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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931258/simulation-based-education-for-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-a-comparison-between-virtual-and-physical-training-models
#1
Gerben E Breimer, Faizal A Haji, Vivek Bodani, Melissa S Cunningham, Adriana-Lucia Lopez-Rios, Allan Okrainec, James M Drake
BACKGROUND: The relative educational benefits of virtual reality (VR) and physical simulation models for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) have not been evaluated "head to head." OBJECTIVE: To compare and identify the relative utility of a physical and VR ETV simulation model for use in neurosurgical training. METHODS: Twenty-three neurosurgical residents and 3 fellows performed an ETV on both a physical and VR simulation model. Trainees rated the models using 5-point Likert scales evaluating the domains of anatomy, instrument handling, procedural content, and the overall fidelity of the simulation...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931057/challenges-and-advances-for-transcriptome-assembly-in-non-model-species
#2
Arnaud Ungaro, Nicolas Pech, Jean-François Martin, R J Scott McCairns, Jean-Philippe Mévy, Rémi Chappaz, André Gilles
Analyses of high-throughput transcriptome sequences of non-model organisms are based on two main approaches: de novo assembly and genome-guided assembly using mapping to assign reads prior to assembly. Given the limits of mapping reads to a reference when it is highly divergent, as is frequently the case for non-model species, we evaluate whether using blastn would outperform mapping methods for read assignment in such situations (>15% divergence). We demonstrate its high performance by using simulated reads of lengths corresponding to those generated by the most common sequencing platforms, and over a realistic range of genetic divergence (0% to 30% divergence)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930965/bayesian-clinical-trial-designs-another-option-for-trauma-trials
#3
Jan O Jansen, Philip Pallmann, Graeme MacLennan, Marion K Campbell
Conducting clinical trials in trauma care is challenging. As new treatments become available, we are faced with the dilemma of how to confirm their effectiveness and strengthen the evidence base. Randomized controlled trials are the criterion standard, but target groups in trauma care are often small and specialized, making the classic approach to trial design difficult. Bayesian designs represent an innovative means of increasing trial efficiency and conducting trials with more realistic sample sizes. This article examines the design of such trials, using the UK-REBOA Trial as an example...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930693/managing-military-training-related-environmental-disturbance
#4
Rick Zentelis, Sam Banks, J Dale Roberts, Stephen Dovers, David Lindenmayer
Military Training Areas (MTAs) cover at least 2 percent of the Earth's terrestrial surface and occur in all major biomes. These areas are potentially important for biodiversity conservation. The greatest challenge in managing MTAs is balancing the disturbance associated with military training and environmental values. These challenges are unique as no other land use is managed for these types of anthropogenic disturbances in a natural setting. We investigated how military training-related disturbance is best managed on MTAs...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929974/reconstruction-and-visualization-of-large-scale-volumetric-models-of-neocortical-circuits-for-physically-plausible-in-silico-optical-studies
#5
Marwan Abdellah, Juan Hernando, Nicolas Antille, Stefan Eilemann, Henry Markram, Felix Schürmann
BACKGROUND: We present a software workflow capable of building large scale, highly detailed and realistic volumetric models of neocortical circuits from the morphological skeletons of their digitally reconstructed neurons. The limitations of the existing approaches for creating those models are explained, and then, a multi-stage pipeline is discussed to overcome those limitations. Starting from the neuronal morphologies, we create smooth piecewise watertight polygonal models that can be efficiently utilized to synthesize continuous and plausible volumetric models of the neurons with solid voxelization...
September 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929854/l-%C3%A3-thique-de-la-modification-du-g%C3%A3-nome-en-clinique-une-dose-de-r%C3%A3-alisme-pour-les-leaders-en-sant%C3%A3
#6
Tania Bubela, Yael Mansour, Dianne Nicol
Les technologies de modification du génome promettent des avancées dans le traitement des maladies génétiques. Les auteurs abordent les enjeux éthiques et sociaux que soulèvent ces technologies, y compris leur utilisation dans des recherches précliniques, leur potentiel à résoudre les mutations somatiques et leur potentiel à modifier les lignées germinales qui peuvent être transmises aux prochaines générations. Ils demandent une réponse modérée de la part des leaders en santé, reposant sur une évaluation réaliste des avantages, des risques et des délais d'application clinique...
May 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929852/the-ethics-of-genome-editing-in-the-clinic-a-dose-of-realism-for-healthcare-leaders
#7
Tania Bubela, Yael Mansour, Dianne Nicol
Genome editing technologies promise therapeutic advances for genetic diseases. We discuss the ethical and societal issues raised by these technologies, including their use in preclinical research, their potential to address mutations in somatic cells, and their potential to make germ line alterations that may be passed to subsequent generations. We call for a proportionate response from health leaders based on a realistic assessment of benefits, risks, and timelines for clinical translation.
May 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929073/septorhinoplasty-our-experience
#8
Jaimanti Bakshi, Sourabha K Patro
Rhinoplasty is one of the oldest known surgeries to the human kind. However, being a cosmetic of surgery of utmost importance, it has been an attractive and fascinating surgery for the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons. Along with the evolution of improved techniques and better surgical modalities, this surgery has been growing in panorama including its indications, needs and techniques. We present our experience with rhinoplasty in a tertiary care center of north India. We have included all cases operated with septorhinoplasty from 2001 to 2014 by the senior author in the manuscript...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928771/an-analysis-of-patient-perceptions-and-expectations-to-dental-implants-is-there-a-significant-effect-on-long-term-satisfaction-levels
#9
Shane J J McCrea
Here we present an analysis of patient perceptions and expectations to dental implant placement and their prosthetic reconstruction, to then consider whether they have an effect on long-term satisfaction levels. A Post-Treatment Completion Questionnaire was designed to analyse whether patient satisfaction is influenced by age and/or gender; has an effect on patient-reported self-confidence levels; contributes to increased levels of oral hygiene; provides further insight into the average pain levels during and after the surgical intervention; or influences further acceptance of dental implant surgery...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928669/nature-s-electric-potential-a-systematic-review-of-the-role-of-bioelectricity-in-wound-healing-and-regenerative-processes-in-animals-humans-and-plants
#10
REVIEW
Sheena E B Tyler
Natural endogenous voltage gradients not only predict and correlate with growth and development but also drive wound healing and regeneration processes. This review summarizes the existing literature for the nature, sources, and transmission of information-bearing bioelectric signals involved in controlling wound healing and regeneration in animals, humans, and plants. It emerges that some bioelectric characteristics occur ubiquitously in a range of animal and plant species. However, the limits of similarities are probed to give a realistic assessment of future areas to be explored...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928321/opening-gambit-strategic-options-to-initiate-the-tobacco-endgame
#11
Pranay Lal, Rana J Singh, Ashish Kumar Pandey
Endgame strategies to rapidly hasten the decline of tobacco are already well within reach; a few plausible policy options are outlined herein for policy practitioners, tobacco control advocates, and public health specialists. The implementation of these measures which already exist within the gamut of existing legislation requires the galvanization of political will. The options we essay include liquidating existing public investments in tobacco, holding tobacco companies accountable within the jurisdictions of their operations, fixing liability for injury and the imposition of realistic costs on insurance providers...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927869/what-have-we-learned-from-best
#12
Cornelia F Allaart, Iris M Markusse, Willem F Lems
BACKGROUND: How have the long term outcomes of RA improved in the last decade? METHODS: Patients with DMARD naïve RA were randomized to 4 treatment strategies: 1. sequential DMARD monotherapy, 2. step-up combination therapy, 3. initial combination therapy including prednisone or 4. including infliximab. Treatment-to-target was aimed at DAS≤2.4 (three-monthly calculations). Functional ability (HAQ), radiologic damage progression (Sharp/vanderHeijde Score) and overall survival were reported...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927373/variation-in-loss-of-immunity-shapes-influenza-epidemics-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#13
Rutger G Woolthuis, Jacco Wallinga, Michiel van Boven
BACKGROUND: Protective antibody immunity against the influenza A virus wanes in 2-7 years due to antigenic drift of the virus' surface proteins. The duration of immune protection is highly variable because antigenic evolution of the virus is irregular. Currently, the variable nature of the duration of immunity has had little attention in analyses of the impact of vaccination, including cost-effectiveness studies. METHODS: We developed a range of mathematical transmission models to investigate the effect of variable duration of immunity on the size of seasonal epidemics...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926580/simple-yet-effective-historical-proximity-variables-improve-the-species-distribution-models-for-invasive-giant-hogweed-heracleum-mantegazzianum-s-l-in-poland
#14
Piotr Mędrzycki, Ingeborga Jarzyna, Artur Obidziński, Barbara Tokarska-Guzik, Zofia Sotek, Piotr Pabjanek, Adam Pytlarczyk, Izabela Sachajdakiewicz
Species distribution models are scarcely applicable to invasive species because of their breaking of the models' assumptions. So far, few mechanistic, semi-mechanistic or statistical solutions like dispersal constraints or propagule limitation have been applied. We evaluated a novel quasi-semi-mechanistic approach for regional scale models, using historical proximity variables (HPV) representing a state of the population in a given moment in the past. Our aim was to test the effects of addition of HPV sets of different minimal recentness, information capacity and the total number of variables on the quality of the species distribution model for Heracleum mantegazzianum on 116000 km2 in Poland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926385/graduation-protocol-after-growing-rod-treatment-removal-of-implants-without-new-instrumentation-is-not-a-realistic-approach
#15
Ismail Aykut Kocyigit, Z Deniz Olgun, H Gokhan Demirkiran, Mehmet Ayvaz, Muharrem Yazici
BACKGROUND: The growing rod remains an effective option in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis, and has previously been likened to an internal brace. While details of growing-rod treatment have been largely agreed on, the appropriate end point remains a matter of controversy. A decision was made in 2004, at the beginning of growing-rod treatment at our institution, to remove longitudinal instrumentation when the period of lengthening concluded and, similar to discontinuing a brace, leave the spine free...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926128/copper-catalysed-aminoboration-of-vinylarenes-with-hydroxylamine-esters-a-computational-mechanistic-study
#16
Sven Tobisch
This first comprehensive computational study of the copper-mediated formal aminoboration utilising an electrophilic strategy has identified the most accessible pathway for the productive catalysis. The mechanistic picture derived from smooth energy profiles acquired by employing a reliable computational protocol applied to a realistic catalyst model conforms to all available experimental data. The high degree of chemo- and stereoselectivity achieved in syn-borylcupration and Umpolung electrophilic amination is instrumental to the exclusive generation of the (syn)-beta-aminoalkylborane product...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925713/simple-and-efficient-fabrication-of-mayenite-electrides-from-a-solution-derived-precursor
#17
Dong Jiang, Zeyu Zhao, Shenglong Mu, Vincent Phaneuf, Jianhua Tong
Mayenite (12CaO·7Al2O3, C12A7) electride with an anti-zeolite nanoporous structure has attracted intense attention due to its versatile promising application potentials. However, the synthesis difficulty because of extremely harsh conditions (e.g., reduction in sealed calcium or titanium vapor) significantly obstructs its realistic applications. In this work, we employed a simple, efficient, and cost-effective route for synthesizing mayenite electrides (C12A7:e(-)) in both powder and dense ceramic. C12A7:e(-) powders with efficient electron doping (3...
September 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925064/improving-realism-in-clinical-trial-simulations-via-real-world-data
#18
EDITORIAL
Holly Kimko, Kwan Lee
Simulation validity depends on how well sampling distributions used reflect real-patient characteristics, such as drug adherence, disease progression, and pharmacologic handling in the body. We challenge the current use of growth charts from nondisease-specific pediatrics in simulations for drug development. Complementary use of data from clinical trials and the real-world is expected to achieve a more realistic representation of clinical outcomes for decisions in drug development, regulatory approval, and health technology assessment...
September 19, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924572/stereovision-based-integrated-system-for-point-cloud-reconstruction-and-simulated-brain-shift-validation
#19
Xiaochen Yang, Logan W Clements, Ma Luo, Saramati Narasimhan, Reid C Thompson, Benoit M Dawant, Michael I Miga
Intraoperative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current image-guided surgery navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been proposed as a cost-effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. We present a mock environment developed to acquire stereoimages from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct three-dimensional point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923494/transformative-research-is-not-easily-predicted
#20
REVIEW
Sarah A Gravem, Silke M Bachhuber, Heather K Fulton-Bennett, Zachary H Randell, Alissa J Rickborn, Jenna M Sullivan, Bruce A Menge
Transformative research (TR) statements in scientific grant proposals have become mainstream. However, TR is defined as radically changing our understanding of a concept, causing a paradigm shift, or opening new frontiers. We argue that it is rarely possible to predict the transformative nature of research. Interviews and surveys of 78 transformative ecologists suggest that most TR began with incremental goals, while transformative potential was recognized later. Most respondents thought TR is unpredictable and should not be prioritized over 'incremental' research that typically leads to breakthroughs...
September 15, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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