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Realistic evaluation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057773/development-of-realistic-striatal-digital-brain-sdb-phantom-for-123-i-fp-cit-spect-and-effect-on-ventricle-in-the-brain-for-semi-quantitative-index-of-specific-binding-ratio
#1
Akihiro Furuta, Hideo Onishi, Kenta Nakamoto
PURPOSE: This study aimed at developing the realistic striatal digital brain (SDB) phantom and to assess specific binding ratio (SBR) for ventricular effect in the (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. METHODS: SDB phantom was constructed in to four segments (striatum, ventricle, brain parenchyma, and skull bone) using Percentile method and other image processing in the T2-weighted MR images. The reference image was converted into 128×128 matrixes to align MR images with SPECT images...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055086/acute-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-1-2-inhibition-improves-functional-recovery-and-vascular-changes-after-ischemic-stroke-in-rat-monitored-by-9-4-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Maryam Mostajeran, Friedrich Wetterling, Frank W Blixt, Lars Edvinsson, Saema Ansar
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the beneficial effect of early mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibition administered at a clinical relevant time-point using the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model and a dedicated rodent magnetic resonance imaging system (9.4T) to monitor cerebrovascular changes non-invasively for two weeks. METHOD: Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male rats for two hours followed by reperfusion. The specific MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 was administered i...
October 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054834/evaluation-of-web-based-continuing-professional-development-courses-aggregate-mixed-methods-model
#3
Arezoo Ebn Ahmady, Megan Barker, Myra Fahim, Rosa Dragonetti, Peter Selby
BACKGROUND: Many continuing professional development (CPD) Web-based programs are not explicit about underlying theory and fail to demonstrate impact. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and apply an aggregate mixed-methods evaluation model to describe the paradigm, theoretical framework, and methodological approaches used to evaluate a CPD course in tobacco dependence treatment, the Training Enhancement in Applied Cessation Counseling and Health (TEACH) project...
October 20, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054609/estimating-the-l5s1-flexion-extension-moment-in-symmetrical-lifting-using-a-simplified-ambulatory-measurement-system
#4
Axel S Koopman, Idsart Kingma, Gert S Faber, Jonas Bornmann, Jaap H van Dieën
Mechanical loading of the spine has been shown to be an important risk factor for the development of low-back pain. Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems might allow measuring lumbar moments in realistic working conditions, and thus support evaluation of measures to reduce mechanical loading. As the number of sensors limits applicability, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the number of sensors on estimates of L5S1 moments. Hand forces, ground reaction forces (GRF) and full-body kinematics were measured using a gold standard (GS) laboratory setup...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053109/pulsed-cavitational-therapy-using-high-frequency-ultrasound-for-the-treatment-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-human-blood-clot
#5
Guillaume Goudot, Tristan Mirault, Bastien Arnal, Catherine Boisson-Vidal, Bernard Le Bonniec, Pascale Gaussem, Alexandre Galloula, Mickael Tanter, Emmanuel Messas, Mathieu Pernot
Post-thrombotic syndrome, a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis can be reduced with early vein recanalization. Pulsed cavitational therapy (PCT) using ultrasound is a recent non-invasive approach. We propose to test the efficacy and safety of high-frequency focused PCT for a drug-free thrombolysis (thrombotripsy) in a realistic in vitro model of venous thrombosis. To reproduce venous thrombosis conditions, human whole blood was allowed to clot by stasis in silicone tubes (6 mm internal diameter) at a 30 cmH20 pressure, maintained during the whole experiment...
October 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052165/a-methodological-review-of-meta-analyses-of-the-effectiveness-of-clinical-psychology-treatments
#6
María Rubio-Aparicio, Fulgencio Marín-Martínez, Julio Sánchez-Meca, José Antonio López-López
This article presents a methodological review of 54 meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychological treatments, using standardized mean differences as the effect size index. We statistically analyzed the distribution of the number of studies of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the sample sizes in the studies of each meta-analysis, the distribution of the effect sizes in each of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the between-studies variance values, and the Pearson correlations between effect size and sample size in each meta-analysis...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049565/a-low-cost-bioprosthetic-semilunar-valve-for-research-disease-modelling-and-surgical-training-applications
#7
Benoit Rosa, Zurab Machaidze, Borami Shin, Sunil Manjila, David W Brown, Christopher W Baird, John E Mayer, Pierre E Dupont
OBJECTIVES: This paper provides detailed instructions for constructing low-cost bioprosthetic semilunar valves for animal research and clinical training. This work fills an important gap between existing simulator training valves and clinical valves by providing fully functioning designs that can be employed in ex vivo and in vivo experiments and can also be modified to model valvular disease. METHODS: Valves are constructed in 4 steps consisting of creating a metal frame, covering it with fabric and attaching a suture ring and leaflets...
August 2, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049538/3d-printed-mitral-valve-models-affordable-simulation-for-robotic-mitral-valve-repair
#8
Ned Premyodhin, Divneet Mandair, Alice S Ferng, Timothy S Leach, Ryan P Palsma, Mohammad Z Albanna, Zain I Khalpey
OBJECTIVES: 3D printed mitral valve (MV) models that capture the suture response of real tissue may be utilized as surgical training tools. Leveraging clinical imaging modalities, 3D computerized modelling and 3D printing technology to produce affordable models complements currently available virtual simulators and paves the way for patient- and pathology-specific preoperative rehearsal. METHODS: We used polyvinyl alcohol, a dissolvable thermoplastic, to 3D print moulds that were casted with liquid platinum-cure silicone yielding flexible, low-cost MV models capable of simulating valvular tissue...
July 31, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042090/the-natural-history-of-flail-chest-injuries
#9
Kamil Naidoo, Layth Hanbali, Peter Bates
PURPOSE: Flail chest (FC) injuries represent a significant burden on trauma services because of its high morbidity and mortality. Current gold standard conservative management strategies for FC, are now being challenged by renewed interest in surgical rib fixation. This retrospective epidemiological study sets out to evaluate FC patients, and quantify the natural history of this injury by studying the injury patterns, epidemiology and mortality of patients sustaining FC injuries admitted to a major trauma centre (MTC)...
September 19, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042017/defending-the-selective-confirmation-strategy
#10
Yukinori Onishi
Most scientific realists today in one way or another confine the object of their commitment to certain components of a successful theory and thereby seek to make realism compatible with the history of theory change. Kyle Stanford calls this move by realists the strategy of selective confirmation and raises a challenge against its contemporary, reliable applicability. In this paper, I critically examine Stanford's inductive argument that is based on past scientists' failures to identify the confirmed components of their contemporary theories...
August 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038251/stress-introduction-rate-alters-benefit-of-acrab-tolc-efflux-pumps
#11
Ariel M Langevin, Mary J Dunlop
Stress tolerance studies are typically conducted in an all-or-none fashion. However, in realistic settings-such as in clinical or metabolic engineering applications-cells may encounter stresses at different rates. As such, how cells tolerate stress may depend on its rate of appearance. To address this, we study how the rate of introduction affects bacterial stress tolerance by focusing on a key mechanism for stress response. Efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC from Escherichia coli, are membrane transporters well known for their ability to export a wide variety of substrates, including antibiotics, signaling molecules, and biofuels...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036330/adding-experimental-arms-to-platform-clinical-trials-randomization-procedures-and-interim-analyses
#12
Steffen Ventz, Matteo Cellamare, Giovanni Parmigiani, Lorenzo Trippa
Multi-arm clinical trials use a single control arm to evaluate multiple experimental treatments. In most cases this feature makes multi-arm studies considerably more efficient than two-arm studies. A bottleneck for implementation of a multi-arm trial is the requirement that all experimental treatments have to be available at the enrollment of the first patient. New drugs are rarely at the same stage of development. These limitations motivate our study of statistical methods for adding new experimental arms after a clinical trial has started enrolling patients...
July 17, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035767/life-cycle-energy-impacts-for-adapting-an-urban-water-supply-system-to-droughts
#13
Ka Leung Lam, Jennifer R Stokes-Draut, Arpad Horvath, Joe L Lane, Steven J Kenway, Paul A Lant
In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks...
October 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035083/multiplicity-adjusted-semiparametric-benefiting-subgroup-identification-in-clinical-trials
#14
Patrick M Schnell, Peter Müller, Qi Tang, Bradley P Carlin
Background A recent focus in the health sciences has been the development of personalized medicine, which includes determining the population for which a given treatment is effective. Due to limited data, identifying the true benefiting population is a challenging task. To tackle this difficulty, the credible subgroups approach provides a pair of bounding subgroups for the true benefiting subgroup, constructed so that one is contained by the benefiting subgroup while the other contains the benefiting subgroup with high probability...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034729/visualization-of-plaque-distribution-in-a-curved-artery-three-dimensional-intravascular-ultrasound-imaging
#15
Ahnryul Choi, David D McPherson, Hyunggun Kim
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging provides an excellent tool for evaluation of the type, morphology, extent, and severity of an atheromatous plaque. 3 D IVUS imaging offers additive information pertaining to morphology of the arterial structures and volumetric plaque distributions. A new 3 D IVUS visualization technique was developed to provide 3 D structural information of a curved artery. A virtual 3 D curved arterial phantom consisting of varying cross-sectional shapes, wall thicknesses, and acoustic intensity information was utilized to validate the nonlinear interpolation technique to create intermediary 2 D IVUS images...
October 16, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033195/national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-surgical-risk-calculator-poorly-predicts-complications-in-patients-undergoing-radical-cystectomy-with-urinary-diversion
#16
Shay Golan, Melanie A Adamsky, Scott C Johnson, Nimrod S Barashi, Zachary L Smith, Maria V Rodriguez, Chuanhong Liao, Norm D Smith, Gary D Steinberg, Arieh L Shalhav
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Programs (ACS-NSQIP) surgical risk calculator in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) with urinary diversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative characteristics of patients who underwent RC with ileal conduit or orthotropic neobladder (ONB) between 2007 and 2016 were entered into the proprietary online ACS-NSQIP calculator to generate 30-day predicted risk profiles...
October 12, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032714/fusion-of-optical-coherence-tomography-and-angiography-for-numerical-simulation-of-hemodynamics-in-bioresorbable-stented-coronary-artery-based-on-patient-specific-model
#17
Chenxi Huang, Yuanhang Zhou, Xiaoxin Mao, Jianhua Tong, Lei Zhang, Fei Chen, Yongtao Hao
Three-dimensional simulations of coronary artery using finite element analysis are considered as effective means to understand the biomechanical properties after the stent was deployed. Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds are new-generation stents used by people. Intravascular optical coherence tomography is an emerging technique for detecting struts. The common 3 D reconstruction methods are using Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) or angiographies. However, it loses the details about geometry model. Fusing of optical coherence tomography and angiography to reconstruct the bioresorbable stented coronary artery based on patient-specific mode is an innovative method to reconstruct the high fidelity geometry...
October 16, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032484/young-athletes-return-too-early-to-knee-strenuous-sport-without-acceptable-knee-function-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#18
Susanne Beischer, Eric Hamrin Senorski, Christoffer Thomeé, Kristian Samuelsson, Roland Thomeé
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the return to knee-strenuous sport rate, muscle function and subjective knee function among adolescent patients (15-20 years of age) and adult patients (21-30 years of age) 8 and 12 months, respectively, after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. It was hypothesised that no differences in outcome would be found between age groups at 8 or 12 months after ACL reconstruction. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from five tests of muscle function, from the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Tegner Activity Scale (Tegner), performed at 8 and 12 months after a primary ACL reconstruction, were extracted from a rehabilitation outcome register...
October 14, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029228/development-of-a-whole-task-simulator-for-carotid-endarterectomy
#19
Gabrielle Santangelo, Doran Mix, Ahmed Ghazi, Michael Stoner, G Edward Vates, Jonathan J Stone
BACKGROUND: Surgical education relies on operative exposure with live patients. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) demands an experienced surgeon with a very low complication rate. The high-risk nature of this procedure and the decline in number of CEAs performed annually has created a gap in residency training. OBJECTIVE: To develop a high-fidelity whole-task simulation for CEA that demonstrates content, construct, and face validity. METHODS: Anatomically accurate models of the human neck were created using multilayered poly-vinyl alcohol hydrogels...
September 27, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028187/dynamic-video-deblurring-using-a-locally-adaptive-linear-blur-model
#20
Tae Hyun Kim, Seungjun Nah, Kyoung Mu Lee
State-of-the-art video deblurring methods cannot handle blurry videos recorded in dynamic scenes since they are built under a strong assumption that the captured scenes are static. Contrary to the existing methods, we propose a new video deblurring algorithm that can deal with general blurs inherent in dynamic scenes. To handle general and locally varying blurs caused by various sources, such as moving objects, camera shake, depth variation, and defocus, we estimate pixel-wise varying non-uniform blur kernels...
October 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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