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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550936/the-bare-necessities-a-realist-review-of-necessity-argumentations-used-in-health-care-coverage-decisions
#1
REVIEW
Tineke Kleinhout-Vliek, Antoinette de Bont, Bert Boer
CONTEXT: Policy makers and insurance companies decide on coverage of care by both calculating (cost-) effectiveness and assessing the necessity of coverage. AIM: To investigate argumentations pertaining to necessity used in coverage decisions made by policy makers and insurance companies, as well as those argumentations used by patients, authors, the public and the media. METHODS: This study is designed as a realist review, adhering to the RAMESES quality standards...
May 5, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548713/co-culture-systems-based-strategies-for-articular-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#2
REVIEW
Yu Zhang, Shuyun Liu, Weimin Guo, Mingjie Wang, Chunxiang Hao, Shuang Gao, Xueliang Zhang, Li Xu, Mingxue Chen, Li Penghao, Peng Jiang, Shibi Lu, Quanyi Guo
Cartilage engineering facilitates repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage using engineered tissue that restores the functional properties of the impaired joint. The seed cells used most frequently in tissue engineering, are chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Seed cells activity plays a key role in the regeneration of functional cartilage tissue. However, seed cells undergo undesirable changes after in vitro processing procedures, such as degeneration of cartilage cells and induced hypertrophy of mesenchymal stem cells, which hinder cartilage tissue engineering...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547896/assembly-of-breast-cancer-heterotypic-spheroids-on-hyaluronic-acid-coated-surfaces
#3
Marco P Carvalho, Elisabete C Costa, Ilídio J Correia
Drug screening is currently demanding for realistic models that are able to reproduce the structural features of solid tumors. 3D cell culture systems, namely spheroids, emerged as a promising approach to provide reliable results during drug development. So far, Liquid Overlay Technique (LOT) is one of the most used methods for spheroids assembly. It comprises cellular aggregation due to their limited adhesion to certain biomaterials, like agarose. However, researchers are currently improving this technique in order to obtain spheroids on surfaces that mimic cancer extracellular matrix (ECM), since cell-ECM interactions modulate cells behavior and their drug resistance profile...
May 25, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546904/a-fast-image-simulation-algorithm-for-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy
#4
Colin Ophus
Image simulation for scanning transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution for samples with realistic dimensions can require very large computation times using existing simulation algorithms. We present a new algorithm named PRISM that combines features of the two most commonly used algorithms, namely the Bloch wave and multislice methods. PRISM uses a Fourier interpolation factor f that has typical values of 4-20 for atomic resolution simulations. We show that in many cases PRISM can provide a speedup that scales with f(4) compared to multislice simulations, with a negligible loss of accuracy...
2017: Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546308/dentate-gyrus-contributes-to-retrieval-as-well-as-encoding-evidence-from-context-fear-conditioning-recall-and-extinction
#5
Brian E Bernier, Anthony F Lacagnina, Adam Ayoub, Francis Shue, Boris V Zemelman, Franklin B Krasne, Michael R Drew
Dentate gyrus (DG) is widely thought to provide a teaching signal that enables hippocampal encoding of memories, but its role during retrieval is poorly understood. Some data and models suggest that DG plays no role in retrieval; others encourage the opposite conclusion. To resolve this controversy, we evaluated the effects of optogenetic inhibition of dorsal DG during context fear conditioning, recall, generalization, and extinction in male mice. We found that (1) inhibition during training impaired context fear acquisition; (2) inhibition during recall did not impair fear expression in the training context, unless mice had to distinguish between similar feared and neutral contexts; (3) inhibition increased generalization of fear to an unfamiliar context that was similar to a feared one and impaired fear expression in the conditioned context when it was similar to a neutral one; (4) inhibition impaired fear extinction...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545829/gut-microbiota-and-hepatitis-b-virus-induced-chronic-liver-disease-implications-for-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the bile duct, which carries bile formed in the liver to the intestine. Nearly all of the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines must pass through the liver. Human intestines contain a wide diversity of microbes, collectively termed the 'gut microbiota'. Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes and host immune modulation, and influence host development and physiology (organ development)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545609/updating-markov-models-to-integrate-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-studies
#7
Allan Tucker, Yuanxi Li, David Garway-Heath
Clinical trials are typically conducted over a population within a defined time period in order to illuminate certain characteristics of a health issue or disease process. Cross-sectional studies provide a snapshot of these disease processes over a large number of people but do not allow us to model the temporal nature of disease, which is essential for modelling detailed prognostic predictions. Longitudinal studies, on the other hand, are used to explore how these processes develop over time in a number of people but can be expensive and time-consuming, and many studies only cover a relatively small window within the disease process...
March 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545502/improving-care-for-people-with-heart-failure-in-uganda-serial-in-depth-interviews-with-patients-and-their-health-care-professionals
#8
Elizabeth Namukwaya, Liz Grant, Julia Downing, Mhoira Leng, Scott A Murray
BACKGROUND: The short prognosis of patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the associated multidimensional distress as illustrated in literature from high income countries necessitates the integration of palliative care into the care of advanced HF patients to address these needs and improve their quality of life. These needs, which are subjective, have not been described from the patients' and health care professionals'(HPs) view point in the Ugandan setting, a low income country with a different socio-cultural context...
May 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545227/potential-use-of-chemoprotectants-against-the-toxic-effects-of-cyanotoxins-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, María Puerto, Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Ana I Prieto, Silvia Pichardo, Ángeles Jos, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ana M Cameán
Cyanobacterial toxins, particularly microcystins (MCs) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), are responsible for toxic effects in humans and wildlife. In order to counteract or prevent their toxicity, various strategies have been followed, such as the potential application of chemoprotectants. A review of the main substances evaluated for this aim, as well as the doses and their influence on cyanotoxin-induced toxicity, has been performed. A search of the literature shows that research on MCs is much more abundant than research on CYN...
May 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545211/nano-enabling-of-strong-base-ion-exchange-media-via-a-room-temperature-aluminum-hydr-oxide-synthesis-method-to-simultaneously-remove-nitrate-and-fluoride
#10
Jasmina Markovski, Jose Garcia, Kiril D Hristovski, Paul Westerhoff
This study demonstrated a new room-temperature method for synthesizing aluminum (hydr)oxide material inside the pores of strong-base ion-exchange resin to fabricate a novel class of hybrid media capable of simultaneously removing nitrate and fluoride as model groundwater contaminants. The aluminum (hydr)oxide hybrid media was fabricated by reducing aluminum ion precursors with borohydride within ion-exchange resin at room temperature, followed by exposure to environmental oxygen. The hybrid media was characterized, and its performance to simultaneously remove nitrate and fluoride was determined in simple and complex water matrices using short-bed column tests operated under conditions realistic for point-of-use systems...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545083/simultaneous-inference-of-phylogenetic-and-transmission-trees-in-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#11
Don Klinkenberg, Jantien A Backer, Xavier Didelot, Caroline Colijn, Jacco Wallinga
Whole-genome sequencing of pathogens from host samples becomes more and more routine during infectious disease outbreaks. These data provide information on possible transmission events which can be used for further epidemiologic analyses, such as identification of risk factors for infectivity and transmission. However, the relationship between transmission events and sequence data is obscured by uncertainty arising from four largely unobserved processes: transmission, case observation, within-host pathogen dynamics and mutation...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545054/an-optimized-small-animal-tumour-model-for-experimentation-with-low-energy-protons
#12
Elke Beyreuther, Kerstin Brüchner, Mechthild Krause, Margret Schmidt, Rita Szabo, Jörg Pawelke
BACKGROUND: The long-term aim of developing laser based particle acceleration towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short and ultra-intensive particle beam pulses. After comprehensive cell studies a mouse ear tumour model was established allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~20 MeV) currently available at laser driven accelerators. The model was successfully applied for a first tumour growth delay study with laser driven electrons, whereby the need of improvements crop out...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544892/facial-expression-movement-enhances-the-measurement-of-temporal-dynamics-of-attentional-bias-in-the-dot-probe-task
#13
Corrado Caudek, Francesco Ceccarini, Claudio Sica
The facial dot-probe task is one of the most common experimental paradigms used to assess attentional bias toward emotional information. In recent years, however, the psychometric properties of this paradigm have been questioned. In the present study, attentional bias to emotional face stimuli was measured with dynamic and static images of realistic human faces in 97 college students (63 women) who underwent either a positive or a negative mood-induction prior to the experiment. We controlled the bottom-up salience of the stimuli in order to dissociate the top-down orienting of attention from the effects of the bottom-up physical properties of the stimuli...
May 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544582/evaluation-by-medical-students-of-the-educational-value-of-multi-material-and-multi-colored-three-dimensional-printed-models-of-the-upper-limb-for-anatomical-education
#14
Sreenivasulu Reddy Mogali, Wai Yee Yeong, Heang Kuan Joel Tan, Gerald Jit Shen Tan, Peter H Abrahams, Nabil Zary, Naomi Low-Beer, Michael Alan Ferenczi
For centuries, cadaveric material has been the cornerstone of anatomical education. For reasons of changes in curriculum emphasis, cost, availability, expertise, and ethical concerns, several medical schools have replaced wet cadaveric specimens with plastinated prosections, plastic models, imaging, and digital models. Discussions about the qualities and limitations of these alternative teaching resources are on-going. We hypothesize that three-dimensional printed (3DP) models can replace or indeed enhance existing resources for anatomical education...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544333/image-based-modeling-and-scoring-of-howell-jolly-bodies-in-human-erythrocytes
#15
Oguzhan Angay, Mike Friedrich, Jürgen Pinnecker, Henning Hintzsche, Helga Stopper, Klaus Hempel, Katrin G Heinze
The spleen selectively removes cells with intracellular inclusions, for example, detached nuclear fragments in circulating erythrocytes, called Howell-Jolly Bodies (HJBs). With absent or deficient splenic function HJBs appear in the peripheral blood and can be used as a simple and non-invasive risk-indicator for fulminant potentially life-threatening infection after spleenectomy. However, it is still under debate whether counting of the rare HJBs is a reliable measure of splenic function. Investigating HJBs in premature erythrocytes from patients during radioiodine therapy gives about 10 thousand times higher HJB counts than in blood smears...
May 24, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544273/use-of-clinical-guidelines-in-remote-australia-a-realist-evaluation
#16
Sandeep Reddy, Victoria Orpin, Sally Herring, Stephanie Mackie-Schneider, Janet Struber
AIM: The aim of this evaluation was to assess the acceptability, accessibility, and compliance with the 2014 editions of the Remote Primary Health Care Manuals (RPHCM) in health care centres across remote areas of Northern and Central Australia. METHOD: To undertake a comprehensive evaluation that considered context, the evaluation used a realist evaluation framework. The evaluation used a variety of methods including interviews and survey to develop and test a programme theory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544082/a-resource-of-potential-drug-targets-and-strategic-decision-making-for-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-pharmacotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Richard L Horner, Kevin P Grace, Andrew Wellman
There is currently no pharmacotherapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but there is no principled a priori reason why there should not be one. This review identifies a rational decision-making strategy with the necessary logical underpinnings that any reasonable approach would be expected to navigate to develop a viable pharmacotherapy for OSA. The process first involves phenotyping an individual to quantify and characterize the critical predisposing factor(s) to their OSA pathogenesis and identify, a priori, if the patient is likely to benefit from a pharmacotherapy that targets those factors...
May 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544010/goal-disturbance-changes-pre-post-renal-transplantation-are-related-to-changes-in-distress
#18
Alicia M de Vries, Torben Schulz, Ralf Westerhuis, Gerjan J Navis, Jan Niesing, Adelita V Ranchor, Maya J Schroevers
OBJECTIVE: Renal transplantation (RTx) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) given its association with lower mortality, and improved overall quality of life and psychological functioning compared to dialysis. However, much less is known about which factors underlie these psychological improvements across RTx. Goal theory suggests that experienced disturbances in important goals are related to lower psychological functioning. This study aimed to (1) identify the most disturbed and most important goals for patients before RTx, (2) to examine changes in goal disturbance and goal importance pre/post-RTx, and (3) to examine whether changes in goal disturbance are associated with changes in psychological distress over time, and whether this relationship is mediated by changes in perceived control...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543706/using-a-spontaneous-profile-rather-than-stimulation-test-makes-the-kigs-idiopathic-growth-hormone-deficiency-model-more-accessible-for-clinicians
#19
Karel Duchén, Anders Lindberg, Kaire Kiplok, Berit Kriström
AIM: Children treated with a growth hormone (GH) for idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) may be monitored with the first-year prediction model from the Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS) using auxology, age, GH dose and the maximum GH concentration from a stimulation test (GHmax stim). We tested the hypothesis that using a 12-hour spontaneous profile (GHmax 12h) would be as accurate. METHODS: We studied 98 prepubertal Swedish children (78 boys) aged 2-12 years enrolled in KIGS...
May 22, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543430/planet-an-ellipse-fitting-approach-for-simultaneous-t1-and-t2-mapping-using-phase-cycled-balanced-steady-state-free-precession
#20
Yulia Shcherbakova, Cornelis A T van den Berg, Chrit T W Moonen, Lambertus W Bartels
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel, ellipse fitting approach, named PLANET, for simultaneous estimation of relaxation times T1 and T2 from a single 3D phase-cycled balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence. METHODS: A method is presented in which the elliptical signal model is used to describe the phase-cycled bSSFP steady-state signal. The fitting of the model to the acquired data is reformulated into a linear convex problem, which is solved directly by a linear least squares method, specific to ellipses...
May 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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