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Cancer oncology radiotherapy

Cédric Panje, Nikolaus Andratschke, Thomas B Brunner, Maximilian Niyazi, Matthias Guckenberger
PURPOSE: This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a literature review and practice recommendations for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of primary renal cell cancer and primary pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A literature search on SBRT for both renal cancer and pancreatic cancer was performed with focus on prospective trials and technical aspects for clinical implementation...
October 24, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
S Berretta, M Berretta, F Fiorica, R Di Francia, P Magistri, G Bertola, R Fisichella, V Canzonieri, F Di Benedetto, G Tarantino
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide, with the highest estimated mortality rates in Eastern Asia and the lowest in Northern America. However, the availability of modern treatment has improved the survival and the prognosis is often poor due to biological characteristics of the disease. In oncology, we are living in the "Era" of target treatment and, to know biological aspects, prognostic factors and predictive response informations to therapy in GC is mandatory to apply the best strategy of treatment...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Vivek Verma, Amy C Moreno, Steven H Lin
Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
S Boissonneau, L-M Terrier, S De La Rosa Morilla, L Troude, J P Lavieille, P-H Roche
BACKGROUND: Gangliogliomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system. We report two unusual cases of gangliogliomas located in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). POPULATION AND METHODS: The first patient was a 57-year-old woman, who presented with dizziness and harbored a non-enhanced heterogeneous mass located in the cisternal space of the CPA. A partial microsurgical removal was performed, and the pathological examination concluded a grade I ganglioglioma according to the WHO Classification...
October 19, 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
Omar Mahmoud, Lara Hathout, Sherif G Shaaban, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Sushil Beriwal, William Small
PURPOSE: The Gynecologic Oncology group (GOG) 0263 trial is currently exploring whether adding chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy improves recurrence-free and/or overall survival in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients with pathologic intermediate-risk factors. Using the National Cancer Data Base, we evaluated the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy over adjuvant radiotherapy alone in the community practice setting. MATERIALS: The analysis included 869 stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy retrieving intermediate-risk factors justifying adjuvant therapy...
October 18, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
E B Thorgersen, M A Goscinski, M Spasojevic, A M Solbakken, A B Mariathasan, K Boye, S G Larsen, K Flatmark
BACKGROUND: High morbidity, increased mortality, and impaired long-term oncologic outcome have been reported after deep surgical site infection (SSI) in rectal cancer surgery. The rate, risk factors and consequences of deep SSI after (chemo)radiotherapy [(C)RT], and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in a tertiary university hospital single centre cohort of 540 patients are presented. METHODS: Patients with LARC, operated between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015, were identified in the institutional prospective database...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Folkert de Groot, Stefano Capri, Jean-Claude Castanier, David Cunningham, Bruno Flamion, Mathias Flume, Harald Herholz, Lars-Åke Levin, Oriol Solà-Morales, Christoph J Rupprecht, Natalie Shalet, Andrew Walker, Olivier Wong
With finite resources, healthcare payers must make difficult choices regarding spending and the ethical distribution of funds. Here, we describe some of the ethical issues surrounding inequity in healthcare in nine major European countries, using cancer care as an example. To identify relevant studies, we conducted a systematic literature search. The results of the literature review suggest that although prevention, access to early diagnosis, and radiotherapy are key factors associated with good outcomes in oncology, public and political attention often focusses on the availability of pharmacological treatments...
October 21, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Matthew D Hall, Timothy E Schultheiss, David D Smith, Marwan G Fakih, Jeffrey Y C Wong, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) increases pathological complete response (pCR) rates compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with stage II-III rectal cancer. Limited evidence addresses whether radiotherapy dose escalation further improves pCR rates. Our purpose is to measure the effects of radiotherapy dose and other factors on post-therapy pathologic tumor (ypT) and nodal stage in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by mesorectal excision...
October 20, 2016: Acta Oncologica
Meriem Slaoui, Fatima Zahra Mouh, Imane Ghanname, Rachid Razine, Mohammed El Mzibri, Mariam Amrani
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in young women is quite uncommon and shows more aggressive characteristics with major disparities between worldwide populations. Prognosis and outcome of breast cancer in young patients are widely studied, but still no consensus is available. METHODS: We retrospectively included 716 cases of breast cancer women diagnosed in 2009 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: women aged ≤40 years (Group 1) and women aged >40 years (Group 2)...
2016: PloS One
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Anish Khalil, Muhammad Faheem, Ammad Fahim, Haran Innocent, Zainab Mansoor, Shehrbano Rizvi, Hizra Farrukh
Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS)...
2016: Psychiatry Journal
Marco Krengli, Carla Pisani, Letizia Deantonio
The guidelines of the European and American Societies of Radiation Oncology (GEC-ESTRO and ASTRO) defined the selection criteria to offer partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy in patients with low risk breast cancer regardless pre-operative staging. A recent publication by Tallet et al. explored the impact of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on patient eligibility for PBI. From their study, an ipsilateral BC was detected in 4% of patients, excluding these patients from intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT)...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Alex Herskovic, Elizabeth Mauer, Paul Christos, Himanshu Nagar
BACKGROUND: The role of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in the treatment of pathologic stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. We investigated practice patterns and outcomes for these patients in a prospectively maintained nationwide oncology outcomes database. METHODS: Patients with known histologies of pathologic stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC who underwent surgery with negative margins and received adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy from 2004-2013 were identified from the National Cancer DataBase (NCDB) and stratified by the use of PORT...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Finn Ole Larsen, Alice Markussen, Benny V Jensen, Anne L Fromm, Kirsten K Vistisen, Vibeke K Parner, Dorte Linnemann, Rasmus H Hansen, Helle H Johannesen, Jakob V Schou
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with rectum cancer T4 or T3 involving the mesorectal fascia was included in a prospective phase 2 trial. Liver or lung metastases were accepted if the surgeons found them resectable. The patients received 6 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy (CRT), continued capecitabine and oxaliplatin during radiotherapy, and received 4 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin after CRT...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Ajay Gupta, Siddhartha Baxi, Christopher Hoyne
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive oncology services have recently been introduced in the Northern Territory (NT) enabling delivery of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSC). The purpose of this study is to assess feasibility, compliance and toxicity of CCRT in remote Australia. METHODS: Chart review was conducted for all patients >18 years, with biopsy-proven LAHNSC, receiving curative intent CCRT between January 2010 and September 2012...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Jéssica Ribeiro Gomes, Rafael A Schmerling, Carolina K Haddad, Douglas J Racy, Robson Ferrigno, Erlon Gil, Pedro Zanuncio, Antônio C Buzaid
Abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon characterized by tumor regression of untreated metastatic lesions after a local therapy (eg, radiotherapy). We studied the probability of abscopal effect with radiotherapy associated with anti-programmed death cell 1 (PD1) therapy after progression on anti-PD1. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cancer at Antônio Ermírio de Moraes Oncology Center, Brazil. To be eligible for this analysis, patients must have had unequivocal evidence of disease progression on anti-PD1 therapy and subsequent radiotherapy for any tumor site while still receiving anti-PD1...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
G Cocorullo, R Tutino, N Falco, T Fontana, G Salamone, L Licari, G Gulotta
Rectal bleeding is very common in general population with a prevalence of 10-20 %. Primary care physicians have to stratify patients basing on urgency and on the colo-rectal cancer risk and to conduct a decision making for the correct management. We report a case of a 61-years-old woman, complaining rectal bleeding and an anal mass attended to their family doctor who does a visit but without a digital rectal examination and diagnosed a hemorrhoidal prolapse suggesting medical therapy. For the persistence of symptoms she comes to our service from emergency attention...
May 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Caroline Brammer, Sundus Yahya, Dawn Dawson, Carol Glaister, Susan B Merrick
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this feasibility study is to define the resource effectiveness of Cetuximab versus cisplatin given concomitantly with radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma within a NHS clinical oncology unit. METHODS: 20 Patients with stage 3 or 4 head and neck squamous cell cancers were randomised to receive either Cetuximab with radiotherapy (ERT) or cisplatin with radiotherapy (CRT) concurrent with external beam radiotherapy 70 Gy in 35 fractions on a 1:1 basis over a 12-month duration...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Chai Hong Rim, Jinsil Seong
In oncologic practice, treatment guidelines provide appropriate treatment strategies based on evidence. Currently, many guidelines are used, including those of the European Association for the Study of the Liver and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE), and Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and National Cancer Centre (KLCSG-NCC). Although radiotherapy is commonly used in clinical practice, some guidelines do not accept it as a standard treatment modality...
September 2016: Radiation Oncology Journal
R Orecchia, A Surgo, M Muto, A Ferrari, G Piperno, M A Gerardi, S Comi, C Garibaldi, D Ciardo, A Bazani, F Golino, F Pansini, C Fodor, P Romanelli, D Maestri, V Scroffi, S Mazza, B A Jereczek-Fossa
PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate patient profile, feasibility, and acute toxicity of RadioTherapy (RT) delivered by VERO® in the first 20 months of clinical activity. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 1) adult patients; 2) limited volume cancer (M0 or oligometastatic); 3) small extracranial lesions; 4) treatment between April 2012 and December 2013 and 5) written informed consent. Two techniques were employed: intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
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