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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735046/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-australia-and-new-zealand-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2013-2015
#1
M A Pfaller, D Shortridge, H S Sader, R K Flamm, M Castaneheira
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients in Australia and New Zealand with healthcare-associated infection. METHODS: A total of 1,459 gram-negative organisms (440P. aeruginosa and 1,019 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected from 11 medical centers located in Australia and New Zealand. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729186/-tuberculosis-treatment-for-children-an-update
#2
María José Mellado Peña, Begoña Santiago García, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, David Moreno Pérez, Roi Piñeiro Pérez, Ana Méndez Echevarría, José Tomás Ramos Amador, David Gómez-Pastrana Durán, Antoni Noguera Julian
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease...
July 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727525/trends-in-prescription-opioids-detected-in-fatally-injured-drivers-in-6-us-states-1995-2015
#3
Stanford Chihuri, Guohua Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess the time trends in prescription opioids detected in fatally injured drivers. METHODS: We analyzed 1995 to 2015 Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and West Virginia of toxicological tests for drivers fatally injured within 1 hour of a crash (n = 36 729). We used the Cochran-Armitage test for trend to assess the statistical significance of changes in the prevalence of prescription opioids detected in these drivers over time...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723476/charting-recent-progress-and-challenges-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-is-there-an-optimal-treatment-sequence
#4
REVIEW
Stéphane Oudard, Pablo Maroto, Gaston Demonty, Winald R Gerritsen
CONTEXT: Recent developments in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have led to uncertainty about the optimal sequence of agents. OBJECTIVE: To review and assess treatment options and sequence in patients with mCRPC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: To identify data on the optimal use of approved treatments, we searched PubMed for studies on the use of recently approved agents for men with mCRPC published before March 2015...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721034/readmission-after-copd-exacerbation-scale-determining-30-day-readmission-risk-for-copd-patients
#5
Christine Sm Lau, Brianna L Siracuse, Ronald S Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: COPD affects over 13 million Americans, and accounts for over half a million hospitalizations annually. The Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, established by the Affordable Care Act requires the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to reduce payments to hospitals with excess readmissions for COPD as of 2015. This study sought to develop a predictive readmission scale to identify COPD patients at higher readmission risk. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on 339,389 patients from New York and California (derivation cohort) and 258,113 patients from Washington and Florida (validation cohort) were abstracted from the State Inpatient Database (2006-2011), and the Readmission After COPD Exacerbation (RACE) Scale was developed to predict 30-day readmission risk...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720801/mapping-and-characterization-of-g-quadruplexes-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-gene-promoter-regions
#6
Rosalba Perrone, Enrico Lavezzo, Erika Riello, Riccardo Manganelli, Giorgio Palù, Stefano Toppo, Roberta Provvedi, Sara N Richter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide in 2015. The recent emergence of strains resistant to all current drugs urges the development of compounds with new mechanisms of action. G-quadruplexes are nucleic acids secondary structures that may form in G-rich regions to epigenetically regulate cellular functions. Here we implemented a computational tool to scan the presence of putative G-quadruplex forming sequences in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and analyse their association to transcription start sites...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710707/prescription-patterns-of-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-across-indications-and-factors-associated-with-their-increased-prescribing-in-atrial-fibrillation-between-2012-2015-a-study-from-the-norwegian-prescription-database
#7
Anna Maria Urbaniak, Bjørn Oddvar Strøm, Randi Krontveit, Kristin Helene Svanqvist
OBJECTIVE: We studied prescription patterns for non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in Norway between 2012 and 2015, and compared NOAC and warfarin patient characteristics such as age, gender and cardiovascular (CV) co-medications across reimbursed indications. Factors associated with NOAC prescribing in atrial fibrillation (AF) were also analysed. METHODS: All Norwegian patients (N = 156,124) who received at least one dispensed NOAC or warfarin prescription within the indications of AF, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT_PE) or prevention of venous thromboembolic events after a hip or knee surgery (VTE_surg) between 2012 and 2015 were included in the study...
July 14, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709481/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-a-daunting-challenge-to-the-current-end-tb-strategy-and-policy-recommendations
#8
REVIEW
Md Arifur Rahman, Atanu Sarkar
Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the most formidable challenges to the End TB Strategy that has targeted a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in cases by 2035. Globally, there were an estimated 55,100 new XDR-TB cases in 2015 in 117 countries. However, only one in 30 XDR-TB cases had been reported so far. Drug susceptibility test (DST) is the mainstay for diagnosing XDR-TB, but the lack of laboratory facilities in the resource-limited endemic countries limit its uses...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708847/attitudes-and-perceptions-towards-novel-objective-measures-of-arv-based-vaginal-ring-use-results-from-a-global-stakeholder-survey
#9
Randy M Stalter, Jenae Tharaldson, Derek H Owen, Eunice Okumu, Thomas Moench, Natasha Mack, Elizabeth E Tolley, Kathleen M MacQueen
Results of recent microbicide and pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trials have shown adherence to be a significant challenge with new HIV prevention technologies. As the vaginal ring containing dapivirine moves into two open label follow-on studies (HOPE/MTN-025 and DREAM) and other antiretroviral-based and multi-purpose prevention technology ring products advance through the development pipeline, there is a need for more accurate and reliable measures of adherence to microbicide ring products. We previously conducted a comprehensive landscape analysis to identify new technologies that could be applied to adherence measurement of vaginal rings containing antiretrovirals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702004/screening-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-of-photorhabdus-and-xenorhabdus-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes-from-mae-wong-national-park-thailand
#10
Paramaporn Muangpat, Temsiri Yooyangket, Chamaiporn Fukruksa, Manawat Suwannaroj, Thatcha Yimthin, Sutthirat Sitthisak, Narisara Chantratita, Apichat Vitta, Nicholas J Tobias, Helge B Bode, Aunchalee Thanwisai
Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. These bacteria produce several secondary metabolites including antimicrobial compounds. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify EPNs and their symbiotic bacteria from Mae Wong National Park, Thailand and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of symbiont extracts against drug resistant bacteria. A total of 550 soil samples from 110 sites were collected between August 2014 and July 2015...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697808/pyrazinamide-resistance-conferring-mutations-in-pnca-and-the-transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-tb-in-georgia
#11
Sarah Sengstake, Indra L Bergval, Anja R Schuitema, Jessica L de Beer, Jody Phelan, Rina de Zwaan, Taane G Clark, Dick van Soolingen, Richard M Anthony
BACKGROUND: The ongoing epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Georgia highlights the need for more effective control strategies. A new regimen to treat MDR-TB that includes pyrazinamide (PZA) is currently being evaluated and PZA resistance status will largely influence the success of current and future treatment strategies. PZA susceptibility testing was not routinely performed at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) in Tbilisi between 2010 and September 2015. We here provide a first insight into the prevalence of PZA resistant TB in this region...
July 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692400/developing-syndromic-surveillance-to-monitor-and-respond-to-adverse-health-events-related-to-psychoactive-substance-use-methods-and-applications
#12
Michelle L Nolan, Hillary V Kunins, Ramona Lall, Denise Paone
INTRODUCTION: Recent increases in drug overdose deaths, both in New York City and nationally, highlight the need for timely data on psychoactive drug-related morbidity. We developed drug syndrome definitions for syndromic surveillance to monitor drug-related emergency department (ED) visits in real time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 2012 archived syndromic surveillance data from New York City hospitals to develop definitions for psychoactive drug-related syndromes...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692390/use-of-emergency-department-data-to-monitor-and-respond-to-an-increase-in-opioid-overdoses-in-new-hampshire-2011-2015
#13
Elizabeth R Daly, Kenneth Dufault, David J Swenson, Paul Lakevicius, Erin Metcalf, Benjamin P Chan
OBJECTIVES: Opioid-related overdoses and deaths in New Hampshire have increased substantially in recent years, similar to increases observed across the United States. We queried emergency department (ED) data in New Hampshire to monitor opioid-related ED encounters as part of the public health response to this health problem. METHODS: We obtained data on opioid-related ED encounters for the period January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015, from New Hampshire's syndromic surveillance ED data system by querying for (1) chief complaint text related to the words "fentanyl," "heroin," "opiate," and "opioid" and (2) opioid-related International Classification of Diseases ( ICD) codes...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690377/dengue-symptoms-significance-in-anti-dengue-drug-development-road-less-travelled
#14
Anubrata Paul, Arpana Vibhuti
Dengue outbreak has affected rural areas of Delhi-NCR, Haryana widely but it lacks in surveillance. High cases of dengue symptoms were reported in these regions whereas dengue symptoms have been a neglected issue in the anti-dengue drug development. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the status of the dengue infection, a rural issue of Delhi-NCR, Haryana and to identify the significance of dengue symptoms in anti-dengue drug development. The study was conducted when there is high chance of dengue infection i...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689867/ex-vivo-activity-of-proveblue-a-methylene-blue-against-field-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-dakar-senegal-from-2013-2015
#15
Bécaye Fall, Marylin Madamet, Silman Diawara, Sébastien Briolant, Khalifa Ababacar Wade, Gora Lo, Aminata Nakoulima, Mansour Fall, Raymond Bercion, Mame Bou Kounta, Rémi Amalvict, Nicolas Benoit, Mamadou Wague Gueye, Bakary Diatta, Boubacar Wade, Bruno Pradines
Resistance to most antimalarial drugs has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Accordingly, new therapies to use with artemisinin-based combination therapy (triple ACT) are urgently needed. Proveblue, a methylene blue preparation, was found to exhibit antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strains in vitro. Proveblue has synergistic effects when used in combination with dihydroartemisinin, and has been shown to significantly reduce or prevent cerebral malaria in mice. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the in vitro baseline susceptibility of clinical field isolates to Proveblue, compare its activity with that of other standard antimalarial drugs and define the patterns of cross-susceptibility between Proveblue and conventional antimalarial drugs...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689108/multi-objective-feature-selection-for-warfarin-dose-prediction
#16
Mohammad Karim Sohrabi, Alireza Tajik
With increasing the application of decision support systems in various fields, using such systems in different aspects of medical science has been growing. Drug's dose prediction is one of the most important issues which can be improved using decision support systems. In this paper, a new multi-objective feature approach has been proposed to support warfarin dose prediction decision. Warfarin is an anticoagulant normally used in the prevention of the formation of clots. This research was conducted on 553 patients during 2013-2015 who were candidates for using warfarin and their INR was in the target range...
June 28, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684143/what-s-new-in-clinical-obstetric-anesthesia-in-2015
#17
REVIEW
P E Hess
Each calendar year the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology invites an individual to conduct a review of the medical literature, identifying clinically relevant publications of interest to the obstetric anesthesia provider. This report of that effort covers the publications from 2015 and includes the categories of anesthesia and analgesia, complications of neuraxial procedures, and the effects of anesthesia on the fetus. Neuraxial procedures represent the foundation of obstetric anesthesia; advances in anesthesia and analgesia include novel modes of administration, and refinements in care of the medically complex patient...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677575/from-class-waivers-to-precision-medicine-in-paediatric-oncology
#18
REVIEW
Andrew D J Pearson, Stefan M Pfister, Andre Baruchel, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Michela Casanova, Louis Chesler, François Doz, Angelika Eggert, Birgit Geoerger, David T W Jones, Pamela R Kearns, Jan J Molenaar, Bruce Morland, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Johannes H Schulte, Josef Vormoor, Lynley V Marshall, C Michel Zwaan, Gilles Vassal
New drugs are crucially needed for children with cancer. The European Paediatric Regulation facilitates paediatric class waivers for drugs developed for diseases only occurring in adults. In this Review, we retrospectively searched oncology drugs that were class waivered between June, 2012, and June, 2015. 147 oncology class waivers were confirmed for 89 drugs. Mechanisms of action were then assessed as potential paediatric therapeutic targets by both a literature search and an expert review. 48 (54%) of the 89 class-waivered drugs had a mechanisms of action warranting paediatric development...
July 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675268/-news-about-pericardial-diseases-in-2016
#19
Baris Karpuz, Valèrie Duchatelle, Maxime Tapponnier, Raluca Alexe, Christophe Sierro, Grègoire Girod
The European Society of Cardiology published in 2015 the new Guidelines on the management of pericardial diseases. Based on experts' opinions and recent clinical studies of respectable size, the new guidelines thoroughly revisit the criteria for hospitalization and precisely define severe cases. Another highlight regards medication. From now, first-line medical therapy should include the association of colchicine to the traditional non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin. The bi-therapy is recommended as soon as the first episode of pericarditis, for duration of 3 months...
September 7, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674996/characteristics-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-a-vemurafenib-early-post-marketing-phase-vigilance-study-in-japan
#20
H Uhara, Y Kiyohara, A Tsuda, M Takata, N Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Post-approval research or monitoring is important to determine real-world safety of new products; however, evidence is scant for vemurafenib in Japanese patients. In Japan, a unique system is officially obligated to investigate post-approval safety. Here we report the first adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from vemurafenib-treated Japanese patients with metastatic melanoma. Data were collected in an early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV) study. METHODS: ADRs were events for which a causal relationship with vemurafenib could not be ruled out or was unknown...
July 3, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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