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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330747/recent-advances-in-screening-for-barrett-s-esophagus
#1
REVIEW
Sarmed S Sami, Prasad G Iyer
OPINION STATEMENT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a pressing need for effective strategies to halt the increase in both the incidence and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Screening for Barrett's esophagus, which is the only known precursor of EAC, remains a ripe area for research, particularly with regard to identifying the target population, screening tools, and management of screen-detected populations. This review aims to explore in depth the rationale for screening for Barrett's esophagus, recent biotechnological advances which may have the potential of making screening feasible, and also highlight the challenges which will have to be overcome in order make screening for BE a realistic prospect...
January 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330536/carbon-limitation-drives-gc-content-evolution-of-a-marine-bacterium-in-an-individual-based-genome-scale-model
#2
Ferdi L Hellweger, Yongjie Huang, Haiwei Luo
An important unanswered question in evolutionary genomics is the source of considerable variation of genomic base composition (GC content) even among organisms that share one habitat. Evolution toward GC-poor genomes has been considered a major adaptive pathway in the oligotrophic ocean, but GC-rich bacteria are also prevalent and highly successful in this environment. We quantify the contribution of multiple factors to the change of genomic GC content of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a representative and GC-rich member in the globally abundant Roseobacter clade, using an agent-based model...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330232/interventions-must-be-realistic-to-be-useful-and-completed-in-family-medicine
#3
EDITORIAL
Marjorie A Bowman, Dean A Seehusen, Anne Victoria Neale
Being realistic while helping our patients is this issue's theme. Given the volume of tasks required in family medicine, recommendations for improvements in direct care or care measurement cannot just be evidence-based but must also be realistic. On the list of realistic: ordering antipsychotics for symptoms of dementia in the elderly, despite recommendations to not do so; ordering antidepressants without fear that the patient could develop hypertension; mental health care providers in primary care offices; forced choice for opioid management; plus agenda setting for visit efficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328063/immune-loss-as-a-driver-of-coexistence-during-host-phage-coevolution
#4
Jake L Weissman, Rayshawn Holmes, Rodolphe Barrangou, Sylvain Moineau, William F Fagan, Bruce Levin, Philip L F Johnson
Bacteria and their viral pathogens face constant pressure for augmented immune and infective capabilities, respectively. Under this reciprocally imposed selective regime, we expect to see a runaway evolutionary arms race, ultimately leading to the extinction of one species. Despite this prediction, in many systems host and pathogen coexist with minimal coevolution even when well-mixed. Previous work explained this puzzling phenomenon by invoking fitness tradeoffs, which can diminish an arms race dynamic. Here we propose that the regular loss of immunity by the bacterial host can also produce host-phage coexistence...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327042/transsaccadic-memory-of-multiple-spatially-variant-and-invariant-object-features
#5
Jerrold Jeyachandra, Yoongoo Nam, YoungWook Kim, Gunnar Blohm, Aarlenne Z Khan
Transsaccadic memory is a process by which remembered object information is updated across a saccade. To date, studies on transsaccadic memory have used simple stimuli-that is, a single dot or feature of an object. It remains unknown how transsaccadic memory occurs for more realistic, complex objects with multiple features. An object's location is a central feature for transsaccadic updating, as it is spatially variant, but other features such as size are spatially invariant. How these spatially variant and invariant features of an object are remembered and updated across saccades is not well understood...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326989/progressive-calibration-and-averaging-for-tandem-mass-spectrometry-statistical-confidence-estimation-why-settle-for-a-single-decoy
#6
Uri Keich, William Stafford Noble
Estimating the false discovery rate (FDR) among a list of tandem mass spectrum identifications is mostly done through target-decoy competition (TDC). Here we offer two new methods that can use an arbitrarily small number of additional randomly drawn decoy databases to improve TDC. Specifically, "Partial Calibration" utilizes a new meta-scoring scheme that allows us to gradually benefit from the increase in the number of identifications calibration yields and "Averaged TDC" (a-TDC) reduces the liberal bias of TDC for small FDR values and its variability throughout...
May 2017: Research in Computational Molecular Biology: ... Annual International Conference, RECOMB ...: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326361/molecular-imaging-of-bacteria-in-patients-is-an-attractive-fata-morgana-not-a-realistic-option
#7
Søren Hess, Abass Alavi, Tom Werner, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325474/visual-representation-of-medical-information-the-importance-of-considering-the-end-user-in-the-design-of-medical-illustrations
#8
Emma Scheltema, Stephen Reay, Greg Piper
This practice led research project explored visual representation through illustrations designed to communicate often complex medical information for different users within Auckland City Hospital, New Zealand. Media and tools were manipulated to affect varying degrees of naturalism or abstraction from reality in the creation of illustrations for a variety of real-life clinical projects, and user feedback on illustration preference gathered from both medical professionals and patients. While all users preferred the most realistic representations of medical information from the illustrations presented, patients often favoured illustrations that depicted a greater amount of information than professionals suggested was necessary...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324784/multiscale-modelling-of-blood-flow-in-cerebral-microcirculation-details-at-capillary-scale-control-accuracy-at-the-level-of-the-cortex
#9
Myriam Peyrounette, Yohan Davit, Michel Quintard, Sylvie Lorthois
Aging or cerebral diseases may induce architectural modifications in human brain microvascular networks, such as capillary rarefaction. Such modifications limit blood and oxygen supply to the cortex, possibly resulting in energy failure and neuronal death. Modelling is key in understanding how these architectural modifications affect blood flow and mass transfers in such complex networks. However, the huge number of vessels in the human brain-tens of billions-prevents any modelling approach with an explicit architectural representation down to the scale of the capillaries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324721/electromagnetic-acoustic-transducers-for-robotic-nondestructive-inspection-in-harsh-environments
#10
Sungho Choi, Hwanjeong Cho, Matthew S Lindsey, Cliff J Lissenden
Elevated temperature, gamma radiation, and geometric constraints inside dry storage casks for spent nuclear fuel represent a harsh environment for nondestructive inspection of the cask and require that the inspection be conducted with a robotic system. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) using non-contact ultrasonic transduction based on the Lorentz force to excite/receive ultrasonic waves are suited for use in the robotic inspection. Periodic permanent magnet EMATs that actuate/receive shear horizontal guided waves are developed for application to robotic nondestructive inspection of stress corrosion cracks in the heat affected zone of welds in stainless steel dry storage canisters...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324597/internal-podalic-version-and-breech-extraction-enhancing-realistic-sensations-in-a-simulation-model
#11
Jérôme M J Cornette, Jan S Erkamp
BACKGROUND: Experience with internal podalic version and breech extraction is diminishing, especially in the younger generation of obstetricians. Simulation training is essential to teach and maintain these skills. INSTRUMENT: We present a mannequin-based simulation method that enhances realistic sensations during training. EXPERIENCE: By positioning the fetal mannequin into a thin plastic bag filled with water, the impression of palpating, grabbing, and pulling the fetal feet through the plastic bag is similar to reaching feet through intact membranes...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324567/electronic-health-record-implementation-findings-at-a-large-suburban-health-and-human-services-department
#12
Kenyon Crowley, Anubhuti Mishra, Raul Cruz-Cano, Robert Gold, Dushanka Kleinman, Ritu Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate an electronic health record (EHR) implementation across a large public health department to better understand and improve implementation effectiveness of EHRs in public health departments. DESIGN: A survey based on Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs was administered to staff before and after implementation of an EHR. SETTING: Large suburban county department of health and human services that provides clinical, behavioral, social, and oral health services...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323397/spontaneous-symmetry-breaking-of-charge-regulated-surfaces
#13
Arghya Majee, Markus Bier, Rudolf Podgornik
The interaction between two chemically identical charge-regulated surfaces is studied using the classical density functional theory. In contrast to common expectations and assumptions, under certain realistic conditions we find a spontaneous emergence of disparate charge densities on the two surfaces. The surface charge densities can differ not only in their magnitude, but quite unexpectedly, even in their sign, implying that the electrostatic interaction between the two chemically identical surfaces can be attractive instead of repulsive...
January 11, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322186/stuttering-in-preschool-children-direct-versus-indirect-treatment
#14
Marilyn A Nippold
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the controversial topic of stuttering in preschool children and how to evaluate the options for treatment, emphasizing the role of external research evidence. Method: A hypothetical but realistic case study of a 3-year-old boy who stutters is described. Two contrasting approaches to treatment are presented, the Lidcombe Program (LP) and the demands and capacities model (DCM). Studies published in peer-reviewed research journals that have examined the effectiveness of each approach are summarized and critiqued...
January 9, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322152/computational-exploration-of-fe55-c240-catalyzed-fischer-tropsch-synthesis
#15
Geraldine Cilpa-Karhu, Kari Laasonen
Single-shell carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (SCEINs), Fe@C, have been shown to be charge-transfer complexes that can act as effective catalysts in the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. A new generation of Fe-based catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) which resembles SCEINs, e.g. single carbide nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon shells, has demonstrated enhanced activity and stability for FTS as compared to other carbon-supported Fe-based FTS. Thus the catalytic ability of SCEINs for the water splitting reactions and the Fe-based FTS catalyst with SCEINs-like features stimulated our exploration of SCEINs-catalyzed FTS...
January 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322093/heralded-quantum-steering-over-a-high-loss-channel
#16
Morgan M Weston, Sergei Slussarenko, Helen M Chrzanowski, Sabine Wollmann, Lynden K Shalm, Varun B Verma, Michael S Allman, Sae Woo Nam, Geoff J Pryde
Entanglement is the key resource for many long-range quantum information tasks, including secure communication and fundamental tests of quantum physics. These tasks require robust verification of shared entanglement, but performing it over long distances is presently technologically intractable because the loss through an optical fiber or free-space channel opens up a detection loophole. We design and experimentally demonstrate a scheme that verifies entanglement in the presence of at least 14.8 ± 0.1 dB of added loss, equivalent to approximately 80 km of telecommunication fiber...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321881/an-approach-based-on-the-total-species-accumulation-curve-and-higher-taxon-richness-to-estimate-realistic-upper-limits-in-regional-species-richness
#17
Stanislao Bevilacqua, Karl Inne Ugland, Adriana Plicanti, Danilo Scuderi, Antonio Terlizzi
Most of accumulation curves tend to underestimate species richness, as they do not consider spatial heterogeneity in species distribution, or are structured to provide lower bound estimates and limited extrapolations. The total-species (T-S) curve allows extrapolations over large areas while taking into account spatial heterogeneity, making this estimator more prone to attempt upper bound estimates of regional species richness. However, the T-S curve may overestimate species richness due to (1) the mismatch among the spatial units used in the accumulation model and the actual units of variation in β-diversity across the region, (2) small-scale patchiness, and/or (3) patterns of rarity of species...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321294/model-recommendations-meet-management-reality-implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-network-informed-vaccination-effort-for-endangered-hawaiian-monk-seals
#18
Stacie J Robinson, Michelle M Barbieri, Samantha Murphy, Jason D Baker, Albert L Harting, Meggan E Craft, Charles L Littnan
Where disease threatens endangered wildlife populations, substantial resources are required for management actions such as vaccination. While network models provide a promising tool for identifying key spreaders and prioritizing efforts to maximize efficiency, population-scale vaccination remains rare, providing few opportunities to evaluate performance of model-informed strategies under realistic scenarios. Because the endangered Hawaiian monk seal could be heavily impacted by disease threats such as morbillivirus, we implemented a prophylactic vaccination programme...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321263/estimating-kinetic-mechanisms-with-prior-knowledge-ii-behavioral-constraints-and-numerical-tests
#19
Marco A Navarro, Autoosa Salari, Mirela Milescu, Lorin S Milescu
Kinetic mechanisms predict how ion channels and other proteins function at the molecular and cellular levels. Ideally, a kinetic model should explain new data but also be consistent with existing knowledge. In this two-part study, we present a mathematical and computational formalism that can be used to enforce prior knowledge into kinetic models using constraints. Here, we focus on constraints that quantify the behavior of the model under certain conditions, and on constraints that enforce arbitrary parameter relationships...
January 10, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320789/-simulation-as-a-training-method-for-the-professionalization-of-teams
#20
Markus Flentje, Hendrik Eismann, Lion Sieg, Lars Friedrich, Georg Breuer
Simulation as an educational method can be applied to the training of processes, technical and non-technical skills. This article focuses on the role of simulation in crisis resource management and non-technical skills. A realistic work environment requires well-trained staff regarding simulation technology and communication. A training (unit) is divided into three sections. During the briefing the team is introduced to the scenario. Afterwards, the patient is treated by an interdisciplinary team. Communication under the pressure of action, even if one does not agree with the approach of the colleagues, should be practiced...
January 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
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