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Cervical cancer and HPV vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330110/sequence-based-approach-for-rapid-identification-of-cross-clade-cd8-t-cell-vaccine-candidates-from-all-high-risk-hpv-strains
#1
Krishna P Singh, Neeraj Verma, Bashir A Akhoon, Vishal Bhatt, Shishir K Gupta, Shailendra K Gupta, Suchi Smita
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the primary etiological agent responsible for cervical cancer in women. Although in total 16 high-risk HPV strains have been identified so far. Currently available commercial vaccines are designed by targeting mainly HPV16 and HPV18 viral strains as these are the most common strains associated with cervical cancer. Because of the high level of antigenic specificity of HPV capsid antigens, the currently available vaccines are not suitable to provide cross-protection from all other high-risk HPV strains...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325903/whole-genome-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-types-16-18-and-58-isolated-from-cervical-precancer-and-cancer-samples-in-chinese-women
#2
Ying Liu, Yaqi Pan, Weijiao Gao, Yang Ke, Zheming Lu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and 58 are ranked the top three high-risk HPV types for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the diversity of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV58 genetic variants by HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing. 295, 73, and 148 variations were observed in 51 HPV16, 7 HPV18, and 11 HPV58 genomes, respectively. HPV16 isolates were predominantly of the A variant lineage, and sublineage A4 (Asian) was the most common...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322641/association-between-parental-hpv-knowledge-and-intentions-to-have-their-daughters-vaccinated
#3
Lisa N Mansfield, Elijah O Onsomu, Elizabeth Merwin, Naomi M Hall, Alfreda Harper-Harrison
Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 causes 66% of cervical cancers (Dunne et al., 2014). Vaccination during adolescence can prevent HPV-associated cervical cancers, yet less than half of adolescent girls are vaccinated. This study examined the association between HPV knowledge and parental intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV. A retrospective, cross-sectional, national data set from the 2006-2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was used. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between intent to vaccinate and HPV knowledge...
December 1, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301611/gtl001-a-bivalent-therapeutic-vaccine-against-human-papillomavirus-16-and-18-induces-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-responses-leading-to-tumor-regression
#4
Michaël Esquerré, Myriam Bouillette-Marussig, Anne Goubier, Marie Momot, Christophe Gonindard, Hélène Keller, Astrid Navarro, Marie-Christine Bissery
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic vaccines are available for women and girls not yet infected with HPV, but women already infected with HPV need a treatment to prevent progression to high-grade cervical lesions and cancer. GTL001 is a bivalent therapeutic vaccine for eradicating HPV-infected cells that contains HPV16 E7 and HPV18 E7 both fused to detoxified adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis, which binds specifically to CD11b+ antigen-presenting cells. This study examined the ability of therapeutic vaccination with GTL001 adjuvanted with topical imiquimod cream to induce functional HPV16 E7- and HPV18 E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295268/the-impact-of-community-health-educators-on-uptake-of-cervical-and-breast-cancer-prevention-services-in-nigeria
#5
Chibuike O Chigbu, Azubuike K Onyebuchi, Tonia C Onyeka, Boniface U Odugu, Cyril C Dim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of trained community health educators on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination in rural communities in southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A prospective population-based intervention study, with a before-and-after design, involved four randomly selected communities in southeast Nigeria from February 2014 to February 2016. Before the intervention, baseline data were collected on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services...
March 12, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295222/traf3-cyld-mutations-identify-a-distinct-subset-of-human-papilloma-virus-associated-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Michael Hajek, Andrew Sewell, Susan Kaech, Barbara Burtness, Wendell G Yarbrough, Natalia Issaeva
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (HPV-positive) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the oropharynx has dramatically increased over the last decade and continues to rise. Newly diagnosed HPV-positive HNSCCs in the United States currently outnumber any other HPV-associated cancers, including cervical cancer. Despite introduction of the HPV vaccine, the epidemic of HPV-positive HNSCC is expected to continue for approximately 60 years. Compared with patients who have tobacco-associated HNSCC, those who have HPV-positive HNSCC have better overall survival and response to treatment...
March 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291647/health-professional-feedback-on-hpv-vaccination-roll-out-in-a-developing-country
#7
Collette Venturas, Kanayo Umeh
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Zambia has the highest cervical cancer incidence rates (58.4/100,000 per year) and mortality rates (36.2/100,000 per year). The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is considered a vital preventative measure against cervical cancer, particularly in sub-Saharan countries, such as Zambia. Past research suggests health professionals' experiences with HPV vaccination rollout can have practical implications for effective delivery. OBJECTIVE: To explore health professionals' perspectives on the HPV vaccination programme in Zambia...
March 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282648/geospatial-planning-and-the-resulting-economic-impact-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-mozambique
#8
Leila A Haidari, Shawn T Brown, Dagna Constenla, Eli Zenkov, Marie Ferguson, Gatien de Broucker, Sachiko Ozawa, Samantha Clark, Allison Portnoy, Bruce Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that the distance to the nearest immunization location can ultimately prevent someone from getting immunized. With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine throughout the world, a major question is whether the target populations can readily access immunization. METHODS: In anticipation of HPV vaccine introduction in Mozambique, a country with a 2015 population of 25,727,911, our team developed Strategic Integrated Geo-temporal Mapping Application) to determine the potential economic impact of HPV immunization...
April 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279264/introduction-of-molecular-hpv-testing-as-the-primary-technology-in-cervical-cancer-screening-acting-on-evidence-to-change-the-current-paradigm
#9
Joseph E Tota, James Bentley, Jennifer Blake, François Coutlée, Máire A Duggan, Alex Ferenczy, Eduardo L Franco, Michael Fung-Kee-Fung, Walter Gotlieb, Marie-Hélène Mayrand, Meg McLachlin, Joan Murphy, Gina Ogilvie, Sam Ratnam
Since being introduced in the 1940s, cervical cytology - despite its limitations - has had unequivocal success in reducing cervical cancer burden in many countries. However, we now know that infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and there is overwhelming evidence from large-scale clinical trials, feasibility studies and real-world experience that supports the introduction of molecular testing for HPV as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening (i.e., "HPV primary screening")...
May 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279261/cervical-cancer-prevention-in-upper-middle-income-countries
#10
Ana Cecilia Rodríguez, Jorge Salmerón
The manuscripts by Tota et al. and by Rossi et al., in this issue of Preventive Medicine provide ample evidence regarding the urgent need to switch to HPV based screening programs and how it will become even more imperative once HPV vaccinated girls reach the cervical cancer screening age. Worldwide primary prevention with vaccination is the final goal; but, in the coming 2 to 3 decades most of the prevention should be done through screening and treatment of precancerous lesions. Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in upper-middle income countries (UMICs)...
May 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279260/hpv-based-cervical-cancer-screening-facts-fiction-and-misperceptions
#11
Nicolas Wentzensen, Marc Arbyn
Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings...
May 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277144/molecular-tests-potentially-improving-hpv-screening-and-genotyping-for-cervical-cancer-prevention
#12
Ana Gradíssimo, Robert D Burk
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers can be averted by type-specific vaccination (primary prevention) and/or through detection and ablation of precancerous cervical lesions (secondary prevention). This review presents current challenges to cervical cancer screening programs, focusing on recent molecular advances in HPV testing and potential improvements on risk stratification. Areas covered: High-risk (HR)-HPV DNA detection has been progressively incorporated into cervix cancer prevention programs based on its increased sensitivity...
February 20, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276945/using-community-engagement-to-develop-a-web-based-intervention-for-latinos-about-the-hpv-vaccine
#13
Julie A Maertens, Andrea M Jimenez-Zambrano, Karen Albright, Amanda F Dempsey
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is pervasive among sexually active women and men, and Hispanic women are at particularly high risk as they have higher rates of invasive cervical cancer compared to other racial or ethnic groups in the United States. There is a need for interventions to increase HPV vaccination among this high-risk population. This study investigated how to modify a previously developed web-based intervention that provided individually tailored information about HPV to improve its use among the Latino population...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276149/is-extending-screening-intervals-safe-in-hpv-negative-women
#14
Henry Kitchener
Greater sensitivity which lowers cancer incidence (Rocco et al, Lancet 2014), extended screening intervals, and prophylactic vaccination provide the rationale for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to replace cytology as the primary test in cervical screening programmes both in the UK and internationally. Zorzi et al report in the BJOG, a timely cohort study from Italy of primary HPV cervical screening, concluding that following primary HPV screening, three years is too soon for a repeat screening round...
March 9, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272968/realistic-fear-of-cervical-cancer-risk-in-japan-depending-on-birth-year
#15
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Tomomi Egawa-Takata, Yusuke Tanaka, Ruriko Nakae, Akiko Morimoto, Yoshito Terai, Masahide Ohmichi, Tomoyuki Ichimura, Toshiyuki Sumi, Hiromi Murata, Hidetaka Okada, Hidekatsu Nakai, Masaki Mandai, Shinya Matsuzaki, Eiji Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Tadashi Kimura, Junko Saito, Yumiko Hori, Eiichi Morii, Tomio Nakayama, Yukio Suzuki, Yoko Motoki, Akiko Sukegawa, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Etsuko Miyagi, Manako Yamaguchi, Risa Kudoh, Sosuke Adachi, Masayuki Sekine, Takayuki Enomoto, Yorihiko Horikoshi, Tetsu Takagi, Kentaro Shimura
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the possible adverse events upon HPV vaccination was widely reported in the media. MHLW announced the suspension of aggressively encouraging HPV vaccination in 2013, and inoculation rate has sharply declined. The aim of the present study was estimation of future cervical cancer risk. METHODS: The latest data on vaccination rate at each age in Sakai City were first investigated. The rate of experiencing sexual intercourse at the age of 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and throughout lifetime is assumed to be 0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 15%, 25%, and 85% respectively...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267627/stop-codon-mutagenesis-for-homogenous-expression-of-human-papillomavirus-l1-protein-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Daning Wang, Fei Fan, Zhihai Li, Xinlin Liu, Shuo Song, Shuangping Wei, Maozhou He, Yahua Lin, Zhongyi Li, Minxi Wei, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely accepted to be the major causative pathogen of cervical cancer, warts, and other epithelial tumors. Virus infection and subsequent disease development can be prevented by vaccination with HPV vaccines derived from eukaryotic expression systems. Here, we report the soluble expression of the major capsid protein L1 of HPV31, a dominant carcinogenic HPV genotype, in Escherichia coli. HPV31 L1 protein and its elongated form (L1+) were observed in SDS-PAGE and CE-SDS analysis, generated by the native HPV31 L1 gene with a TAA stop codon...
March 3, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265177/-epidemiology-prevention-and-early-detection-of-cervical-cancer
#17
Nicolas Wentzensen
BACKGROUND: Persistent infections with human papillomaviruses are a necessary cause of cervical carcinomas. The development of HPV-based prevention tools, HPV vaccination and HPV testing, is leading to major changes in cervical cancer prevention programs worldwide. A decade after introduction of HPV vaccination in many countries reductions of HPV infections and cancer precursors have been observed in young women. The focus is now on the integration of new approaches for screening of increasingly vaccinated populations...
October 2016: Der Onkologe: Organ der Deutschen Krebsgesellschaft E.V
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263390/development-of-a-replication-deficient-adenoviral-vector-based-vaccine-candidate-for-the-interception-of-hpv16-and-hpv18-induced-infections-and-disease
#18
Selina Khan, Koen Oosterhuis, Kerstin Wunderlich, Evelien M Bunnik, Melissa Bhaggoe, Satish Boedhoe, Santusha Karia, Renske D M Steenbergen, Leontien Bosch, Jan Serroyen, Sarah Janssen, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Jort Vellinga, Gert Scheper, Roland Zahn, Jerome Custers
High-risk Human papilloma virus (HPV) types are the causative agents of cervical cancer and several other anogenital malignancies. The viral proteins expressed in the (pre)malignant cells are considered ideal targets for immunological intervention. Many approaches have been evaluated for this purpose, mostly aiming at the induction of HPV16 E7- and/or E6-specific cellular immunogenicity. As clinical success has so far been limited, novel approaches are required. We describe the development and pre-clinical testing of a vaccine candidate consisting of replication-deficient adenovirus type 26 and 35 based vectors for the interception of HPV16- and HPV18-related disease...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258669/hpv-vaccinations-in-lublin-region-poland
#19
Paweł Kalinowski, Anna Grządziel
INTRODUCTION: Secondary prophylaxis of cervical cancer consisting in cytology screening tests, despite its effectiveness, does not achieve the desired results. For several years, primary prophylaxis has been available in the form of protective vaccinations. At present, two vaccine preparations are available on the market, and studies conducted on these preparations confirm their almost 100% effectiveness in the prevention of types of HPV present in the vaccine. OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the programmes of protective vaccinations against HPV carried out during the period 2008-2013 in the Lublin Region...
February 14, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255426/anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-a-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Joseph R Roberts, Lacey L Siekas, Andrew M Kaz
Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a premalignant lesion of the anal mucosa that is a precursor to anal cancer. Although anal cancer is relatively uncommon, rates of this malignancy are steadily rising in the United States, and among certain high risk populations the incidence of anal cancer may exceed that of colon cancer. Risk factors for AIN and anal cancer consist of clinical factors and behaviors that are associated with the acquisition and persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The strongest HPV-associated risk factors are HIV infection, receptive anal intercourse, and high risk sexual behavior...
February 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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