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Cancer oncology radiotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530251/impact-of-resection-margin-status-on-oncological-outcomes-after-co2-laser-cordectomy
#1
P Aluffi Valletti, F Taranto, A Chiesa, F Pia, G Valente
The management of positive resection margins in micro-endoscopic glottic laser surgery remains a controversial and critical point. This study aims to assess the impact of margin status after transoral laser surgery on local control, survival and organ preservation rates; the decision- making process and treatment options in cases with positive margins are also discussed. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and histological records of 308 consecutive patients with primary early glottic carcinoma (T1a, T1b, selected T2) and treated with endoscopic laser cordectomy...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516202/-plastic-reconstruction-of-radiation-injuries
#2
P M Vogt, T R Mett, C Henkenberens, C Radtke, R Ipaktchi
In addition to surgical and drug therapy, radiotherapy (or radiation therapy) is one of the three mainstays of modern oncological therapy regimes. It uses ionizing radiation to control tumors by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. Although advances have been made in recent years resulting in a reduced dosage to the surrounding tissues, radiation injuries and tissue-related side effects cannot be completely avoided. Knowledge of the pathophysiology, treatment modalities and interdisciplinary treatment approaches are essential for effective therapy whilst limiting side effects...
May 17, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516155/phase-i-clinical-trial-of-everolimus-combined-with-trimodality-therapy-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#3
Bassel G Bachir, Luis Souhami, Jose João Mansure, Fabio Cury, Marie Vanhuyse, Fadi Brimo, Armen G Aprikian, Simon Tanguay, Jeremy Sturgeon, Wassim Kassouf
Background: Local control following trimodality therapy (TMT) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) requires further optimization. Objective: Evaluating the biologic endpoint, feasibility, and toxicity of integrating everolimus to TMT in patients with MIBC. Methods: This was a phase I trial in patients with MIBC who were not surgical candidates or who refused cystectomy. Following maximal transurethral tumor resection, patients were treated by radiotherapy (50 Gy/20 fractions), gemcitabine (100 mg/m2/weekly) and escalating doses of everolimus (2...
April 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515243/nccn-guidelines-update-evolving-radiation-therapy-recommendations-for-breast-cancer
#4
Kilian E Salerno
In the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Breast Cancer, among adjuvant radiotherapy options for whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery, hypofractionation is preferred. For the use of accelerated partial-breast irradiation, the NCCN Guidelines have adopted the updated definition of "suitability" used by the American Society for Radiation Oncology. Regional nodal irradiation is indicated-either in the setting of breast-conserving surgery or after mastectomy-for women with ≥4 positive nodes and should be strongly considered for 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes and select patients with node-negative disease deemed at high risk for recurrence...
May 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508764/current-incidence-of-different-morphological-types-of-malignant-metastases-to-the-spine-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Grzegorz Guzik
BACKGROUND: Malignant tumours particularly often metastasise to the spine, causing considerable pain and limiting the patient's physical function. Standard therapy consists in surgical treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy. The qualification for surgery is a multifaceted process and detailed analysis of the morphology of the metastasis is a key factor. Numerous types of classification of metastatic lesions exist, among which the Tomita system, based on MRI findings, appears to be the most practical...
April 12, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502653/heart-sparing-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-what-are-the-techniques-used-in-the-clinical-routine-a-pattern-of-practice-survey-in-the-german-speaking-countries
#6
Marciana-Nona Duma, Stefan Münch, Markus Oechsner, Stephanie E Combs
The aim of this study was to understand the practice of care in German-speaking countries with regard to heart-sparing radiotherapy techniques. Between August 2015 and September 2015, an e-mail/fax-based survey was sent to radiation oncology departments in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking Switzerland. The questionnaire was divided into 3 chapters: a general chapter on the department, a chapter specific for heart-sparing techniques in patients with breast cancer, and a third chapter on personal beliefs on the topic of heart sparing in patients with breast cancer...
May 11, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501459/-cancer-radiotherapy-and-immune-system
#7
J P Nesseler, D Peiffert, G Vogin, P Nickers
Novel paradigms emerge in oncology today. Systemic treatments are more effective and diversified along with an increased life expectancy in oligometastatic patients. Stereotactic radiotherapy using hypofractionation opens new perspectives for local tumour control. The area of radiobiology has expanded with integration of tumour microenvironment in which radiation-induced inflammation mediators and immune system play a major role. Immunity checkpoints inhibitors experience a major development. This rapidly evolving field seems involved in the abscopal effects, especially when radiation is combined with checkpoints inhibitors, as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies and several clinical trials...
May 10, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500765/developing-bayesian-networks-from-a-dependency-layered-ontology-a-proof-of-concept-in-radiation-oncology
#8
Alan M Kalet, Jason N Doctor, John H Gennari, Mark H Phillips
PURPOSE: Bayesian networks (BNs) are graphical representations of probabilistic knowledge that offer normative reasoning under uncertainty and are well suited for use in medical domains. Traditional knowledge-based network development of BN topology requires that modeling experts establish relevant dependency links between domain concepts by searching and translating published literature, querying domain experts, or applying machine learning algorithms on data. For initial development these methods are time-intensive and this cost hinders the growth of BN applications in medical decision making...
May 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498880/a-two-arm-multicenter-phase-ii-trial-of-one-cycle-chemoselection-split-dose-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-tpf-induction-chemotherapy-before-two-cycles-of-split-tpf-followed-by-curative-surgery-combined-with-postoperative-radiotherapy-in-patients-with
#9
J Inhestern, H Schmalenberg, A Dietz, N Rotter, G Maschmeyer, M Jungehülsing, C Grosse-Thie, T Kuhnt, M Görner, H Sudhoff, C Wittekindt, O Guntinas-Lichius
Background: : Induction chemotherapy (ICT) with docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil (TPF) followed by radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for locally advanced head and neck cancer. This phase II study investigated the effectivity of a split-dose TPF ICT prior to surgery for locally advanced resectable (stage III/IVA) oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Patients and methods: : Patients received TPF split on two dosages on day 1 and 8 per cycle (30 mg/m 2 docetaxel, 40 mg/m 2 cisplatin, 2000 mg/m 2 fluorouracil per week)...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490931/treatment-and-outcomes-for-glioblastoma-in-elderly-compared-with-non-elderly-patients-a-population-based-study
#10
E R Morgan, A Norman, K Laing, M D Seal
PURPOSE: Elderly patients make up a large percentage of the individuals newly diagnosed with glioblastoma (gbm), but they face particular challenges in tolerating standard therapy, and compared with younger patients, they experience significantly shorter survival. We set out to compare clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes in a non-elderly group (<65 years) and an elderly group (≥65 years) of patients diagnosed with gbm. METHODS: This retrospective population-based study used a province-wide cancer registry to identify patients with a new diagnosis of gbm within a 6-year period (2006-2012)...
April 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485349/analysis-of-wedge-resection-of-gallbladder-bed-and-lymphadenectomy-on-adequate-oncologic-clearance-for-gallbladder-cancer
#11
M Tewari, S Kumar, S Shukla, H S Shukla
BACKGROUND: Surgery (R0 resection) is the mainstay of treatment of gallbladder cancer (GBC) as GBC is relatively resistant to currently known chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. AIM: to assess if wedge resection of the gallbladder bed achieves an adequate oncological clearance in GBC (namely T1 and T2) and some T3 GBC with minimal liver infiltration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with GBC who underwent radical cholecystectomy (en bloc cholecystectomy, wedge resection of the gallbladder fossa with a ≥2 cm rim of nonneoplastic liver tissue, and regional lymph node dissection) between October 2012 and June 2015 after obtaining informed consent...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485335/radical-chemo-irradiation-using-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-in-elderly-patients-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#12
J R Chalissery, P C Sudheeran, K M Varghese, K Venkatesan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, tolerance and response of radical chemo irradiation using Intensity modulated Radiotherapy [IMRT] in elderly patients [age >65] with locally advanced head and neck cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients aged 65 and above [range 65 to 84years] registered in oncology outpatient unit in our institution between December 2011 to 2014, with stage III and IV head and neck cancer were treated with radical dose of radiotherapy using IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin 40mg/sq...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479233/addition-of-gemcitabine-to-paclitaxel-epirubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-women-with-early-stage-breast-cancer-tango-final-10-year-follow-up-of-an-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#13
Helena M Earl, Louise Hiller, Helen C Howard, Janet A Dunn, Jennie Young, Sarah J Bowden, Michelle McDermaid, Anna K Waterhouse, Gregory Wilson, Rajiv Agrawal, Susan O'Reilly, Angela Bowman, Diana M Ritchie, Andrew Goodman, Tamas Hickish, Karen McAdam, David Cameron, David Dodwell, Daniel W Rea, Carlos Caldas, Elena Provenzano, Jean E Abraham, Peter Canney, John P Crown, M John Kennedy, Robert Coleman, Robert C Leonard, James A Carmichael, Andrew M Wardley, Christopher J Poole
BACKGROUND: The tAnGo trial was designed to investigate the potential role of gemcitabine when added to anthracycline and taxane-containing adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer. When this study was developed, gemcitabine had shown significant activity in metastatic breast cancer, and there was evidence of a favourable interaction with paclitaxel. METHODS: tAnGo was an international, open-label, randomised, phase 3 superiority trial that enrolled women aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed, early-stage breast cancer who had a definite indication for chemotherapy, any nodal status, any hormone receptor status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function...
May 4, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476941/systemic-chemotherapy-as-salvage-treatment-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-patients-who-fail-to-respond-to-standard-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#14
Francesco Sclafani, Gina Brown, David Cunningham, Sheela Rao, Paris Tekkis, Diana Tait, Federica Morano, Chiara Baratelli, Eleftheria Kalaitzaki, Shahnawaz Rasheed, David Watkins, Naureen Starling, Andrew Wotherspoon, Ian Chau
BACKGROUND: The potential of chemotherapy as salvage treatment after failure of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has never been explored. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis to address this question. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed LARC who were inoperable or candidates for extensive (i.e., beyond total mesorectal excision [TME]) surgery after long-course chemoradiotherapy and who received salvage chemotherapy were included...
May 5, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475407/diagnosis-staging-and-risk-stratification-in-prostate-cancer-utilizing-diagnostic-tools-to-avoid-unnecessary-therapies-and-side-effects
#15
Louis Rodgers, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
A lack of appropriate diagnostic tools for prostate cancer has led to overdiagnosis and over treatment. In a recent publication in the New England Journal of Medicine, Hamdy et al showed no difference in the outcomes of patients that had undergone either radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or active monitoring. In an effort to enhance clinical stratification, the development of improved, more accurate diagnostic tools is actively being pursued. Herein, we explore recent advances in prostate cancer screening, including biomarker assays, genetic testing, and specialized fields, such as mathematical oncology...
May 5, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474976/iliac-artery-reconstruction-with-the-superficial-femoral-vein-after-major-oncologic-resection
#16
Leopoldo Fernández-Alonso, Sebastian Fernández-Alonso, Esther Martínez Aguilar
The large size of some retroperitoneal tumors and the complex anatomy of the retroperitoneal structures often require en bloc resection of contiguous organs and, sometimes, resection of critical vascular structures. Vascular reconstructive techniques allow reconstruction of major vascular structures, and autologous vein grafting is the preferred option. Although great saphenous vein can be used in select cases, other options must be explored in cases of caliber mismatch between saphenous vein and native vessel...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474378/transoral-laser-microsurgery-for-treatment-for-hypopharyngeal-cancer-in-211-patients
#17
Bernhard G Weiss, Friedrich Ihler, Hendrik A Wolff, Simon Schneider, Martin Canis, Wolfgang Steiner, Christian Welz
BACKGROUND: The oncologic and functional outcome of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for primary treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer was examined in a multimodal treatment concept. METHODS: Two hundred eleven patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the hypopharynx (pT1-4a, pN0-2, M0) were treated by TLM +/- neck dissection (88%) +/- (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT; 51%). The majority of cases were advanced stages III and IVa (85%). RESULTS: The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for local control after TLM were pT category-related 88...
May 5, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470944/patterns-of-practice-survey-for-brachytherapy-for-cervix-cancer-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#18
Karen Lim, Sylvia van Dyk, Pearly Khaw, Jacqueline Veera, Linda Mileshkin, Lucy Ohanessian, Michelle Harrison, Shalini K Vinod
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this survey was to explore the current patterns of practice for brachytherapy in cervix cancer in Australia and New Zealand. The survey was also intended to explore clinician attitudes towards image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) and identify barriers to the implementation of IGABT. METHODS: Electronic surveys were sent to all radiotherapy centres in Australia and New Zealand under collaboration with Australia New Zealand Gynaecology and Oncology Group (ANZGOG), in order to identify patterns of radiotherapy practice...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469334/clinical-profile-of-pediatric-oncology-patients-treated-by-external-beam-radiotherapy-an-institutional-experience
#19
Virender Suhag, B S Sunita, Pankaj Vats, Arti Sarin, A K Singh, Mayuri Jain
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignant conditions requiring multimodal treatment, and management of such cases is at time challenging. We present the clinical profile of pediatric cancer patients who received radiation, either alone or as adjuvant to surgery and chemotherapy; in prophylactic, radical or palliative clinical setting. AIM: This study was envisaged to review our experience of pediatric oncology cases, their clinical and morphological profile, dosage schedule of radiotherapy, and the therapy induced complications...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465875/effect-of-referral-patterns-and-treatment-type-on-oncologic-outcomes-for-women-with-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#20
Elaine S Wai, Mary Lesperance, Linghong Lu, Cheryl S Alexander, Pauline T Truong
OBJECTIVE: Management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains controversial. This study examined long-term outcomes in a population-based cohort of patients with pure DCIS treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) alone, BCS + radiotherapy (RT), and mastectomy. Outcomes were compared between patients referred versus not referred for oncologic assessment after definitive surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were 2575 women diagnosed between 1985 and 1999...
March 31, 2017: Curēus
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