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DTI and encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988573/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-brain-neuroimaging-results-in-humans-and-animal-models
#1
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864243/diagnostic-value-of-conventional-mri-combined-with-dti-for-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#2
Ruifang Yan, Dongming Han, Jipeng Ren, Zhansheng Zhai, Fengmei Zhou, Jingliang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NHB) is a common clinical disease and can cause bilirubin encephalopathy in severe cases. It is now widely accepted that increased signal intensity in the globus pallidus on MR T1WI is an important sign of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. And brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has not been used extensively to study hyperbilirubinemia (HB). So we compared newborns with different hyperbilirubinemia of different severities and healthy newborns in order to determine the relationships among MRI signal intensities, serum bilirubin levels, and the molecular changes in brain water diffusion in hyperbilirubinemia...
August 3, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780827/-imaging-diagnosis-of-95-cases-of-moderate-and-severe-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#3
N N Hao, C Tian, K X Lian, T Han, S Jin
Objective: To explore the difference of radiological imaging features of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DECMP) and acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) , and the correlation between the imaging findings and clinical prognosis of the disease. Methods: The correlation between imaging findings and clinical manifestations and prognosis of 95 patients with moderate and severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning were retrospectively analyzed. In the above 95 cases, there were 62 cases of ACMP and 33 cases of DEACMP...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#4
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079146/nitrosative-stress-induced-disruption-of-baroreflex-neural-circuits-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-dti-study
#5
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887978/mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-reversible-splenial-lesion-mers-due-to-dengue-virus
#6
Choong Yi Fong, Mi Mi Ko Khine, Alan Basil Peter, Wei Kang Lim, Faizatul Izza Rozalli, Kartini Rahmat
A 14-year-old girl presented with encephalopathy, delirium and ophthalmoplegia following a 3day history of high-grade fever. Brain MRI on day 6 of illness showed diffusion restricted ovoid lesion in the splenium of corpus callosum. Dengue virus encephalitis was diagnosed with positive PCR for dengue virus type-2 in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. She made a complete recovery from day 10 of illness. Repeat brain MRI on day 12 of illness showed resolution of the splenial lesion. Serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) showed normal fractional anisotropy values on resolution of splenial lesion indicating that MERS was likely due to transient interstitial oedema with preservation of white matter tracts...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815224/minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-magnetic-resonance-based-diagnosis
#7
Anshu Srivastava, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Rohan Malik, Amrita Mathias, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Sunil Jain, Chandra Mani Pandey, Surender Kumar Yachha, Ram Kishor Singh Rathore
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data on minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in children is scarce. We aimed to study MHE in children with chronic liver disease (CLD) and to validate non-invasive objective tests which can assist in its diagnosis. METHODS: We evaluated 67 children with CLD (38 boys; age 13 [7-18] years) and 37 healthy children to determine the prevalence of MHE. We also assessed the correlation of MHE with changes in brain metabolites by magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived metrics, blood ammonia and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL6], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α])...
March 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339647/liver-transplantation-significantly-improves-global-functioning-and-cerebral-processing
#8
Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, James B Wade, Melanie B White, HoChong S Gilles, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Edith A Gavis, Andrew Fagan, Felicia Tinsley, Dinesh Ganapathy, Leroy R Thacker, Richard K Sterling, R Todd Stravitz, Puneet Puri, Arun J Sanyal, Muhammad S Siddiqui, Scott Matherly, Velimir Luketic, Joel Steinberg, F Gerard Moeller, Jasmohan S Bajaj
The functional basis of cognitive and quality of life changes after liver transplant is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the neurometabolic and functional brain changes as modulators of cognition and quality of life after transplant in patients with cirrhosis who were with/without pretransplant cognitive impairment and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Patients with cirrhosis underwent detailed cognitive and quality of life assessment at enrollment and 6 months after transplant. A subset underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI], diffusion tensor imaging [DTI], and magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS]) before and after transplant...
October 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338673/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-white-matter-injury-caused-by-prematurity-induced-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#9
Fuyong Zhang, Chunli Liu, Linlin Qian, Haifeng Hou, Zhengyi Guo
BACKGROUND This investigation aimed to evaluate changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter injury (WMI) in preterm neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) using diffusion tension imaging (DTI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-eight neonates less than 37 weeks of gestation with leukoencephalopathy (as observation group) and 38 full-term infants with no leukoencephalopathy (as control group) were selected from the Neonatal Care Center in Taian Central Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013...
June 24, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230917/reduced-white-matter-integrity-in-amateur-boxers
#10
Christian Herweh, Klaus Hess, Uta Meyding-Lamadé, Andreas J Bartsch, Christoph Stippich, Joachim Jost, Birgit Friedmann-Bette, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Stefan Hähnel
INTRODUCTION: Professional boxing can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a variant of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Its occurrence in amateur boxers is a matter of debate since amateur boxing is considered to be less harmful due to more strict regulations. However, several studies using different methodological approaches have revealed subtle signs of TBI even in amateurs. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to microscopic white matter changes and has been proven useful in TBI when routine MR imaging often is unrevealing...
September 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225869/impaired-gut-liver-brain-axis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#11
Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Naga S Betrapally, Phillip B Hylemon, Melanie B White, Patrick M Gillevet, Ariel B Unser, Andrew Fagan, Kalyani Daita, Douglas M Heuman, Huiping Zhou, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Cirrhosis is associated with brain dysfunction known as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The mechanisms behind HE are unclear although hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation through gut dysbiosis have been proposed. We aimed to define the individual contribution of specific gut bacterial taxa towards astrocytic and neuronal changes in brain function using multi-modal MRI in patients with cirrhosis. 187 subjects (40 controls, 147 cirrhotic; 87 with HE) underwent systemic inflammatory assessment, cognitive testing, stool microbiota analysis and brain MRI analysis...
May 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162554/mri-dti-of-the-brain-stem-reveals-reversible-and-irreversible-disruption-of-the-baroreflex-neural-circuits-clinical-implications
#12
Chia-Hao Su, Ching-Yi Tsai, Alice Y W Chang, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
Baroreflex is the physiological mechanism for the maintenance of blood pressure and heart rate. Impairment of baroreflex is not a disease per se. However, depending on severity, the eventuality of baroreflex dysfunction varies from inconvenience in daily existence to curtailment of mobility to death. Despite universal acceptance, neuronal traffic within the contemporary neural circuits during the execution of baroreflex has never been visualized. By enhancing signal detection and fine-tuning the scanning parameters, we have successfully implemented tractographic analysis of the medulla oblongata in mice that allowed for visualization of connectivity between key brain stem nuclei in the baroreflex circuits...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119420/evaluation-of-cognitivity-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-induced-by-cirrhosis-and-extrahepatic-portal-vein-obstruction
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Santosh K Yadav, Amit Goel, Vivek A Saraswat, Michael A Thomas, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Mohammad Haris, Rakesh K Gupta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and is characterized by deficits in neurocognitive performance without any clinical symptoms of HE. In the current study, we aim to evaluate and compare the neurocognitive, biochemical, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging changes between patients with cirrhotic MHE and extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) MHE. METHODS: Thirty-three cirrhotic and 14 EHPVO patients were diagnosed with MHE and were included in the analysis along with 24 normal healthy volunteers...
December 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088064/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-the-impact-on-athletes
#14
REVIEW
Michael A Galgano, Robert Cantu, Lawrence S Chin
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a devastating neuropsychological condition afflicting a small percentage of athletes partaking in high-impact sports. The onset of symptoms lags years behind the inciting events. Repetitive minor head injuries are felt to be the main etiology behind CTE. Routine radiographic imaging generally is unremarkable in cases of CTE. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are advanced MRI-based sequences that have shown promise in detecting early radiographic findings that may be reflective of CTE...
2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075248/differentiating-t2-hyperintensity-in-neonatal-white-matter-by-two-compartment-model-of-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging
#15
Jie Gao, Xianjun Li, Yanyan Li, Lingxia Zeng, Chao Jin, Qinli Sun, Duan Xu, Bolang Yu, Jian Yang
In conventional neonatal MRI, the T2 hyperintensity (T2h) in cerebral white matter (WM) at term-equivalent age due to immaturity or impairment is still difficult to identify. To clarify such issue, this study used the metrics derived from a two-compartment WM model of diffusional kurtosis imaging (WM-DKI), including intra-axonal, extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities (Da, De,// and De,⊥), to compare WM differences between the simple T2h and normal control for both preterm and full-term neonates, and between simple T2h and complex T2h with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
April 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26585267/white-matter-abnormality-correlates-with-developmental-and-seizure-outcomes-in-west-syndrome-of-unknown-etiology
#16
J Natsume, C Ogawa, T Fukasawa, H Yamamoto, N Ishihara, Y Sakaguchi, Y Ito, T Takeuchi, Y Azuma, N Ando, T Kubota, T Tsuji, H Kawai, S Naganawa, H Kidokoro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: West syndrome is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by epileptic spasms, a specific pattern on electroencephalography of hypsarrhythmia, and developmental regression. Our aim was to assess white matter abnormalities in West syndrome of unknown etiology. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging reveals white matter abnormalities, especially in patients with poor seizure and developmental outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 23 patients with new-onset West syndrome of unknown etiology...
April 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26414735/chronic-effects-of-boxing-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-cognitive-findings
#17
Elisabeth A Wilde, Jill V Hunter, Xiaoqi Li, Cristian Amador, Gerri Hanten, Mary R Newsome, Trevor C Wu, Stephen R McCauley, Gregory S Vogt, Zili David Chu, Brian Biekman, Harvey S Levin
We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the effects of boxing on brain structure and cognition in 10 boxers (8 retired, 2 active; mean age = 45.7 years; standard deviation [SD] = 9.71) and 9 participants (mean age = 43.44; SD = 9.11) in noncombative sports. Evans Index (maximum width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles/maximal width of the internal diameter of the skull) was significantly larger in the boxers (F = 4.52; p = 0...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246138/neonatal-neurobehavior-after-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#18
An N Massaro, Iordanis Evangelou, Judy Brown, Ali Fatemi, Gilbert Vezina, Robert McCarter, Penny Glass, Catherine Limperopoulos
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment including cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for acute assessment of cerebral injury in HIE. Limited data are available regarding the significance of clinically manifested neurobehavioral impairments in the neonatal period. AIM: To evaluate brain structure-function relationships in newborns with HIE using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)...
October 2015: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26033717/callosal-damage-and-cognitive-deficits-in-chronic-carbon-monoxide-intoxication-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#19
Pei-Chin Chen, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Kun-Hsien Chou, Re-Wen Wu, Nai-Wen Tsai, Ching-Po Lin, Shau-Hsuan Li, Yi-Wen Chen, Yu-Fan Cheng, Wei-Che Lin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between microstructural damage in the corpus callosum (CC) and the cognitive performance of patients with or without delayed encephalopathy (DE) after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in the chronic stage. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed more than 6 months after CO intoxication for 10 patients with DE and 10 patients without DE recruited from out-patient clinics, as well as for 15 normal controls (NCs)...
August 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25793766/alterations-in-cerebral-white-matter-and-neuropsychology-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-falls
#20
Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Eva Román, Ramón Fernández de Bobadilla, Patricia Pires-Encuentra, Jordi Díaz-Manera, Fidel Núñez, Saül Martinez-Horta, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaume Kulisevsky, Juan Cordoba, Carlos Guarner, Germán Soriano
BACKGROUND & AIM: Falls are frequent in patients with cirrhosis but underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to determine the neuropsychological, neurological and brain alterations using magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) in cirrhotic patients with falls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with cirrhosis and falls in the previous year were compared to 9 cirrhotic patients without falls. A comprehensive neuropsychological and neurological evaluation of variables that may predispose to falls included: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES), Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale, specific tests to explore various cognitive domains, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale to evaluate parkinsonism, scales for ataxia and muscular strength, and electroneurography...
2015: PloS One
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