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Sugar Diabetes

Hemang Gandhi, Alpesh Sarvaia, Amber Malhotra, Himanshu Acharya, Komal Shah, Jeevraj Rajavat
Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is noticeably high (20%-30%). These patients have inferior perioperative outcome, reduced long-term survival, and high risk of recurrent episodes of angina. To improve perioperative outcome surgical unit defined satisfactory glycemic control is desired during this period. Hence, the aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of glargine insulin combination with continuous human insulin infusion for perioperative glycemic control in patients with diabetes undergoing CABG...
April 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Cong Zhang, Hongman Chen, Weiqi Bai
A polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 13,029 Da was isolated from Momordica charantia (MCP) fruit and purified by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The isolated polysaccharide MCPIIa contained L-Rha, D-GalA, D-Gal, D-Xyl, L-Ara in a molar ratio of 12:3.05:19.89:5.95:56. IR spectrum and NMR studies indicated that the MCPIIa sugar units were linked, via β-glycosidic bonds, to a large number of arabinofuranose, glucuronic acid, and xylopyranosyl residues. In addition, the hypoglycemic effect of MCPIIa was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takanori Matsui
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, including peripheral artery disease (PAD) is more common and severe in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic individuals. Indeed, diabetes is associated with the increased risk of limb amputation and all-cause mortality in patients with symptomatic PAD. Proteins and lipids are non-enzymatically modified by sugars, resulting in the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), whose process is accelerated under diabetic conditions, especially patients with a long duration of diabetes...
April 12, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Firas Younis, Jonathan Leor, Zaid Abassi, Natalie Landa, Lea Rath, Kenneth Hollander, Nili Naftali-Shani, Talma Rosenthal
The effectiveness of empagliflozin (EMPA), a sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor, on the kidney, pancreas, and heart was investigated in the Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rat model (CRDH rat). Six-week-old CRDH male rats were fed a sugar diet (SD) and treated with the compound EMPA (group Drug/SD) or respective comparator with vehicle (group Veh/SD). A control group was fed a regular diet without treatment (group Veh/P). Preventive treatment with EMPA was measured during 4 months of follow-up...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ryota Miyazaki, Tomohiko Yamazaki, Keiichi Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiro Kojima, Ryutaro Asano, Koji Sode, Wakako Tsugawa
Glucoside 3‑dehydrogenase (G3DH) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of the hydroxy group on the C-3 position of pyranose and shows broad substrate specificity by oxidizing many saccharides. Due to unique site specificity and wide substrate specificity, G3DHs can be used for synthesis of sugar derivatives, anodic catalysis in biofuel cells, multi-sugar analysis using enzyme electrode, and for enzymatic detection of 1,5‑anhydro‑d‑glucitol, a clinical marker for diabetes...
March 7, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Patrick O'Brien, Rhys Hewett, Christopher Corpe
Distributed along the length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are nutrient sensing cells that release numerous signalling peptides influencing GI function, nutrient homeostasis and energy balance. Recent studies have shown a diurnal rhythm in GI nutrient sensing, but the mechanisms responsible for rhythmicity are poorly understood. In this report we studied murine GI sugar sensor gene and protein expression levels in the morning (7am) and evening (7pm). Sweet taste receptor (tas1r2/tas1r3/gnat3/ gnat1) sugar transporter (slc5a1, slc2a2, slc2a5) and putative sugar sensor (slc5a4a and slc5a4b) gene expression levels were highest in tongue, proximal and distal small intestine, respectively...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Uzma Shahab, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Saheem Ahmad
The glycation reaction is the addition of free carbonyl group of reducing sugar to the free amino groups of proteins, lipoproteins and nucleic acids which results in the formation of an Amadori product which may ultimately lead to the generation of advanced glycation products (AGEs). The impact of AGEs on proteins consequently generates free radicals, "a key player" for the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Gel electrophoresis was carried out to see the visual changes taking place as a result of the glycation reaction...
April 6, 2018: IUBMB Life
Sae Rom Park, Jang Hoon Kim, Hae Dong Jang, Seo Young Yang, Young Ho Kim
α-Glucosidase is an enzyme that plays a key role in raising blood sugar level and is considered a good target for developing drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. This study was performed to evaluate the inhibition of the catalytic reaction of α-glucosidase by minor phlorotannin derivatives (1-5) from Ecklonia cava. These derivatives demonstrated inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 2.3 ± 0.1 to 59.8 ± 0.8 μM. Among the phlorotannins identified, compounds 2 and 3-5 were revealed to be non-competitive and competitive inhibitors, respectively...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Marzieh Niknami, Ali Mirbalouchzehi, Iraj Zareban, Elahibakhsh Kalkalinia, Gasem Rikhtgarha, Hassan Hosseinzadeh
This study explores the potential association of health literacy with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) self-management and clinical outcomes in the primary care setting of Iran. A total of 347 T2DM patients, mostly female (52.4%), 50 years old or younger (63.1%), unemployed (53.6%) and rural residents (55.6%) participated in this study. Most of the respondents had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for 2-5 years (63.1%) and did not receive any T2DM education (52.2%). Approximately 19.0% were hospitalised due to uncontrolled T2DM...
April 6, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Elizabeth A Lundeen, Sohyun Park, Stephen Onufrak, Solveig Cunningham, Heidi M Blanck
PURPOSE: To examine associations of adolescent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with parent SSB intake and parent and adolescent knowledge of SSB-related health risks. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional. SETTING: 2014 SummerStyles survey. SUBJECTS: Nine hundred and ninety parent and adolescent (12-17 years) pairs. MEASURES: The outcome was self-reported adolescent intake (0, >0 to <1, or ≥1 time/day) of SSBs (soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, other SSBs)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Stefan Gerardus Camps, Joseph Lim, Atsushi Ishikado, Yumi Inaba, Makoto Suwa, Motonobu Matsumoto, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
The regular consumption of soy products is associated with inverse incidence of type 2 diabetes, and there has been an increasing interest in the glycemia reducing potential of rice bran and its components. In this study, we investigated whether consuming soymilk with the addition of rice bran (fiber) can reduce the glycemic response of a carbohydrate meal. Seventeen healthy Asian men (BMI: 18.5-29 kg/m²) participated in this randomized crossover trial. On four occasions, they consumed white bread (two times) and white bread with two different soymilks differing in protein and rice bran content...
April 4, 2018: Nutrients
Raba Thapa, Shankha N Twyana, Govinda Paudyal, Shankar Khanal, Ruth van Nispen, Stevie Tan, Suman S Thapa, Ghmb van Rens
Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an emerging cause of blindness in developing countries. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and risk factors of DR in an elderly population in Nepal. Subjects and methods: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 1860 subjects at the age 60 years and above participated (response rate 88.6%). A detailed history was obtained, presenting and best-corrected visual acuity were measured, and anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were carried out...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Jose A Villa-Rodriguez, Asimina Kerimi, Laszlo Abranko, Sarka Tumova, Lauren Ford, Richard S Blackburn, Christopher Rayner, Gary Williamson
Transient hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and endothelial dysfunction, especially in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Nutritional interventions and strategies for controlling postprandial overshoot of blood sugars are considered key in preventing progress to the disease state. We have identified apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin, and (Z) and (E)-2-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid glucosides as the active (poly)phenols in Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) able to modulate carbohydrate digestion and absorption in vitro as assessed by inhibition of α-amylase and maltase activities...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
John Baptist Nzukizi Mudumbi, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Lukhanyo Mekuto, Tandi Matsha, Elie Fereche Itoba-Tombo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and it is characterized by high blood sugar and abnormal sera lipid levels. Although the specific reasons for the development of these abnormalities are still not well understood, traditionally, genetic and lifestyle behavior have been reported as the leading causes of this disease. In the last three decades, the number of diabetic patients has drastically increased worldwide, with current statistics suggesting the number is to double in the next two decades...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hyo Yeong Ahn, Jeong Su Cho, Yeong Dae Kim, Hoseok I, Seunghwan Song, Jung Seop Eom, Jeongha Mok
BACKGROUND:  In patients with parapneumonic empyema, decortication is usually preferred to ensure functional lung re-expansion. However, there could be patients exhibiting incomplete postoperative lung expansion and inadequate drainage despite decortication. Therefore, we evaluated factors affecting postoperative lung expansion in patients undergoing decortication. METHODS:  A total of 221 patients with pyogenic empyema who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) between January and October 2016 in our hospital were reviewed in terms of surgical success...
April 1, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Anjeeta Rani, Indrani Jha, Pannuru Venkatesu
Insulin (In) based formulation has been used over decades for the cure of In-dependent diabetic patients, however, more attempts are still required to improve the remedial use of In. In this regard, the use of green tea has become widespread nowadays. However, it is unknown that (+)-catechin hydrate (CAT), a major component of green tea which enhances anti-diabetic activity of In, will or will not enhance the structure and stability of In if ingested with sugars. Interestingly, by using biophysical techniques, present study reveals the fact that the use of sugar during the intake of green tea extract may produce unwanted effects on In which may further lead to some disorders associated with In stability and also create obstacle in successful implications of In formulations...
March 28, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
James A Morris
Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Xin-Ping Pan, Zi-Li Xing, Wei-Guo Jia, Hao-Jun Zhang, Zi-Rong Yang
The present study compared active ingredients of tea from different sources to select tea type and the fraction of tea extracts for the highest anti-hyperglycemic activity, and to verify anti-hyperglycemic activity of the selected tea extract. Tea extracts were separated and enriched by molecular weight using ultra-filtration technology. The extracts were first screened by α -glucosidase inhibition assay, followed by using a rat inverted intestine sac system to measure the effect on glucose transport. Both alloxan-induced diabetic rat model and high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin-induced rat diabetes mellitus model were used to study the effects of active components on blood glucose, body weight, insulin resistance...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jinnan Li, Jinlei Feng, Hong Wei, Qunying Liu, Ting Yang, Shengpan Hou, Ying Zhao, Bo Zhang, Cheng Yang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia caused by impaired insulin secretion and resistance of the peripheral tissues. A major pathogenesis of T2DM is obesity-associated insulin resistance. Gynura divaricata (L.) DC. (GD) is a natural plant and has been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects on both animals and humans. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of GD improving glucose and lipid metabolism in an obesity animal model induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet in combination with low dose of streptozocin and an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model induced by dexamethasone...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ya Li, Huimin Zhou, Feng Wang, Lu Han, Minghao Liu, Yihui Li, Zhihao Wang, Mengxiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased pro-inflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Treg), contributes to diabetes-associated insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown. METHODS: Sixty apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice were randomly divided into chow and diabetes groups. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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