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DTI and encephalopathy

Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, James B Wade, Melanie B White, HoChong S Gilles, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Edith A Gavis, Andrew Fagan, Felicia Tinsley, Dinesh Ganapathy, Leroy R Thacker, Richard K Sterling, R Todd Stravitz, Puneet Puri, Arun J Sanyal, Muhammad S Siddiqui, Scott Matherly, Velimir Luketic, Joel Steinberg, F Gerard Moeller, Jasmohan S Bajaj
The functional basis of cognitive and quality of life changes after liver transplant is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the neurometabolic and functional brain changes as modulators of cognition and quality of life after transplant in patients with cirrhosis who were with/without pretransplant cognitive impairment and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Patients with cirrhosis underwent detailed cognitive and quality of life assessment at enrollment and 6 months after transplant. A subset underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI], diffusion tensor imaging [DTI], and magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS]) before and after transplant...
October 2016: Liver Transplantation
Fuyong Zhang, Chunli Liu, Linlin Qian, Haifeng Hou, Zhengyi Guo
BACKGROUND This investigation aimed to evaluate changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter injury (WMI) in preterm neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) using diffusion tension imaging (DTI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-eight neonates less than 37 weeks of gestation with leukoencephalopathy (as observation group) and 38 full-term infants with no leukoencephalopathy (as control group) were selected from the Neonatal Care Center in Taian Central Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Christian Herweh, Klaus Hess, Uta Meyding-Lamadé, Andreas J Bartsch, Christoph Stippich, Joachim Jost, Birgit Friedmann-Bette, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Stefan Hähnel
INTRODUCTION: Professional boxing can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a variant of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Its occurrence in amateur boxers is a matter of debate since amateur boxing is considered to be less harmful due to more strict regulations. However, several studies using different methodological approaches have revealed subtle signs of TBI even in amateurs. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to microscopic white matter changes and has been proven useful in TBI when routine MR imaging often is unrevealing...
September 2016: Neuroradiology
Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Naga S Betrapally, Phillip B Hylemon, Melanie B White, Patrick M Gillevet, Ariel B Unser, Andrew Fagan, Kalyani Daita, Douglas M Heuman, Huiping Zhou, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Cirrhosis is associated with brain dysfunction known as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The mechanisms behind HE are unclear although hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation through gut dysbiosis have been proposed. We aimed to define the individual contribution of specific gut bacterial taxa towards astrocytic and neuronal changes in brain function using multi-modal MRI in patients with cirrhosis. 187 subjects (40 controls, 147 cirrhotic; 87 with HE) underwent systemic inflammatory assessment, cognitive testing, stool microbiota analysis and brain MRI analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chia-Hao Su, Ching-Yi Tsai, Alice Y W Chang, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
Baroreflex is the physiological mechanism for the maintenance of blood pressure and heart rate. Impairment of baroreflex is not a disease per se. However, depending on severity, the eventuality of baroreflex dysfunction varies from inconvenience in daily existence to curtailment of mobility to death. Despite universal acceptance, neuronal traffic within the contemporary neural circuits during the execution of baroreflex has never been visualized. By enhancing signal detection and fine-tuning the scanning parameters, we have successfully implemented tractographic analysis of the medulla oblongata in mice that allowed for visualization of connectivity between key brain stem nuclei in the baroreflex circuits...
2016: Theranostics
Santosh K Yadav, Amit Goel, Vivek A Saraswat, Michael A Thomas, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Mohammad Haris, Rakesh K Gupta
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and is characterized by deficits in neurocognitive performance without any clinical symptoms of HE. In the current study, we aim to evaluate and compare the neurocognitive, biochemical and brain MR imaging changes between patients with cirrhotic-MHE and extra-hepatic-portal-vein-obstruction (EHPVO) MHE. METHODS: 33 cirrhotic and 14 EHPVO patients were diagnosed with MHE and were included in the analysis along with 24 normal healthy volunteers...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Michael A Galgano, Robert Cantu, Lawrence S Chin
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a devastating neuropsychological condition afflicting a small percentage of athletes partaking in high-impact sports. The onset of symptoms lags years behind the inciting events. Repetitive minor head injuries are felt to be the main etiology behind CTE. Routine radiographic imaging generally is unremarkable in cases of CTE. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are advanced MRI-based sequences that have shown promise in detecting early radiographic findings that may be reflective of CTE...
2016: Curēus
Jie Gao, Xianjun Li, Yanyan Li, Lingxia Zeng, Chao Jin, Qinli Sun, Duan Xu, Bolang Yu, Jian Yang
In conventional neonatal MRI, the T2 hyperintensity (T2h) in cerebral white matter (WM) at term-equivalent age due to immaturity or impairment is still difficult to identify. To clarify such issue, this study used the metrics derived from a two-compartment WM model of diffusional kurtosis imaging (WM-DKI), including intra-axonal, extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities (Da, De,// and De,⊥), to compare WM differences between the simple T2h and normal control for both preterm and full-term neonates, and between simple T2h and complex T2h with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
2016: Scientific Reports
J Natsume, C Ogawa, T Fukasawa, H Yamamoto, N Ishihara, Y Sakaguchi, Y Ito, T Takeuchi, Y Azuma, N Ando, T Kubota, T Tsuji, H Kawai, S Naganawa, H Kidokoro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: West syndrome is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by epileptic spasms, a specific pattern on electroencephalography of hypsarrhythmia, and developmental regression. Our aim was to assess white matter abnormalities in West syndrome of unknown etiology. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging reveals white matter abnormalities, especially in patients with poor seizure and developmental outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 23 patients with new-onset West syndrome of unknown etiology...
April 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Elisabeth A Wilde, Jill V Hunter, Xiaoqi Li, Cristian Amador, Gerri Hanten, Mary R Newsome, Trevor C Wu, Stephen R McCauley, Gregory S Vogt, Zili David Chu, Brian Biekman, Harvey S Levin
We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the effects of boxing on brain structure and cognition in 10 boxers (8 retired, 2 active; mean age = 45.7 years; standard deviation [SD] = 9.71) and 9 participants (mean age = 43.44; SD = 9.11) in noncombative sports. Evans Index (maximum width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles/maximal width of the internal diameter of the skull) was significantly larger in the boxers (F = 4.52; p = 0...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
An N Massaro, Iordanis Evangelou, Judy Brown, Ali Fatemi, Gilbert Vezina, Robert McCarter, Penny Glass, Catherine Limperopoulos
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment including cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for acute assessment of cerebral injury in HIE. Limited data are available regarding the significance of clinically manifested neurobehavioral impairments in the neonatal period. AIM: To evaluate brain structure-function relationships in newborns with HIE using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)...
October 2015: Early Human Development
Pei-Chin Chen, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Kun-Hsien Chou, Re-Wen Wu, Nai-Wen Tsai, Ching-Po Lin, Shau-Hsuan Li, Yi-Wen Chen, Yu-Fan Cheng, Wei-Che Lin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between microstructural damage in the corpus callosum (CC) and the cognitive performance of patients with or without delayed encephalopathy (DE) after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in the chronic stage. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed more than 6 months after CO intoxication for 10 patients with DE and 10 patients without DE recruited from out-patient clinics, as well as for 15 normal controls (NCs)...
August 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Eva Román, Ramón Fernández de Bobadilla, Patricia Pires-Encuentra, Jordi Díaz-Manera, Fidel Núñez, Saül Martinez-Horta, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaume Kulisevsky, Juan Cordoba, Carlos Guarner, Germán Soriano
BACKGROUND & AIM: Falls are frequent in patients with cirrhosis but underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to determine the neuropsychological, neurological and brain alterations using magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) in cirrhotic patients with falls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with cirrhosis and falls in the previous year were compared to 9 cirrhotic patients without falls. A comprehensive neuropsychological and neurological evaluation of variables that may predispose to falls included: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES), Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale, specific tests to explore various cognitive domains, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale to evaluate parkinsonism, scales for ataxia and muscular strength, and electroneurography...
2015: PloS One
Michael W Lenihan, Barry D Jordan
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder attributed to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. The diagnosis in a living individual can be challenging and can be made definitively only at autopsy. The symptoms are often nonspecific and overlap with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Higher exposure to repetitive head trauma increases the risk of CTE. Genetic risk factors such as presence of an apolipoprotein E ε4 allele may be important...
May 2015: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Guifang Wang, Chuanchen Zhang, Wei Chen, Xiafeng Yang, Yihua Sun, Shuhua Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in detecting brain white matter (WM) damage of patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) and evaluating their cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: Thirteen patients with DEACMP and thirteen age- and sex-matched volunteers underwent DTI using 1.5T MR scanner. FA and ADC values of 16 WM regions of interests (ROIs) were measured on DTI by two experienced radiologists independently with double blind methods, cognitive functions were evaluated by another experienced neurologist blinded to patient's medical history using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA)...
October 2014: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Chellamani Harini, Rohit R Das, Sanjay P Prabhu, Kanwaljit Singh, Amit Haldar, Masanori Takeoka, Ann M Bergin, Tobias Loddenkemper, Sanjeev V Kothare
PURPOSE: T2-hyperintense signal changes in corpus callosum (CC) have been described in epilepsy and encephalitis/encephalopathy. Little is known about their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical presentation and evolution of CC lesions and relationship to seizures. METHODS: We identified 12 children among 29,634 patients from Radiology Database. We evaluated following characteristics: seizures and accompanying medical history, antiepileptic drug usage, presenting symptoms, and radiological evolution of lesions...
September 2015: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
H-J Chen, R Chen, M Yang, G-J Teng, E H Herskovits
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter abnormalities have been demonstrated to play an important role in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether WM diffusion tensor imaging can be used to identify minimal hepatic encephalopathy among patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 65 patients with cirrhosis with covert hepatic encephalopathy (29 with minimal hepatic encephalopathy and 36 without hepatic encephalopathy)...
March 2015: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
An N Massaro, Iordanis Evangelou, Ali Fatemi, Gilbert Vezina, Robert Mccarter, Penny Glass, Catherine Limperopoulos
AIM: To determine whether corpus callosum (CC) and corticospinal tract (CST) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures relate to developmental outcome in encephalopathic newborn infants after therapeutic hypothermia. METHOD: Encephalopathic newborn infants enrolled in a longitudinal study underwent DTI after hypothermia. Parametric maps were generated for fractional anisotropy, mean, radial, and axial diffusivity. CC and CST were segmented by DTI-based tractography...
May 2015: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Natalie M Zahr
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), by enabling rigorous in vivo study of the longitudinal, dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse, has enabled characterization of the effects of chronic alcoholism on the brain in the human condition. Importantly, MRI has distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent versus those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathologic studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI has shown a specific vulnerability of brain white matter to chronic alcohol exposure by demonstrating white-matter volume deficits, yet not leaving selective gray-matter structures unscathed...
2014: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Theresa Götz, Albrecht Günther, Otto W Witte, Frank M Brunkhorst, Gundula Seidel, Farsin Hamzei
BACKGROUND: The number of patients with cognitive impairment after sepsis or septic shock is high. However, the underlying neurophysiological basis of sepsis induced cognitive impairment is not fully understood. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, controlled observational study. We are in the process of recruiting 25 survivors of severe sepsis or septic shock who will be investigated with functional MRI (fMRI), T1-weighted MRI und Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) as well as Magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
2014: BMC Neurology
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