, Nora Cordona, Yuji Miyamoto, Deanna Hagge, Aparna Srikantam, Wang Hongseng, Agsuni Indropo, Varalakshmi Vissa, Roch C Johnson, Bertrand Cauchoix, Vijaykumar K Pannikar, Erwin Awd Cooreman, Vr Rao Pemmaraju, Laura Gillini
OBJECTIVES: antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a priority for surveillance in bacterial infections. For leprosy, AMR could not be assessed so far since Mycobacterium leprae does not grow in vitro. We aim to obtain AMR data using molecular detection of resistance genes and to conduct a prospective open survey of resistance to antileprosy drugs in endemic countries through a WHO surveillance network. METHODS: From 2009 to 2015, multi-bacillary leprosy cases at sentinel sites of 19 countries, were studied for resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin by PCR sequencing of the drug resistance determining regions (DRDR) of the genes rpoB, folP1 and gyrA...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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