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Realistic evaluation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774944/can-traits-predict-individual-growth-performance-a-test-in-a-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#1
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774907/plasmon-response-evaluation-based-on-image-derived-arbitrary-nanostructures
#2
S Trautmann, M Richard-Lacroix, A Dathe, H Schneidewind, J Dellith, W Fritzsche, V Deckert
The optical response of realistic 3D plasmonic substrates composed of randomly shaped particles of different size and interparticle distance distributions in addition to nanometer scale surface roughness is intrinsically challenging to simulate due to computational limitations. Here, we present a Finite Element Method (FEM)-based methodology that bridges in-depth theoretical investigations and experimental optical response of plasmonic substrates composed of such silver nanoparticles. Parametrized scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) active substrate and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) probes are used to simulate the far-and near-field optical response...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774245/evaluation-of-phylogenetic-reconstruction-methods-using-bacterial-whole-genomes-a-simulation-based-study
#3
John A Lees, Michelle Kendall, Julian Parkhill, Caroline Colijn, Stephen D Bentley, Simon R Harris
Background : Phylogenetic reconstruction is a necessary first step in many analyses which use whole genome sequence data from bacterial populations. There are many available methods to infer phylogenies, and these have various advantages and disadvantages, but few unbiased comparisons of the range of approaches have been made. Methods : We simulated data from a defined "true tree" using a realistic evolutionary model. We built phylogenies from this data using a range of methods, and compared reconstructed trees to the true tree using two measures, noting the computational time needed for different phylogenetic reconstructions...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772770/improving-uwb-based-localization-in-iot-scenarios-with-statistical-models-of-distance-error
#4
Stefania Monica, Gianluigi Ferrari
Interest in the Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly increasing, as the number of connected devices is exponentially growing. One of the application scenarios envisaged for IoT technologies involves indoor localization and context awareness. In this paper, we focus on a localization approach that relies on a particular type of communication technology, namely Ultra Wide Band (UWB). UWB technology is an attractive choice for indoor localization, owing to its high accuracy. Since localization algorithms typically rely on estimated inter-node distances, the goal of this paper is to evaluate the improvement brought by a simple (linear) statistical model of the distance error...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771683/an-individualized-strategy-to-estimate-the-effect-of-deformable-registration-uncertainty-on-accumulated-dose-in-the-upper-abdomen
#5
Yibing Wang, Steven F Petit, Eliana Vasquez Osorio, Vikas Gupta, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Ben J M Heijmen
In the abdomen, it is challenging to assess the accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) for individual patients, due to the lack of clear anatomical landmarks, which can hamper clinical applications that require high accuracy DIR, such as adaptive radiotherapy. In this study, we propose and evaluate a methodology for estimating the impact of uncertainties in DIR on calculated accumulated dose in the upper abdomen, in order to aid decision making in adaptive treatment approaches. 
 Sixteen liver metastasis patients treated with SBRT were evaluated...
May 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771207/the-stopit-programme-to-reduce-bullying-and-undermining-behaviour-in-hospitals
#6
Graham Benmore, Steven Henderson, Joanna Mountfield, Brian Wink
Purpose The impact of bullying and undermining behaviours on the National Health Service on costs, patient safety and retention of staff was well understood even before the Illing report, published in 2013, that reviewed the efficacy of training interventions designed to reduce bullying and harassment in the outputs. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of a good programme well evaluated. Design/methodology/approach The methodology follows a broad realist approach, by specifying the underlying programme assumptions and intention of the designers...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769257/optimum-hospice-at-home-services-for-end-of-life-care-protocol-of-a-mixed-methods-study-employing-realist-evaluation
#7
Claire Butler, Charlotte Brigden, Heather Gage, Peter Williams, Laura Holdsworth, Kay Greene, Bee Wee, Stephen Barclay, Patricia Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Hospice at home (HAH) services aim to enable patients to be cared for and die in their place of choice, if that is at home, and to achieve a 'good death'. There is a considerable range of HAH services operating in England. The published evidence focuses on evaluations of individual services which vary considerably, and there is a lack of consistency in terms of the outcome measures reported. The evidence, therefore, does not provide generalisable information, so the question 'What are the features of hospice at home service models that work, for whom, and under what circumstances?' remains unanswered...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769157/the-role-of-performance-quality-in-adolescents-self-evaluation-and-rumination-after-a-speech-is-it-contingent-on-social-anxiety-level
#8
Anke W Blöte, Anne C Miers, Esther Van den Bos, P Michiel Westenberg
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has relatively poor outcomes for youth with social anxiety, possibly because broad-based CBT is not tailored to their specific needs. Treatment of social anxiety in youth may need to pay more attention to negative social cognitions that are considered a key factor in social anxiety development and maintenance. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to learn more about the role of performance quality in adolescents' cognitions about their social performance and, in particular, the moderating role social anxiety plays in the relationship between performance quality and self-cognitions...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768987/realistic-evaluation-of-a-rapid-response-system-context-mechanisms-and-outcomes
#9
Jacinda L Bunch, Patricia S Groves, Yelena Perkhounkova
The purpose of this study was to describe and explore differences between rapid response system events in a Midwestern community hospital through context, mechanism, and outcome factors. The design was a retrospective review of 1,939 adult inpatient events that occurred on medical (62.8%) and surgical units (37.2%) over 92 months. The immediate outcomes of the events were stabilization (59.0%), transfer to a higher level of care (39%), and cardiopulmonary arrest (2%). Nurses activated 94% of all rapid response events; respiratory (38...
May 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768477/faster-clinical-response-to-the-onset-of-adverse-events-a-wearable-metacognitive-attention-aid-for-nurse-triage-of-clinical-alarms
#10
Daniel C McFarlane, Alexa K Doig, James A Agutter, Lara M Brewer, Noah D Syroid, Ranjeev Mittu
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the potential for improving patient safety by introducing a metacognitive attention aid that enables clinicians to more easily access and use existing alarm/alert information. It is hypothesized that this introduction will enable clinicians to easily triage alarm/alert events and quickly recognize emergent opportunities to adapt care delivery. The resulting faster response to clinically important alarms/alerts has the potential to prevent adverse events and reduce healthcare costs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765652/cell-wall-microstructure-pore-size-distribution-and-absolute-density-of-hemp-shiv
#11
Y Jiang, M Lawrence, M P Ansell, A Hussain
This paper, for the first time, fully characterizes the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualization of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the average accessible porosity was 76...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765209/using-the-frailty-assessment-for-care-planning-tool-fact-to-screen-elderly-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-for-frailty-the-nurse-experience
#12
Heather Moffatt, Paige Moorhouse, Laurie Mallery, David Landry, Karthik Tennankore
Purpose: Recent evidence supports the prognostic significance of frailty for functional decline and poor health outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet, despite the development of clinical tools to screen for frailty, little is known about the experiential impact of screening for frailty in this setting. The Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT) evaluates frailty across 4 domains: mobility, function, social circumstances, and cognition. The purpose of this qualitative study was as follows: 1) explore the nurse experience of screening for frailty using the FACT tool in a specialized outpatient renal clinic; 2) determine how, if at all, provider perceptions of frailty changed after implementation of the frailty screening tool; and 3) determine the perceived factors that influence uptake and administration of the FACT screening tool in a specialized clinical setting...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764890/marathon-kids-uk-study-design-and-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-school-based-running-programme
#13
Anna E Chalkley, Ash C Routen, Jo P Harris, Lorraine A Cale, Trish Gorely, Lauren B Sherar
INTRODUCTION: Schools are promising settings for physical activity promotion; however, they are complex and adaptive systems that can influence the quality of programme implementation. This paper presents an evaluation of a school-based running programme (Marathon Kids). The aims of this study are (1) to identify the processes by which schools implement the programme, (2) identify and explain the contextual factors affecting implementation and explications of effectiveness and (3) examine the relationship between the level of implementation and perceived outcomes...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764610/the-effect-of-steering-system-linearity-simulator-motion-and-truck-driving-experience-on-steering-of-an-articulated-tractor-semitrailer-combination
#14
Barys Shyrokau, Joost De Winter, Olaf Stroosma, Chris Dijksterhuis, Jan Loof, Rene van Paassen, Riender Happee
Steering systems of trucks consist of many linkages, which introduce nonlinearities that may negatively affect steering performance. Nowadays, it is possible to equip steering systems with actuators that provide artificial steering characteristics. However, before new steering systems are deployed in real vehicles, evaluation in a safe and controlled simulator environment is recommended. A much-debated question is whether experiments need to be performed in a motion-base simulator or whether a fixed-base simulator suffices...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764476/traumatic-brain-injury-in-uganda-exploring-the-use-of-a-hospital-based-registry-for-measuring-burden-and-outcomes
#15
Amber Mehmood, Nukhba Zia, Connie Hoe, Olive Kobusingye, Hussein Ssenyojo, Adnan A Hyder
OBJECTIVE: Lack of data on traumatic brain injuries (TBI) hinders the appreciation of the true magnitude of the TBI burden. This paper describes a scientific approach for hospital based systematic data collection in a low-income country. The registry is based on the evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems which comprises a four-step approach: (1) identifying characteristics that assess a surveillance system, (2) review of the identified variables based on adopted specific, measurable, assignable, realistic, and time-related criteria, (3) assessment of the proposed variables and system characteristics by an expert panel, and (4) development and application of a rating system...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762654/testing-of-disposable-protective-garments-against-isocyanate-permeation-from-spray-polyurethane-foam-insulation
#16
Michael P Mellette, Dhimiter Bello, Yalong Xue, Michael Yost, Anila Bello, Susan Woskie
Background: Diisocyanates (isocyanates), including methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), are the primary reactive components of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. They are potent immune sensitizers and a leading cause of occupational asthma. Skin exposure to isocyanates may lead to both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and possibly contribute to systemic sensitization. More than sufficient evidence exists to justify the use of protective garments to minimize skin contact with aerosolized and raw isocyanate containing materials during SPF applications...
May 12, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760535/an-evaluation-of-gravity-waves-and-gravity-wave-sources-in-the-southern-hemisphere-in-a-7-km-global-climate-simulation
#17
L A Holt, M J Alexander, L Coy, C Liu, A Molod, W Putman, S Pawson
In this study, gravity waves (GWs) in the high-resolution GEOS-5 Nature Run are first evaluated with respect to satellite and other model results. Southern Hemisphere winter sources of non-orographic GWs in the model are then investigated by linking measures of tropospheric non-orographic gravity wave generation tied to precipitation and frontogenesis with absolute gravity wave momentum flux in the lower stratosphere. Finally, non-orographic GW momentum flux is compared to orographic gravity wave momentum flux and compared to previous estimates...
July 2017: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755738/environmental-fate-of-nanopesticides-durability-sorption-and-photodegradation-of-nanoformulated-clothianidin
#18
Melanie Kah, Helene Walch, Thilo Hofmann
A lot of research efforts are currently dedicated to the development of nano-enabled agrochemicals. Knowledge about their environmental behaviour is however scarce, which impedes the assessment of the new risk and benefits relative to currently used agrochemicals. With the aim to advance our understanding of the fate of nanopesticides in the environment and support the development of robust exposure assessment procedures, the main objectives of the study were to (i) investigate the extent to which three nanoformulations can affect the photodegradation and sorption of the insecticide clothianidin, and (ii) evaluate various approaches to estimate durability, a key parameter for the exposure assessment of nanopesticides...
April 1, 2018: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754329/efficacy-and-safety-of-sofosbuvir-plus-daclatasvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-large-real-life-results-of-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4
#19
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Alaa Aboud, Mohamed Abdel-Gabaar, Mohamed I Zanaty, Mohamed Ramadan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of daclatasvir (DCV) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) infection are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DCV plus sofosbuvir (SOF) with or without ribavirin (RBV) for treatment of Egyptian patients infected with HCV GT4. METHODS: Between April 2016 and March of 2017, a large cohort of 946 patients with chronic HCV GT4 was enrolled for completing the treatment...
May 12, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754114/the-value-of-continuing-professional-development-a-realistic-evaluation-of-a-multi-disciplinary-workshop-for-health-visitors-dealing-with-children-with-complex-needs
#20
Alison Steven, Valerie Larkin, Jane Stewart, Belinda Bateman
BACKGROUND: Continuing Professional Development is important for maintaining and developing knowledge and skills. Evidence regarding direct impact on practice is limited. Existing literature often lacks sufficient detail regarding the initiative or its evaluation, making transferability problematic. OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact and perceived value of multi-disciplinary Continuing Professional Development workshops for Health Visitors who support families with children with complex health needs...
April 21, 2018: Nurse Education Today
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