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Kimberly F Starr, Eric A Porsch, Patrick C Seed, Christian Heiss, Radnaa Naran, L Scott Forsberg, Uri Amit, Pablo Yagupsky, Parastoo Azadi, Joseph W St Geme
Kingella kingae is an encapsulated gram-negative organism that is a common cause of osteoarticular infections in young children. In earlier work, we identified a glycosyltransferase gene called csaA that is necessary for synthesis of the [3)-β-GalpNAc-(1→5)-β-Kdop-(2→] polysaccharide capsule (type a) in K. kingae strain 269-492. In the current study, we analyzed a large collection of invasive and carrier isolates from Israel and found that csaA was present in only 47% of the isolates. Further examination of this collection using primers based on the sequence that flanks csaA revealed three additional gene clusters (designated the csb, csc, and csd loci), all encoding predicted glycosyltransferases...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Bhaskar Sen, Sanjoy Kumar Sheet, Romita Thounaojam, Ramen Jamatia, Amarta Kumar Pal, Kripamoy Aguan, Snehadrinarayan Khatua
A new coumarin based Schiff base compound, CSB-1 has been synthesized to detect metal ion based on the chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). The cation binding properties of CSB-1 was thoroughly examined in UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In fluorescence spectroscopy the compound showed high selectivity toward Al(3+) ion and the Al(3+) can be quantified in mixed aqueous buffer solution (MeOH: 0.01M HEPES Buffer; 9:1; v/v) at pH7.4 as well as in BSA media. The fluorescence intensity of CSB-1 was enhanced by ~24 fold after addition of only five equivalents of Al(3+)...
October 11, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Paulo Moreira Vermelho, André Figueiredo Reis, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Marcelo Giannini
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the ultramorphological characteristics of tooth-resin interfaces and the bond strength (BS) of multimode adhesive systems to enamel and dentin. METHODS: Multimode adhesives (Scotchbond Universal (SBU) and All-Bond Universal) were tested in both self-etch and etch-and-rinse modes and compared to control groups (Optibond FL and Clearfil SE Bond (CSB)). Adhesives were applied to human molars and composite blocks were incrementally built up...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Guo-Hua Zhang, Tao Wu, Faizan A Sadiq, Huan-Yi Yang, Tong-Jie Liu, Hui Ruan, Guo-Qing He
Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T)...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Qianzheng Zhu, Altaf A Wani
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) eliminates a broad variety of helix-distorting DNA lesions that can otherwise cause genomic instability. NER comprises two distinct sub-pathways: global genomic NER (GG-NER) operating throughout the genome, and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) preferentially removing DNA lesions from transcribing DNA strands of transcriptionally active genes. Several NER factors undergo post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, occurring swiftly and reversibly at DNA lesion sites...
October 1, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Anne M Struffert, John C Rubin, Fabián G Fernández, John A Lamb
Groundwater contamination from NO-N leaching in corn ( L.) production with coarse-textured soils poses an environmental concern. Our objectives were to evaluate NO-N leaching in continuous corn (CC), corn after soybean ( L.) (CSb), and soybean after corn (SbC) in irrigated sandy soils in Minnesota related to (i) N rate using best management practices of split-N application, (ii) a split-N application and single preplant applications of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEF), and (iii) residual N treatment in SbC...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ahmed Arslan, Vera van Noort
MOTIVATION: The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) resulted in a large number of human deaths. Due to this devastation, the Ebola virus has attracted renewed interest as model for virus evolution. Recent literature on Ebola virus (EBOV) has contributed substantially to our understanding of the underlying genetics and its scope with reference to the 2014 outbreak. But no study yet, has focused on the conservation patterns of EBOV proteins. RESULTS: We analyzed the evolution of functional regions of EBOV and highlight the function of conserved residues in protein activities...
September 21, 2016: Bioinformatics
J M Guillén-Muñoz, C A Meza-Herrera, Z Santos-Jimenez, R Rivas-Muñoz, J R Luna-Orozco, M Mellado, F G Véliz-Deras
Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of diverse socio-sexual cues upon male sexual behavior and the reproductive performance of anestrous does (AD). Trials were conducted in northern Mexico (26°N) during the natural anestrous season (Feb-Mar) with crossbred dairy bucks. In Experiment 1, sexually inactive bucks (SIB, n=12) were randomly allotted to three groups, four males/group: a) DEE 9novelty stimulation) - daily exchange of estrogenized females (EF) 12&12h, b) NEE (no novelty stimulation) - no-exchange of EF, 24h, or c) CON (saline-treated_ -daily exchange of AF 12&12h...
October 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Mateusz Gola, Małgorzata Wordecha, Artur Marchewka, Guillaume Sescousse
There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Zuhao Huang, Yamin Shen, Yurong Ma
The control region is the major noncoding segment of animal mitochondrial DNA. To infer the structure and variation of Fringillidae mitochondrial DNA control region, the entire control region sequences of 25 species were analyzed. The length of the control region sequences was very conserved (1230 ± 18) and can be separated into three domains. The frequency of both substitutions and gaps was highest in the third domain and lowest in the central region. The control region has the same flanking gene order from tRNA(Glu) to tRNA(Phe)...
August 23, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Paula Banca, Neil A Harrison, Valerie Voon
Behavioral adaptation is required for the successful navigation of a constantly changing environment. Impairments in behavioral flexibility are commonly observed in psychiatric disorders including those of addiction. This study investigates two distinct facets of compulsivity, namely reversal learning and attentional set shifting, implicating orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal regions respectively, across disorders of primary and secondary rewards. Obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder (BED), individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB), alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological video-gaming (VG) were tested with two computerized tasks: the probabilistic reversal task (trials to criterion and win-stay/lose-shift errors) and the intra/extra-dimensional set shift task (IED)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Libertad Pantoja-Hernández, Elena Álvarez-Buylla, Carlos F Aguilar-Ibáñez, Adriana Garay-Arroyo, Alberto Soria-López, Juan Carlos Martínez-García
Downstream connection effects on transcription are caused by retroactivity. When biomolecular dynamical systems interconnect retroactivity is a property that becomes important. The biological functional meaning of these effects is increasingly becoming an area of interest. Downstream targets, which are operator binding sites in transcriptional networks, may induce behaviors such as ultrasensitive responses or even represent an undesired issue in regulation. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the binding mechanisms of transcription factors in relation to minimizing - or enhancing - retroactivity effects has not been previously addressed...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Ajoy C Karikkineth, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Elayne Fivenson, Deborah L Croteau, Vilhelm A Bohr
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties, leading to death by 12 years of age on average. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, with a prevalence of approximately 2.5 per million. There are several phenotypes (1, 2 and 3) and complementation groups (CSA and CSB), and overlaps with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)...
August 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Arnaud Vaganay
For pilot or experimental employment programme results to apply beyond their test bed, researchers must select 'clusters' (i.e. the job centres delivering the new intervention) that are reasonably representative of the whole territory. More specifically, this requirement must account for conditions that could artificially inflate the effect of a programme, such as the fluidity of the local labour market or the performance of the local job centre. Failure to achieve representativeness results in Cluster Sampling Bias (CSB)...
2016: PloS One
Benedict G Tan, Frederick C Wellesley, Nigel J Savery, Mark D Szczelkun
The guanine (G)-tract of conserved sequence block 2 (CSB 2) in human mitochondrial DNA can result in transcription termination due to formation of a hybrid G-quadruplex between the nascent RNA and the nontemplate DNA strand. This structure can then influence genome replication, stability and localization. Here we surveyed the frequency of variation in sequence identity and length at CSB 2 amongst human mitochondrial genomes and used in vitro transcription to assess the effects of this length heterogeneity on the activity of the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, POLRMT...
September 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Melanie L Talaga, Ni Fan, Ashli L Fueri, Robert K Brown, Purnima Bandyopadhyay, Tarun K Dam
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding proteins (GAGBPs), including growth factors, cytokines, morphogens, and extracellular matrix proteins, interact with both free GAGs and those covalently linked to proteoglycans. Such interactions modulate a variety of cellular and extracellular events, such as cell growth, metastasis, morphogenesis, neural development, and inflammation. GAGBPs are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated proteins that typically recognize internal sequences of sulfated GAGs. GAGBPs are distinct from the other major group of glycan binding proteins, lectins...
August 16, 2016: Biochemistry
Juhani Aakko, Łukasz Grześkowiak, Tiia Asukas, Eerika Päivänsäde, Kirsi-Maarit Lehto, Yue-Mei Fan, Charles Mangani, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Seppo Salminen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutritional supplementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and corn-soy blend (CSB) flour on Bifidobacterium and Staphylococcus aureus gut microbiota composition in Malawian infants. In addition, the microbiota changes over time were characterized in the study infants. METHODS: Healthy six-month-old Malawian infants were randomly assigned to one of four intervention schemes for a six-month period. Infants in the control group were not provided with any supplementary food...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yat Hin Chan, Jukka Intosalmi, Sini Rautio, Harri Lähdesmäki
MOTIVATION: Cell differentiation is steered by extracellular signals that activate a cell type specific transcriptional program. Molecular mechanisms that drive the differentiation can be analyzed by combining mathematical modeling with population average data. For standard mathematical models, the population average data is informative only if the measurements come from a homogeneous cell culture. In practice, however, the differentiation efficiencies are always imperfect. Consequently, cell cultures are inherently mixtures of several cell types, which have different molecular mechanisms and exhibit quantitatively different dynamics...
July 10, 2016: Bioinformatics
Wenqiang Tan, Qing Li, Fang Dong, Lijie Wei, Zhanyong Guo
In this study, a group of novel water soluble chitosan ammonium salts with halogens were successfully synthesized, including chitosan-bromoacetate (CSB), chitosan-chloroacetate (CSC), chitosan-dichloroacetate (CSDC), chitosan-trichloroacetate (CSTC), and chitosan-trifluoroacetate (CSTF), and their antifungal activities against three kinds of phytopathogens were comparatively estimated by hypha measurement in vitro, respectively. The fungicidal assessment revealed that the synthesized chitosan derivatives had higher antifungal activity than chitosan...
July 6, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Thomas A Baillie, Deepak Dalvie, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, S Cyrus Khojasteh
Since 1972, Drug Metabolism Reviews has been recognized as one of the principal resources for researchers in pharmacological, pharmaceutical and toxicological fields to keep abreast of advances in drug metabolism science in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. With a distinguished list of authors and editors, the journal covers topics ranging from relatively mature fields, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes, to a variety of emerging fields. We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes that were published during the past year...
May 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
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