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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452993/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-tedizolid-implications-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#1
Pierre Delpech, Muna ALeryan, Brian Jones, Curtis Gemmell, Sue Lang
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are among the most commonly occurring infections and evidence suggests that these are increasing world-wide. The aetiology is diverse, but Staphylococcus aureus predominate and these are often resistant to antimicrobials that were previously effective. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone-class antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with SSTI caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of tedizolid in comparison to other clinically used antibacterials against antibiotic sensitive- and resistant-staphylococci, grown in planktonic cultures and as biofilms reflecting the growth of the microorganism during episodes of SSTI...
January 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452221/a-scoping-review-and-survey-provides-the-rationale-perceptions-and-preferences-for-the-integration-of-randomized-and-non-randomized-studies-in-evidence-syntheses-and-grade-assessments
#2
Carlos A Cuello, Rebecca L Morgan, Jan Brozek, Nancy Santesso, Jos Verbeek, Kris Thayer, Gordon Guyatt, Holger J Schünemann
OBJECTIVES: To review the literature and obtain preferences and perceptions from experts regarding the role of randomized studies (RS) and non-randomized studies (NRS) in systematic reviews of intervention effects. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Scoping review and survey of experts. Using levels of certainty developed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group, experts expressed their preferences about the use of RS and NRS in health syntheses...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451844/pulmonary-delivery-of-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-gases
#3
Warren M Zapol, H Cecil Charles, Andrew R Martin, Rui C Sá, Binglan Yu, Fumito Ichinose, Neil MacIntyre, Joseph Mammarappallil, Richard Moon, John Z Chen, Eric T Geier, Chantal Darquenne, G Kim Prisk, Ira Katz
The 21st Congress for the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine included, for the first time, a session on Pulmonary Delivery of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Gases. The rationale for such a session within ISAM is that the pulmonary delivery of gaseous drugs in many cases targets the same therapeutic areas as aerosol drug delivery, and is in many scientific and technical aspects similar to aerosol drug delivery. This article serves as a report on the recent ISAM congress session providing a synopsis of each of the presentations...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446921/modeling-of-pharmaceutical-biotransformation-by-enriched-nitrifying-culture-under-different-metabolic-conditions
#4
Yifeng Xu, Xueming Chen, Zhiguo Yuan, Bing-Jie Ni
Pharmaceutical removal could be significantly enhanced through cometabolism during nitrification processes. So far pharmaceutical biotransformation models have not considered the formation of transformation products associated with the metabolic type of microorganisms. Here we reported a comprehensive model to describe and evaluate the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and the formation of their biotransformation products by enriched nitrifying cultures. The biotransformation of parent compounds was linked to the microbial processes via cometabolism induced by ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) growth, metabolism by AOB, cometabolism by heterotrophs (HET) growth and metabolism by HET in the model framework...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446872/does-selective-hormesis-impact-herbicide-resistance-evolution-in-weeds-accase-resistant-populations-of-alopecurus-myosuroides-huds-as-a-case-study
#5
Regina G Belz, Muhammad B Farooq, Jean Wagner
BACKGROUND: A field-evolved herbicide-resistant weed population can represent a heterogeneous composite of subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility and responsiveness to herbicide hormesis. Variable hormesis responsiveness can result in selection for and against certain subpopulations under low herbicide doses, and this has the potential to contribute to the evolution of resistance. The relevance of this hypothesis at practical field rates was studied for two field-collected acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) target-site resistant (TSR) biotypes of Alopecurus myosuroides Huds...
February 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441663/preceptors-perspectives-of-an-integrated-clinical-learning-model-in-a-mental-health-environment
#6
Gayelene Boardman, Karen Lawrence, Meg Polacsek
Supervised clinical practice is an essential component of undergraduate nursing students' learning and development. In the mental health setting, nursing students traditionally undertake four-week block placements. An integrated clinical learning model, where preceptors mentor students on an individual basis, has been used successfully in the clinical learning environment. This flexible model provides the opportunity for students to work across morning, afternoon, night and weekend shifts. There is a need to improve the evidence base for a flexible model for students undertaking a mental health placement...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441037/the-integration-of-realistic-episodic-memories-relies-on-different-working-memory-processes-evidence-from-virtual-navigation
#7
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440798/rural-palliative-care-in-north-india-rapid-evaluation-of-a-program-using-a-realist-mixed-method-approach
#8
Daniel F Munday, Erna Haraldsdottir, Manju Manak, Ann Thyle, Cathy M Ratcliff
Context: Palliative care has not developed widely in rural North India. Since 2010, the Emmanuel Hospitals Association (EHA) has been developing a model of palliative care appropriate for this setting, based on teams undertaking home visits with the backup of outpatient and inpatient services. A project to further develop the model operated from 2012 to 2015 supported by funding from the UK. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the EHA palliative care project. Settings and Design: Rapid evaluation method using a mixed method realist approach at the five project hospital sites...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440160/interventions-to-increase-access-to-or-uptake-of-physical-health-screening-in-people-with-severe-mental-illness-a-realist-review
#9
Frédérique Lamontagne-Godwin, Caroline Burgess, Sarah Clement, Melanie Gasston-Hales, Carolynn Greene, Anne Manyande, Deborah Taylor, Paul Walters, Elizabeth Barley
OBJECTIVES: To identify and evaluate interventions aimed at increasing uptake of, or access to, physical health screening by adults with severe mental illness; to examine why interventions might work. DESIGN: Realist review. SETTING: Primary, secondary and tertiary care. RESULTS: A systematic search identified 1448 studies, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were from Australia (n=3), Canada (n=1), Hong Kong (n=1), UK (n=11) and USA (n=6)...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437270/clinicians-attitudes-and-approaches-to-evaluating-the-potential-living-kidney-donor-recipient-relationship-an-interview-study
#10
Angelique F Ralph, Phyllis Butow, Jonathan C Craig, Jeremy R Chapman, John S Gill, John Kanellis, Allison Tong
AIM: Careful assessment of the potential donor-recipient relationship is recommended by guidelines to prevent undue coercion, and ensure realistic expectations and genuine motivations. However, relationships are complex, nuanced and value-laden, and can be challenging to evaluate in living kidney donation. We aimed to describe the attitudes and approaches of transplant clinicians towards assessing the relationship between potential living kidney donors and their recipients. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 transplant clinicians (nephrologists, surgeons, coordinators, social workers, psychiatrists and psychologists) from 32 transplant centres across nine countries including Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand...
February 13, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436852/comparing-photon-and-proton-based-hypofractioned-sbrt-for-prostate-cancer-accounting-for-robustness-and-realistic-treatment-deliverability
#11
Lee Goddard, Nils P Brodin, William R Bodner, Madhur Garg, Wolfgang A Tomé
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether photon or proton based SBRT is the preferred modality for high dose hypofractionation prostate cancer treatment. Achievable dose distributions were compared when uncertainties in target positioning and range uncertainties were appropriately accounted for. METHODS: Ten patients with prostate cancer previously treated at our institution with photon SBRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were identified. MRI images fused to the treatment planning CT allowed for accurate target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436509/tracking-random-walks
#12
Riccardo Gallotti, Rémi Louf, Jean-Marc Luck, Marc Barthelemy
In empirical studies, trajectories of animals or individuals are sampled in space and time. Yet, it is unclear how sampling procedures bias the recorded data. Here, we consider the important case of movements that consist of alternating rests and moves of random durations and study how the estimate of their statistical properties is affected by the way we measure them. We first discuss the ideal case of a constant sampling interval and short-tailed distributions of rest and move durations, and provide an exact analytical calculation of the fraction of correctly sampled trajectories...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436107/rationale-and-developmental-methodology-for-the-simple-approach-a-systematised-interdisciplinary-malnutrition-pathway-for-implementation-and-evaluation-in-hospitals
#13
Jack J Bell, Adrienne Young, Jan Hill, Merrilyn Banks, Tracy Comans, Rhiannon Barnes, Heather H Keller
AIM: Changing population demographics, service demands, and healthcare provider expectations suggest that a shift is required regarding how malnutrition care is managed in hospitals. The present study aims to build the reason for required change, and to describe the process used to develop a model for managing malnutrition for implementation across six Queensland hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of approaches to managing malnutrition in Queensland public hospitals, and development of a new model of care (guided by Knowledge-to-Action Framework and qualitative interviews) for testing within a broader implementation program...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435856/modern-theories-of-pelvic-floor-support-a-topical-review-of-modern-studies-on-structural-and-functional-pelvic-floor-support-from-medical-imaging-computational-modeling-and-electromyographic-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Yun Peng, Brandi D Miller, Timothy B Boone, Yingchun Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weakened pelvic floor support is believed to be the main cause of various pelvic floor disorders. Modern theories of pelvic floor support stress on the structural and functional integrity of multiple structures and their interplay to maintain normal pelvic floor functions. Connective tissues provide passive pelvic floor support while pelvic floor muscles provide active support through voluntary contraction. Advanced modern medical technologies allow us to comprehensively and thoroughly evaluate the interaction of supporting structures and assess both active and passive support functions...
February 12, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431585/calculation-of-3d-genome-structures-for-comparison-of-chromosome-conformation-capture-experiments-with-microscopy-an-evaluation-of-single-cell-hi-c-protocols
#15
David Lando, Tim J Stevens, Srinjan Basu, Ernest D Laue
Single-cell chromosome conformation capture approaches are revealing the extent of cell-to-cell variability in the organization and packaging of genomes. These single-cell methods, unlike their multi-cell counterparts, allow straightforward computation of realistic chromosome conformations that may be compared and combined with other, independent, techniques to study 3D structure. Here we discuss how single-cell Hi-C and subsequent 3D genome structure determination allows comparison with data from microscopy...
February 12, 2018: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431181/characterizing-performance-improvement-in-primary-care-systems-in-mesoamerica-a-realist-evaluation-protocol
#16
Wolfgang Munar, Syed S Wahid, Leslie Curry
Background. Improving performance of primary care systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may be a necessary condition for achievement of universal health coverage in the age of Sustainable Development Goals. The Salud Mesoamerica Initiative (SMI), a large-scale, multi-country program that uses supply-side financial incentives directed at the central-level of governments, and continuous, external evaluation of public, health sector performance to induce improvements in primary care performance in eight LMICs...
January 3, 2018: Gates Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430519/heterogeneities-in-axonal-structure-and-transporter-distribution-lower-dopamine-reuptake-efficiency
#17
Cihan Kaya, Mary H Cheng, Ethan R Block, Tom M Bartol, Terrence J Sejnowski, Alexander Sorkin, James R Faeder, Ivet Bahar
Efficient clearance of dopamine (DA) from the synapse is key to regulating dopaminergic signaling. This role is fulfilled by DA transporters (DATs). Recent advances in the structural characterization of DAT from Drosophila (dDAT) and in high-resolution imaging of DA neurons and the distribution of DATs in living cells now permit us to gain a mechanistic understanding of DA reuptake events in silico. Using electron microscopy images and immunofluorescence of transgenic knock-in mouse brains that express hemagglutinin-tagged DAT in DA neurons, we reconstructed a realistic environment for MCell simulations of DA reuptake, wherein the identity, population and kinetics of homology-modeled human DAT (hDAT) substates were derived from molecular simulations...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430481/robotic-drill-guide-positioning-using-known-component-3d-2d-image-registration
#18
Thomas Yi, Vignesh Ramchandran, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen, Ali Uneri
A method for x-ray image-guided robotic instrument positioning is reported and evaluated in preclinical studies of spinal pedicle screw placement with the aim of improving delivery of transpedicle K-wires and screws. The known-component (KC) registration algorithm was used to register the three-dimensional patient CT and drill guide surface model to intraoperative two-dimensional radiographs. Resulting transformations, combined with offline hand-eye calibration, drive the robotically held drill guide to target trajectories defined in the preoperative CT...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430443/electrical-impedance-tomography
#19
REVIEW
Beatriz Lobo, Cecilia Hermosa, Ana Abella, Federico Gordo
Continuous assessment of respiratory status is one of the cornerstones of modern intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring systems. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), although with some constraints, may play the lead as a new diagnostic and guiding tool for an adequate optimization of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. EIT may assist in defining mechanical ventilation settings, assess distribution of tidal volume and of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and contribute to titrate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)/tidal volume combinations...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429540/sodium-butyrate-modulates-adipocyte-expansion-adipogenesis-and-insulin-receptor-signaling-by-upregulation-of-ppar-%C3%AE-in-obese-apo-e-knockout-mice
#20
Edenil Costa Aguilar, Josiane Fernandes da Silva, Juliana Maria Navia-Pelaez, Alda Jusceline Leonel, Lorrayne Gonçalves Lopes, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira, Luciano Dos Santos Aggum Capettini, Lilian G Teixeira, Virginia Soares Lemos, Jacqueline I Alvarez-Leite
OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that sodium butyrate reduces obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in in vitro and in vivo models. Apo E -/- mice have high basal oxidative stress and naturally develop dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Because these disorders are present in obesity, the aim of this study was to determine whether Apo E -/- mice could be a more realistic model for studying obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: We evaluated the action of orally administered sodium butyrate on adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance using diet-induced obese Apo E -/- mice...
March 2018: Nutrition
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