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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737154/effect-of-dose-and-frequency-of-exposure-to-infectious-stages-on-trematode-infection-intensity-and-success-in-mussels
#1
Caroline Liddell, Jennifer E Welsh, Jaap van der Meer, David W Thieltges
Marine parasites such as trematodes often compromise the fitness of their hosts. Such effects are generally considered to be density-dependent, i.e. the greater the infection intensity in the host, the greater the detrimental impact on host fitness. However, the mechanisms determining infection in marine hosts are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of cercarial dose and exposure frequency (single vs. trickle infections) of a marine trematode parasite, Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae), on infection intensity and success in its second intermediate host, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, an abundant and widely distributed bivalve in European coastal waters...
July 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736901/food-waste-conversion-to-microbial-polyhydroxyalkanoates
#2
REVIEW
Chad Nielsen, Asif Rahman, Asad Ur Rehman, Marie K Walsh, Charles D Miller
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers with desirable material properties similar to petrochemically derived plastics. PHAs are naturally produced by a wide range of microorganisms as a carbon storage mechanism and can accumulate to significantly high levels. PHAs are an environmentally friendly alternative to their petroleum counterparts because they can be easily degraded, potentially reducing the burden on municipal waste systems. Nevertheless, widespread use of PHAs is not currently realistic due to a variety of factors...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736809/dose-evaluation-of-grid-therapy-using-a-6-mv-flattening-filter-free-fff-photon-beam-a-monte-carlo-study
#3
Immaculada Martínez-Rovira, Josep Puxeu, Yolanda Prezado
PURPOSE: Spatially fractionated radiotherapy is a strategy to overcome the main limitation of radiotherapy, i.e., the restrained normal tissue tolerances. A well-known example is Grid Therapy, which is currently performed at some hospitals using megavoltage photon beams delivered by Linacs. Grid Therapy has been successfully used in the management of bulky abdominal tumors with low toxicity. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether an improvement in therapeutic index in Grid Therapy can be obtained by implementing it in a flattening filter-free (FFF) Linac...
July 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736455/using-kaizen-to-improve-employee-well-being-results-from-two-organizational-intervention-studies
#4
Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Karina M Nielsen, Terese Stenfors-Hayes, Henna Hasson
Participatory intervention approaches that are embedded in existing organizational structures may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational interventions, but concrete tools are lacking. In the present article, we use a realist evaluation approach to explore the role of kaizen, a lean tool for participatory continuous improvement, in improving employee well-being in two cluster-randomized, controlled participatory intervention studies. Case 1 is from the Danish Postal Service, where kaizen boards were used to implement action plans...
August 2017: Human Relations; Studies Towards the Integration of the Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736284/adam-a-breathing-phantom-for-lung-sbrt-quality-assurance
#5
Stefania Pallotta, Silvia Calusi, Leonardo Foggi, Riccardo Lisci, Laura Masi, Livia Marrazzo, Cinzia Talamonti, Lorenzo Livi, Gabriele Simontacchi
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy treatment of moving lesions is a challenging task in which different strategies can be used to adequately treat the tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue. The complexity of these strategies requires accurate and appropriate quality assurance tests. For this purpose, ADAM (Anthropomorphic Dynamic breAthing Model), a new phantom which simulates realistic patient breathing, was developed aiming to test the image quality and dose delivery in lung cancer treatments...
July 20, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735790/patient-specific-finite-element-analysis-of-fiber-post-and-ferrule-design
#6
Monise de Paula Rodrigues, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares, Andréa Dollores Correia Miranda Valdivia, Roberto Sales Pessoa, Crisnicaw Veríssimo, Antheunis Versluis, Carlos José Soares
INTRODUCTION: A ferrule on anterior endodontic-treated teeth has been evaluated using clinical trials, in vitro tests, and finite element analysis (FEA). The patient-specific FEA with a nonuniform ferrule and nonlinear contact biting load associated with clinical validation can be used to predict failure. METHODS: A patient was selected with both maxillary central incisors with different ferrule designs who received endodontic treatment and restoration using a fiber post, composite core, and computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing lithium disilicate ceramic crowns...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735621/getting-to-grips-with-context-and-complexity-the-case-for-realist-approaches
#7
Geoff Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735612/cutaneous-glucocorticoidogenesis-and-cortisol-signaling-are-defective-in-psoriasis
#8
Andrzej T Slominski, Anna A Brożyna, Robert C Tuckey
Hannen et al. report that cutaneous glucocorticoidogenesis and expression of glucocorticoid receptors are inhibited in psoriatic skin. These findings substantiate the previous concept that deficient feedback of local proopiomelanocortin and glucocorticoids on cutaneous immunity contributes to inflammatory and autoimmune dermatoses. Restoration of efficient endogenous glucocorticoid signaling represents a realistic goal in treating psoriasis.
August 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734964/removing-user-fees-for-health-services-a-multi-epistemological-perspective-on-access-inequities-in-senegal
#9
Philipa Mladovsky, Maymouna Ba
Plan Sésame (PS) is a user fee exemption policy launched in 2006 to provide free access to health services to Senegalese citizens aged 60 and over. Analysis of a large household survey evaluating PS echoes findings of other studies showing that user fee removal can be highly inequitable. 34 semi-structured interviews and 19 focus group discussions with people aged 60 and over were conducted in four regions in Senegal (Dakar, Diourbel, Matam and Tambacounda) over a period of six months during 2012. They were analysed to identify underlying causes of exclusion from/inclusion in PS and triangulated with the household survey...
July 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734954/sparse-mri-reconstruction-using-multi-contrast-image-guided-graph-representation
#10
Zongying Lai, Xiaobo Qu, Hengfa Lu, Xi Peng, Di Guo, Yu Yang, Gang Guo, Zhong Chen
Accelerating the imaging speed without sacrificing image structures plays an important role in magnetic resonance imaging. Under-sampling the k-space data and reconstructing the image with sparsity constraint is one efficient way to reduce the data acquisition time. However, achieving high acceleration factor is challenging since image structures may be lost or blurred when the acquired information is not sufficient. Therefore, incorporating extra knowledge to improve image reconstruction is expected for highly accelerated imaging...
July 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734872/modeling-the-cleavage-of-von-willebrand-factor-by-adamts13-protease-in-shear-flow
#11
Brooke Huisman, Masoud Hoore, Gerhard Gompper, Dmitry A Fedosov
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a key protein in hemostasis as it mediates adhesion of blood platelets to a site of vascular injury. A proper distribution of VWF lengths is important for normal functioning of hemostatic processes, because a diminished number of long VWF chains may significantly limit blood clotting and lead to bleeding, while an abundant number of long VWFs may result in undesired thrombotic events. VWF size distribution is controlled by ADAMTS13 protease, which can cleave VWF chains beyond a critical shear rate when the chains are stretched enough such that cleavage sites become accessible...
July 19, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734190/two-dimensional-modeling-of-elastic-wave-propagation-in-solids-containing-cracks-with-rough-surfaces-and-friction-part-ii-numerical-implementation
#12
Steven Delrue, Vladislav Aleshin, Kevin Truyaert, Olivier Bou Matar, Koen Van Den Abeele
Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis...
July 13, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734112/fused-multivariate-empirical-mode-decomposition-memd-and-inverse-solution-method-for-eeg-source-localization
#13
Pegah Khosropanah, Abdul Rahman Ramli, Kheng Seang Lim, Mohammad Hamiruce Marhaban, Anvarjon Ahmedov
EEG source localization is determining possible cortical sources of brain activities with scalp EEG. Generally, every step of the data processing sequence affects the accuracy of EEG source localization. In this paper, we introduce a fused multivariate empirical mode decomposing (MEMD) and inverse solution algorithm with an embedded unsupervised eye blink remover in order to localize the epileptogenic zone accurately. For this purpose, we constructed realistic forward models using MRI and boundary element method (BEM) for each patient to obtain results that are more realistic...
July 22, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734092/disentangling-the-role-of-seed-bank-and-dispersal-in-plant-metapopulation-dynamics-using-patch-occupancy-surveys
#14
F Manna, R Pradel, R Choquet, H Fréville, P-O Cheptou
In plants, the presence of a seed bank challenges the application of classical metapopulation models to above-ground presence surveys; ignoring seed bank leads to overestimated extinction and colonization rates. In this article, we explore the possibility to detect seed bank using hidden Markov models in the analysis of above-ground patch occupancy surveys of an annual plant with limited dispersal. Patch occupancy data were generated by simulation under two metapopulation sizes (N = 200 and N = 1000 patches) and different metapopulation scenarios, each scenario being a combination of the presence/absence of a one-year seed bank and the presence/absence of limited dispersal in a circular 1-dimension configuration of patches...
July 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733731/novel-laparoscopic-training-system-with-continuously-perfused-ex-vivo-porcine-liver-for-hepatobiliary-surgery
#15
Wenyan Liu, Xinglong Zheng, Rongqian Wu, Yinbin Jin, Shu Kong, Jianpeng Li, Jianwen Lu, Huan Yang, Xianghua Xu, Yi Lv, Xiaogang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To introduce a novel laparoscopic training system with a continuously perfused ex-vivo porcine liver for hepatobiliary surgery. BACKGROUND: Existing models for laparoscopic training, such as box trainers and virtual reality simulators, often fail to provide holistic training and real haptic feedback. We have formulated a new training system that addresses these problems. METHODS: Real-Liver Laptrainer consists of a porcine liver, customized mannequin, ex-vivo machine perfusion system, and monitoring software...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733625/electronic-structure-of-polyethylene-role-of-chemical-morphological-and-interfacial-complexity
#16
Lihua Chen, Tran Doan Huan, Rampi Ramprasad
The electronic structure of an insulator encodes essential signatures of its short-term electrical performance and long-term reliability. A critical long-standing challenge though is that key features of the electronic structure of an insulator (and its evolution) under realistic conditions have not been entirely accessible, either via experimental or computational approaches, due to the inherent complexities involved. In this comprehensive study, we reveal the role of chemical and morphological imperfections that inevitably exist within the technologically important prototypical and pervasive insulator, polyethylene (PE), and at electrode/PE interfaces...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733580/implementing-a-universal-gate-set-on-a-logical-qubit-encoded-in-an-oscillator
#17
Reinier W Heeres, Philip Reinhold, Nissim Ofek, Luigi Frunzio, Liang Jiang, Michel H Devoret, Robert J Schoelkopf
A logical qubit is a two-dimensional subspace of a higher dimensional system, chosen such that it is possible to detect and correct the occurrence of certain errors. Manipulation of the encoded information generally requires arbitrary and precise control over the entire system. Whether based on multiple physical qubits or larger dimensional modes such as oscillators, the individual elements in realistic devices will always have residual interactions, which must be accounted for when designing logical operations...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733120/employing-decomposable-partially-observable-markov-decision-processes-to-control-gene-regulatory-networks
#18
Utku Erdogdu, Faruk Polat, Reda Alhajj
OBJECTIVE: Formulate the induction and control of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from gene expression data using Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs). METHODS AND MATERIAL: Different approaches exist to model GRNs; they are mostly simulated as mathematical models that represent relationships between genes. Actually, it has been realized that biological functions at the cellular level are controlled by genes; thus, by controlling the behavior of genes, it is possible to regulate these biological functions...
July 18, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732818/adherence-to-copd-treatment-myth-and-reality
#19
REVIEW
Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Ermanno Puxeddu, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
COPD is a chronic disease in which effective management requires long-term adherence to pharmacotherapies but the level of adhesion to the prescribed medications is very low and this has a negative influence on outcomes. There are several approaches to detect non-adherence, such as pharmacy refill methods, electronic monitoring, and self-report measures, but they are all burdened with important limitations. Medication adherence in COPD is multifactorial and is affected by patients (health beliefs, cognitive abilities, self-efficacy, comorbidities, psychological profile, conscientiousness), physicians (method of administration, dosing regimen, polypharmacy, side effects), and society (patient-prescriber relationship, social support, access to medication, device training, follow-up)...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732443/a-first-principles-study-on-o2-adsorption-and-dissociation-processes-over-rh-100-and-rh-111-surfaces
#20
Lu Tan, Liangliang Huang, Qi Wang, Yingchun Liu
Through DFT calculations, a systematic description of O2 adsorption and dissociation processes over Rh(100) and Rh(111) surfaces has been provided. The dominance of parallel orientation in molecularly adsorbed states and during the impinging processes has been identified, along with the explicit adsorption configurations and preferred impinging trajectories on both surfaces. The dissociation of O2 is found to occur either by precursor mediated adsorption or by direct dissociation. O2 in initial precursor state dissociates facilely on Rh(100) but a little harder on Rh(111) by going through a two-step process...
July 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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