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Brain Benign Tumors

Rong Ye, Ting Shen, Yasi Jiang, Lingjia Xu, Xiaoli Si, Baorong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between Parkinson disease (PD) occurrence and the risk of brain tumors, while the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the exact relationship between PD and brain tumors. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect and CBM (China Biology Medicine Disc) before February 2016. Eligible studies were those that reported risk estimates of brain tumors among patients with PD or vice versa...
2016: PloS One
Simona Gaudino, Matia Martucci, Rosellina Russo, Emiliano Visconti, Emma Gangemi, Francesco D'Argento, Tommaso Verdolotti, Libero Lauriola, Cesare Colosimo
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain glioma and is considered the prototype of benign circumscribed astrocytoma. Despite its low malignancy, the CT and MRI features of brain PA may resemble those of much more aggressive brain tumors. Misdiagnosis of PA is particularly easy when it demonstrates MR morphological and non-morphological findings that are inconsistent with its non-aggressive nature and that overlap with the features of more aggressive brain tumors...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Benita Tamrazi, Melike Pekmezci, Mariam Aboian, Tarik Tihan, Christine M Glastonbury
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Pituitary macroadenomas are predominantly benign intracranial neoplasms that can be locally aggressive with invasion of adjacent structures. Biomarkers of aggressive behavior have been identified in the pathology literature, including the proliferative marker MIB-1. In the radiology literature, diffusion weighted imaging and low ADC values provide similar markers of aggressive behavior in brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between ADC and MIB-1 in pituitary macroadenomas...
October 12, 2016: Pituitary
Raissa Coelho Andrade, Anna Claudia Evangelista Dos Santos, Joaquim Caetano de Aguirre Neto, Julián Nevado, Pablo Lapunzina, Fernando Regla Vargas
Li-Fraumeni and Li-Fraumeni like syndromes (LFS/LFL) represent rare cancer-prone conditions associated mostly with sarcomas, breast cancer, brain tumors, and adrenocortical carcinomas. TP53 germline mutations are present in up to 80 % of families with classic Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and in 20-60 % of families with Li-Fraumeni like phenotypes. The frequency of LFS/LFL families with no TP53 mutations detected suggests the involvement of other genes in the syndrome. In this study, we searched for mutations in TP53 in 39 probands from families with criteria for LFS/LFL...
October 6, 2016: Familial Cancer
Shanghao Li, Daniel Amat, Zhili Peng, Steven Vanni, Scott Raskin, Guillermo De Angulo, Abdelhameed M Othman, Regina M Graham, Roger M Leblanc
Among various cancers, pediatric brain tumors represent the most common cancer type in children and the second most common cause of cancer related deaths. Anticancer drugs and therapies, such as doxorubicin (Dox), have severe side effects on patients during chemotherapy, especially for children as their bodies are still under development. These side effects are believed to be due to the lack of a delivery system with high efficacy and targeting selectivity, resulting in serious damages of normal cells. To improve the efficacy and selectivity, the transferrin (Trans) receptor mediated endocytosis can be utilized for drug delivery system design, as transferrin receptors are expressed on the blood brain barrier (BBB) and often over expressed in brain tumor cells...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
Mohamed Said Abbas, Mohammad Najm AlBerawi, Issam Al Bozom, Nissar F Shaikh, Khalid Yacout Salem
BACKGROUND Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Samy L Habib, Noor Y Al-Obaidi, Maciej Nowacki, Katarzyna Pietkun, Barbara Zegarska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Wojciech Zegarski, Tomasz Drewa, Edward A Medina, Zhenze Zhao, Sitai Liang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant and multi-system genetic disorder in humans. TSC affects around 25,000 to 40,000 individuals in the United States and about 1 to 2 million individuals worldwide, with an estimated prevalence of one in 6,000 newborns. TSC occurs in all races and ethnic groups, and in both genders. TSC is caused by defects or mutations in two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Loss of TSC1/TSC2 leads to dysregulation of mTOR, resulting in aberrant cell differentiation and development, and abnormal enlargement of cells...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Tong Zhu, Christopher H Chapman, Christina Tsien, Michelle Kim, Daniel E Spratt, Theodore S Lawrence, Yue Cao
PURPOSE: Previous efforts to decrease neurocognitive effects of radiation focused on sparing isolated cortical structures. We hypothesize that understanding temporal, spatial, and dosimetric patterns of radiation damage to whole-brain white matter (WM) after partial-brain irradiation might also be important. Therefore, we carried out a study to develop the methodology to assess radiation therapy (RT)-induced damage to whole-brain WM bundles. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An atlas-based, automated WM tractography analysis was implemented to quantify longitudinal changes in indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 22 major WM fibers in 33 patients with predominantly low-grade or benign brain tumors treated by RT...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
D Chieffo, Gianpiero Tamburrini, P Frassanito, V Arcangeli, M Caldarelli, C Di Rocco
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the relationship between tumor grading and a selective evaluation of neurocognitive and behavioral functions in children with supratentorial hemispheric brain tumors. METHODS: Children admitted with a diagnosis of supratentorial hemispheric tumors involving the cerebral hemispheres or the thalamus at the Pediatric Neurosurgery Unit of the Catholic University of Rome between January 2008 and January 2014 were considered for the present study...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Saksith Smithason, Richard A Prayson, Jeffry P Mullin, J Jordi Rowe, Alireza M Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Myofibroblastoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor comprised of contractile myiod cells mostly in mammary gland. Only four prior cases arising in the central nervous system have been reported in the literature. We present a case of myofibroblastoma with a cystic component. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 76-year-old male with a history of Parkinson disease. The tumor was found incidentally after a minor fall. MRI revealed a 6.7 cm well circumscribed, partly cystic mass with a 2...
September 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Emin Mehmet Ceylan, Bariş Önen Ünsalver, Alper Evrensel
Meningiomas are mostly benign tumors of the meninges that may stay clinically silent or present first with psychiatric symptoms only. We present a case of medial cranial fossa meningioma that was first diagnosed as mixed anxiety disorder with dissociative symptoms and vertigo. In light of the intact neurological and vestibular system examination, our patient's vertigo and depersonalization were firstly addressed as psychosomatic symptoms of the psychiatric syndrome. Despite decreased anxiety and improved mood, dissociative symptoms and vertigo were resistant to treatment which prompted further research yielding a left hemisphere localized meningioma...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
K Jahn
Vertigo and dizziness of at least moderate severity occur in >5% of school-aged children and cause considerable restrictions in participation in school and leisure activity. More than 50% of dizzy children also have headache. Vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo as a migraine precursor are the most common diagnoses in dizziness clinics for children and adolescents. They account for 30-60% of diagnoses. Other common causes are somatoform, orthostatic, or posttraumatic dizziness. All other disorders that are known to cause vertigo and dizziness in adults also occur in children, but incidence rates are usually lower...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Chang-Hyun Lee, Chun Kee Chung, Chi Heon Kim
PURPOSE: Although ependymomas occur in both the brain and the spine, the prognosis is quite varied by tumor location. Spinal ependymomas usually follow a relatively benign course with more favorable prognosis than that of the intracranial ependymomas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic differences between spinal ependymomas and their intracranial counterparts using a meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library...
September 16, 2016: European Spine Journal
Xiaojuan Deng, Jingqin Fang, Qingya Luo, Haipeng Tong, Weiguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuroma is a rare benign tumor originating from the sympathetic nerves, and its origination from the trigeminal nerves is even rarer. Only 4 cases of ganglioneuroma originating from the trigeminal nerve have previously been reported, and these studies only reported conventional MRI manifestations. To our knowledge, the advanced MRI features of trigeminal ganglioneuroma have not been reported thus far. CASE PRESENTATION: This study reports a case of trigeminal ganglioneuroma in the left cerebellopontine angle...
2016: BMC Cancer
Nitin Marwaha, Jacqueline R Batanian, Jeroen R Coppens, Matthew J Pierson, Jennifer Richards-Yutz, Jessica Ebrahimzadeh, Arupa Ganguly, Miguel A Guzman
Melanocytoma are the melanocytic tumors originating from leptomeningeal melanocytes. Melanocytomas are commonly seen in the central nervous system (CNS) and are often associated with neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM). However, simultaneous presentation of intra-axial and extra-cranial melanocytoma is a very rare event. Here we report a unique case of 21-year-old male with intermediate grade subcutaneous melanocytoma, mimicking lipoma, occurred synchronously with an intracranial melanocytoma, not associated with NCM...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Tomás Francisco Cianciulli, Juan Bautista Soumoulou, Jorge Alberto Lax, María Cristina Saccheri, Alberto Cozzarin, Martín Alejandro Beck, Daniel Ernesto Ferreiro, Horacio Alberto Prezioso
INTRODUCTION: Papillary fibroelastoma (PFE) is a benign cardiac tumor that is currently detected more often due to the technological improvements in echocardiography. OBJECTIVES: To describe the echocardiographic features of PFE and correlate them with the clinical presentation and initial treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective analysis of patients with a diagnosis of PFE was conducted between 2000 and 2015. We assessed the clinical history, symptoms at the time of diagnosis, echocardiographic features, and initial treatment...
August 26, 2016: Echocardiography
Aasheen Munshey, Justin Moore, Catriona Maclean, Anthony Longano, Tony Goldschlager
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a benign neoplasm that typically occurs in the brain within the pediatric and adolescent age groups and is uncommon in adults. It rarely occurs within the ventricles and the overall prognosis is favourable. A pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain with spinal metastasis at presentation has never been reported in an adult. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a 47-year-old male presenting with sudden onset frontal headache associated with nausea and lethargy...
August 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Or Cohen-Inbar
Despite advances in neurosurgical technique, postoperative morbidity continues to taint open complete removal of many benign cranial base tumors (meningioma, pituitary adenomas, schwannomas). The incidence of temporary and permanent cranial nerve deficits is reported to be as high as 44% and 56% respectively, with postoperative mortality rates as high as 9%. As a consequence, many neurosurgeons choose to perform partial resections in order to preserve neurological functions. Progression rates after partial removal of a meningioma with no radiosurgery have been reported to be as high as 70%, compared to > 90% post-radiosurgical progression free survival rates...
May 2016: Harefuah
Jin Yang, Alexander G Bassuk, Juliane Merl-Pham, Chun-Wei Hsu, Diana F Colgan, Xiaorong Li, Kit Sing Au, Lijuan Zhang, Scott Smemo, Sally Justus, Yasunori Nagahama, Andrew J Grossbach, Matthew A Howard, Hiroto Kawasaki, Neil A Feldstein, William B Dobyns, Hope Northrup, Stefanie M Hauck, Marius Ueffing, Vinit B Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang
Inactivating mutations of the TSC1/TSC2 complex (TSC1/2) cause tuberous sclerosis (TSC), a hereditary syndrome with neurological symptoms and benign hamartoma tumors in the brain. Since TSC effectors are largely unknown in the human brain, TSC patient cortical tubers were used to uncover hyperphosphorylation unique to TSC primary astrocytes, the cell type affected in the brain. We found abnormal hyperphosphorylation of catenin delta-1 S268, which was reversible by mTOR-specific inhibitors. In contrast, in three metastatic astrocytoma cell lines, S268 was under phosphorylated, suggesting S268 phosphorylation controls metastasis...
August 11, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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