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Cervical cancer and HPV vaccines

S M Garland, P Pitisuttithum, H Y S Ngan, C-H Cho, C-Y Lee, C-A Chen, Y C Yang, T-Y Chu, N-F Twu, R Samakoses, Y Takeuchi, T H Cheung, S C Kim, L-M Huang, B-G Kim, Y-T Kim, K-H Kim, Y-S Song, S Lalwani, J-H Kang, M Sakamoto, H-S Ryu, N Bhatla, H Yoshikawa, M C Ellison, S R Han, E Moeller, S Murata, M Ritter, M Sawata, C Shields, A Walia, G Perez, A Luxembourg
Background: A 9-valent human papillomavirus-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (9vHPV) vaccine extends coverage to 5 next most common oncogenic types (31/33/45/52/58) in cervical cancer versus quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. We describe efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety in Asian participants (India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand) from 2 international studies: a randomized, double-blinded, qHPV vaccine-controlled efficacy study (young women aged 16-26 years; NCT00543543; Study 001); and an immunogenicity study (girls and boys aged 9-15 years; NCT00943722; Study 002)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Michelle Wyndham-West, Nancy Durand, Aimee Santoro
Background This research fuses the experiences of a precancer diagnosis with the decision-making surrounding a vaccine that can protect against human papillomavirus strains that women may not have been exposed to. The interviewee cohort is of note as half the women were in their 30s and 40s and 75% were over the age of 26. These groupings are often overlooked in media discourses and narrative research surrounding human papillomavirus and the human papillomavirus vaccine. Purpose Womens' diagnoses and treatment experiences, including colposcopies, biopsies, and Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedures, are chronicled to highlight a liminal, precancerous state-one in which they are not deemed healthy, but nor have they been diagnosed with cancer...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
Carlos K H Wong, Kenneth K C Man, Patrick Ip, Mike Kwan, Sarah M McGhee
OBJECTIVES: To determine the preference of mothers in Hong Kong and their willingness to pay (WTP) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their daughters. METHOD: A discrete choice experiment survey with a two-alternative study design was developed. Data were collected from pediatric specialist outpatient clinics from 482 mothers with daughters aged between 8 and 17 years. Preferences of the four attributes of HPV vaccines (protection against cervical cancer, protection duration, side effects, and out-of-pocket costs) were evaluated...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Hillary Mabeya, Sonia Menon, Steven Weyers, Violet Naanyu, Emily Mwaliko, Elijah Kirop, Omenge Orango, Heleen Vermandere, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: All women are potentially at risk of developing cervical cancer at some point in their life, yet it is avoidable cause of death among women in Sub- Saharan Africa with a world incidence of 530,000 every year. It is the 4th commonest cancer affecting women worldwide with over 260,000 deaths reported in 2012. Low resource settings account for over 75% of the global cervical cancer burden. Uptake of HPV vaccination is limited in the developing world. WHO recommended that 2 doses of HPV vaccine could be given to young girls, based on studies in developed countries...
May 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
Karly S Louie, Jama Dalel, Caroline Reuter, Sara L Bissett, Michelle Kleeman, Lesley Ashdown-Barr, Rawinder Banwait, Anna Godi, Peter Sasieni, Simon Beddows
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination elicits high-titer genotype-specific antibody responses that are associated with a reduced risk of cervical disease caused by vaccine-incorporated genotypes. Our objective was to evaluate dried blood spots (DBSs) and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) as alternative samples to serum to confirm HPV vaccine antibody status. A study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of detecting HPV16 and HPV18 antibodies in OMT, DBSs, and sera among women who self-reported being unvaccinated or fully vaccinated with the HPV vaccine...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Marc Arbyn, Lan Xu, Cindy Simoens, Pierre Pl Martin-Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) types is causally linked with the development of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the harms and protection of prophylactic human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccines against cervical precancer and HPV16/18 infection in adolescent girls and women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase (June 2017) for reports on effects from trials...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chris O Ifediora, Emmanuel C Azuike
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the level of awareness and attitudes towards cervical cancer among secondary school students in Nigeria. METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of 432 female senior secondary school students in south-eastern Nigeria. RESULTS: 321 (74.3%) responses were valid. 42.7% had heard of cervical cancer, 32.8% of screening, 23.2% of Pap smears, and 22.0% of HPV/HPV vaccinations. No widely available reliable source of information exists...
May 7, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Suzanne M Garland, Alyssa M Cornall, Julia M L Brotherton, John D Wark, Michael J Malloy, Sepehr N Tabrizi
OBJECTIVES: The VACCINE [Vaccine Against Cervical Cancer Impact and Effectiveness] study evaluated the prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) amongst young women of vaccine-eligible age. METHODS: Between October 2011 - June 2015, women aged 18-25 years from Victoria, Australia, were recruited through targeted advertising on the social networking website Facebook. Participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected vaginal swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping (Linear Array HPV genotyping assay)...
April 30, 2018: Vaccine
Elena Argyri, Elpida Tsimplaki, Dimitrios Papatheodorou, Dimitra Daskalopoulou, Efstathia Panotopoulou
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study gives an insight into recent trends for Human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific infection and its fluctuation over the years 2011-2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,417 Caucasian women between the age of 18 and 71 years underwent their annual gynaecologic examination at the Outpatient Gynaecological Clinic in the study period. RESULTS: Overall HPV prevalence was 43.9%, and high-risk HPV accounted for 31.3%. HPV16 was the most common high-risk type followed by HPV51 and HPV31...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Talía Malagón, Cassandra Laurie, Eduardo L Franco
Vaccine herd effects are the indirect protection that vaccinated persons provide to those who remain susceptible to infection, due to the reduced transmission of infections. Herd effects have been an important part of the discourse on how to best implement human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and prevent HPV-related diseases. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the theory of HPV vaccine herd effects derived from mathematical models, give an account of observed HPV vaccine herd effects worldwide, and examine the implications of vaccine herd effects for future cervical cancer screening efforts...
May 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Helba Bredell, Jacques J Smith, Johann F Görgens, Willem H van Zyl
Cervical cancer is ranked the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite two commercially available prophylactic vaccines, it is unaffordable for most women in developing countries. We compared the optimized expression of monomers of the unique HPV type 16 L1-L2 chimeric protein (SAF) in two yeast strains of Pichia pastoris, KM71 (Muts ) and GS115 (Mut+ ), with Hansenula polymorpha NCYC 495 to determine the preferred host in bioreactors. SAF was uniquely created by replacing the h4 helix of the HPV-16 capsid L1 protein with a L2 peptide...
April 30, 2018: Yeast
Borek Sehnal, Tomáš Podlešák, Emanuela Kmoníčková, Monika Nipčová, Daniel Driák, Jiří Sláma, Michal Zikán
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical, other genital, anal, head, and neck cancers. The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the head and neck cancer most commonly caused by HPV infection, is increasing. The prevalence of oral HPV infections is considerably lower than that of genital HPV infections; however, infection of both sites is strongly associated with sexual behavior. Although the natural histories of cervical and oral HPV infections do not markedly differ, the virus seems to rarely infect oral and genital sites simultaneously...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
G Orlando, S Bianchi, M M Fasolo, F Mazza, E R Frati, G Rizzardini, A Matteelli, N Zanchetta, A Amendola, E Tanzi
Introduction: Primary-prevention by prophylactic vaccination against HPV-related cancers and HPV-based screening programs are based on HPV-type distribution in immunocompetent individuals. HIV-infected women are at high risk of invasive HPV-disease sustained by a broader range of HPV-types and have higher multi-type infection rates than immunocompetent hosts. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of High Risk HPV (HR HPV) type distribution in 805 HIV+ women (HIW) compared with a control group of 1402 immunocompetent HIV- women (SPW) enrolled in the VALHIDATE study in order to define HPV type-specific distribution according to cytology...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masafumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination percentage among age-eligible girls in Japan is only in the single digits. This signals the need for effective vaccine communication tactics. This study aimed to examine the influence of statistical data and narrative HPV vaccination recommendation massages on recipients' vaccination intentions. Methods: This randomized controlled study covered 1,432 mothers who had daughters aged 12-16 years. It compared message persuasiveness among four conditions: statistical messages only; narrative messages of a patient who experienced cervical cancer, in addition to statistical messages; narrative messages of a mother whose daughter experienced cervical cancer, in addition to statistical messages; and a control...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Layne Dylla, Beau Abar, Anna-Lise Williamson, Tracy L Meiring, Linda-Gail Bekker, David H Adler
The global burden of disease caused by both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the greatest in the developing world, with the highest rates in sub-Saharan Africa. South African women not only have high rates of infection with HPV, but also have high rates of multiple concurrent infections with two or more HPV genotypes, and are among the world's most vulnerable to developing invasive cervical cancer. HIV co-infection increases these risks. Understanding clustering patterns of concurrent HPV infections in this population has important implications for HPV screening and will help define vaccination strategies in the future as vaccines continue to be developed to target more HPV genotypes...
October 2017: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research
Hongyun Wang, Xiaodong Cheng, Jing Ye, Xiuyun Xu, Ying Hong, Long Sui, Zhixue You, Xing Xie
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide more information for cancer prevention strategies by determining the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype prevalence in invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) and precancerous lesion patients in the Yangtze River Delta area in China. METHODS: This multi-centre descriptive cross-sectional study involves four university hospitals in the Jiangzhehu area. Women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN2, CIN3 or ICC who were diagnosed and treated in the four selected hospitals between February 2012 and April 2014 were eligible for recruitment...
April 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
Dwi Endarti, Satibi Satibi, Susi Ari Kristina, Muhaya Almira Farida, Yuni Rahmawanti, Tika Andriani
Objective: To determine knowledge, perception, and acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer among Indonesian women, particularly in Yogyakarta province. Methods: A convenience sample of 392 women consists of 192 young women, 100 mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, and 100 adult women in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia was participated in this study. A self-administered paper-based questionnaire was used to determine demographics characteristics of respondents, as well as their knowledge – perception – acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer...
April 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Mohsen Yaghoubi, Marzieh Nojomi, Atefeh Vaezi, Vida Erfani, Susan Mahmoudi, Khadijeh Ezoji, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Irtaza Chaudhri, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost effectiveness of introducing the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine into the national immunization program of Iran. METHODS: The CERVIVAC cost-effectiveness model was used to calculate incremental cost per averted disability-adjusted life-year by vaccination compared with no vaccination from both governmental and societal perspectives. Calculations were based on epidemiologic parameters from the Iran National Cancer Registry and other national data sources as well as from literature review...
April 23, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
R S Akram Husain, R Rajakeerthana, Anoop Sreevalsan, P Prema Jayaprasad, Shiek S S J Ahmed, V Ramakrishnan
Cervical cancer (CC) is a major fatal health problem in women with high mortality worldwide. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is considered as one of the causative factors for CC. The HPV prevalence and their genotype distribution among women population are essential to evaluate the deteriorating impact of HPV. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 212 participants to identify the prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in south India using PCR and DNA Sequencing. The results obtained from cross-sectional study were used to conduct a meta-analysis of the previous published studies on HPV prevalence and genotype distribution across six geographical regions (North, Northeast, East, Central, West, and South) of India...
April 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Juemin Xi, Junying Chen, Miaoling Xu, Hongying Yang, Songjiao Wen, Yue Pan, Xiaodan Wang, Chao Ye, Lijuan Qiu, Qiangming Sun
BACKGROUD: Variations in HPV LCR/E6/E7 have been shown to be associated with the viral persistence and cervical cancer development. So far, there are few reports about the polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in Southwest China. This study aims to characterize the gene polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in women of Southwest China, and assess the effects of variations on the immune recognition of viral E6 and E7 antigens. METHODS: Twelve LCR/E6/E7 of the HPV-58 isolates were amplified and sequenced...
April 25, 2018: Virology Journal
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