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Trichuris suis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694301/helminth-antigens-counteract-a-rapid-high-fat-diet-induced-decrease-in-adipose-tissue-eosinophils
#1
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens, Menno P de Winther
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4 induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664463/therapeutic-potential-of-helminths-in-autoimmune-diseases-helminth-derived-immune-regulators-and-immune-balance
#2
REVIEW
Meng Wang, Linxiang Wu, Rennan Weng, Weihong Zheng, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyue Lv
Helminths have accompanied human throughout history by releasing immune-evasion molecules that could counteract an aberrant immune response within the host. In the past decades, helminth infections are becoming less prevalent possibly due to the developed sanitation. Meanwhile, the incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing, which cannot be exclusively explained by the changes of susceptibility genes. While the hygiene hypothesis casts light on the problem. The infections of helminths are believed to interact with and regulate human immunity with the byproduct of suppressing the autoimmune diseases...
August 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606697/whipworm-kinomes-reflect-a-unique-biology-and-adaptation-to-the-host-animal
#3
Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Bill C H Chang, Peter Nejsum, Edoardo Pozio, Giuseppe La Rosa, Paul W Sternberg, Robin B Gasser
Roundworms belong to a diverse phylum (Nematoda) which is comprised of many parasitic species including whipworms (genus Trichuris). These worms have adapted to a biological niche within the host and exhibit unique morphological characteristics compared with other nematodes. Although these adaptations are known, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The availability of genomes and transcriptomes of some whipworms now enables detailed studies of their molecular biology. Here, we defined and curated the full complement of an important class of enzymes, the protein kinases (kinomes) of two species of Trichuris, using an advanced and integrated bioinformatic pipeline...
June 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602842/immune-responses-and-parasitological-observations-induced-during-probiotic-treatment-with-medicinal-trichuris-suis-ova-in-a-healthy-volunteer
#4
Andrew R Williams, Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Christian L Hvas, Jens F Dahlerup, Lars Iversen, C Rune Stensvold, Jørgen Agnholt, Peter Nejsum
Ingestion of eggs (ova) of the porcine nematode parasite Trichuris suis (TSO) may reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders, however the development of TSO treatment as a useful therapy for autoimmune diseases is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the development of the parasite and the nature of the local immune responses in humans. Here, we used colonoscopy to investigate the development of T. suis and related mucosal and systemic immune responses during TSO treatment in an intestinally healthy male volunteer...
August 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392468/description-of-a-new-species-trichuris-ursinus-n-sp-nematoda-trichuridae-from-papio-ursinus-keer-1792-from-south-africa
#5
Rocío Callejón, Ali Halajian, Cristina Cutillas
In the present work, we carried out a morphological, biometrical and molecular study of whipworms Trichuris Roederer, 1761 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) parasitizing Papio ursinus Keer 1792 (Chacma baboon). Biometrical and molecular data suggest a new species of Trichuris parasitizing baboons. In addition of main morphological features (spicule, spicule sheath, spicule tube, proximal cloacal tube, distal cloacal tube, vulva, vagina), the mean values of individual variables between Trichuris colobae, Trichuris suis, Trichuris trichiura examined by Student's t tests suggest that T...
April 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030334/trichuris-suis-secrete-products-that-reduce-disease-severity-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#6
Christine Søholm Hansen, Henrik Hasseldam, Idahella Hyldgaard Bacher, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Helene Kringel
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disease, which affects about 1 in 1000 individuals in the western world. It has been suggested that this relatively high prevalence is linked to a high level of hygiene, i.e. a reduced exposure to various microorganisms, including parasites. Parasites are known to employ different immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory strategies, which enable them to evade destruction by the immune system. We have investigated the immunomodulation by the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis, by measuring the impact of oral administration of T...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905107/co-operative-suppression-of-inflammatory-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-plant-proanthocyanidins-and-products-from-the-parasitic-nematode-trichuris-suis
#7
Andrew R Williams, Elsenoor J Klaver, Lisa C Laan, Aina Ramsay, Christos Fryganas, Rolf Difborg, Helene Kringel, Jess D Reed, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Søren Skov, Irma van Die, Stig M Thamsborg
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesized that PAC may suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced responses in human DCs and subsequent T helper type 1 (Th1) -type responses in naive T cells. Moreover, we proposed that, because DCs are likely to be exposed to multiple stimuli, the activity of PAC may synergise with other bioactive molecules that have anti-inflammatory activity, e...
March 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872753/multifunctional-thioredoxin-like-protein-from-the-gastrointestinal-parasitic-nematodes-strongyloides-ratti-and-trichuris-suis-affects-mucosal-homeostasis
#8
Dana Ditgen, Emmanuela M Anandarajah, Jan Hansmann, Dominic Winter, Guido Schramm, Klaus D Erttmann, Eva Liebau, Norbert W Brattig
The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp) were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite's mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806992/the-whipworm-trichuris-suis-secretes-prostaglandin-e2-to-suppress-proinflammatory-properties-in-human-dendritic-cells
#9
Lisa C Laan, Andrew R Williams, Kathrin Stavenhagen, Martin Giera, Gijs Kooij, Iliyan Vlasakov, Hakan Kalay, Helene Kringel, Peter Nejsum, Stig M Thamsborg, Manfred Wuhrer, Christine D Dijkstra, Richard D Cummings, Irma van Die
Clinical trials have shown that administration of the nematode Trichuris suis can be beneficial in treating various immune disorders. To provide insight in the mechanisms by which this worm suppresses inflammatory responses, an active component was purified from T. suis-soluble products (TsSPs) that suppress---- TNF and IL-12 secretion from LPS-activated human dendritic cells (DCs). Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified this compound as prostaglandin (PG)E2. The purified compound showed similar properties compared with TsSPs and commercial PGE2 in modulating LPS-induced expression of many cytokines and chemokines and in modulating Rab7B and P2RX7 expression in human DCs...
November 2, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785599/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-small-scale-pig-enterprises-in-central-and-eastern-uganda
#10
Kristina Roesel, Ian Dohoo, Maximilian Baumann, Michel Dione, Delia Grace, Peter-Henning Clausen
In Eastern Africa, small-scale pig keeping has emerged as a popular activity to generate additional household income. Infections of pigs with gastrointestinal helminths can limit production output, increase production costs, and pose zoonotic risks. A cross-sectional, community-based study in three districts in Eastern and Central Uganda examined the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors in 932 randomly sampled pigs. Using the combined sedimentation-flotation method, 61.4 % (58...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707789/a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-trichuris-suis-ova-in-active-crohn-s-disease
#11
Jürgen Schölmerich, Klaus Fellermann, Frank W Seibold, Gerhard Rogler, Jost Langhorst, Stefanie Howaldt, Gottfried Novacek, Andreas Munk Petersen, Oliver Bachmann, Harald Matthes, Norbert Hesselbarth, Niels Teich, Jan Wehkamp, Jochen Klaus, Claudia Ott, Karin Dilger, Roland Greinwald, Ralph Mueller
Background and Aims: To investigate the efficacy and safety of three different dosages of embryonated, viable eggs of Trichuris suis [TSO] versus placebo for induction of remission in mildly-to-moderately active ileocolonic, uncomplicated Crohn's disease [CD]. Methods: Adults with active CD [n = 252] randomly received six fortnightly doses of 250, 2500, or 7500 TSO/15 ml suspension/day [TSO 250, TSO 2500, TSO 7500], or 15 ml placebo solution/day, in a double-blind fashion, with 4 weeks' follow-up...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639842/occurrence-clinical-involvement-and-zoonotic-potential-of-endoparasites-infecting-swiss-pigs
#12
Fabienne Schubnell, Sereina von Ah, Robert Graage, Titus Sydler, Xaver Sidler, Daniela Hadorn, Walter Basso
In order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the PathoPig project of the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 Swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; SAFC and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Samples microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium were further tested by PCR/sequencing for species assessment...
December 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341742/demodex-phylloides-infection-in-swine-reared-in-a-peri-urban-family-farm-located-on-the-outskirts-of-the-metropolitan-region-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#13
Josete Garcia Bersano, Márcia Cristina Mendes, Fernanda Calvo Duarte, Claudia Del Fava, Sueli Moda de Oliveira, Elizabeth Spósito Filha, Eliana Scarcelli Pinheiro, Alessandra Figueiredo de Castro Nassar, Maria Cristina de Vasconcellos Bilynskyj, Renato Akio Ogata, Paulo Henrique Selbmann Sampaio, Margareth Élide Genovez
This paper reports the occurrence of porcine demodicosis caused by the mite Demodex phylloides in hogs reared in a peri-urban family farm located in Francisco Morato, a municipality of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, capital city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In a parcel of forty Landrace - Large White cross hogs, approximately four months old, four animals presented severe skin lesions in the form of small nodules over their entire body, especially in the periocular region, snout, lower abdomen and flanks...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240605/practices-and-outcomes-of-self-treatment-with-helminths-based-on-physicians-observations
#14
J Liu, R A Morey, J K Wilson, W Parker
The successful use of helminths as therapeutic agents to resolve inflammatory disease was first recorded 40 years ago. Subsequent work in animal models and in humans has demonstrated that the organisms might effectively treat a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including allergies, autoimmune disorders and inflammation-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. However, available information regarding the therapeutic uses and effects of helminths in humans is limited. This study probes the practices and experiences of individuals 'self-treating' with helminths through the eyes of their physicians...
May 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198773/profiling-circulating-mirnas-in-serum-from-pigs-infected-with-the-porcine-whipworm-trichuris-suis
#15
Eline Palm Hansen, Helene Kringel, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Aaron Jex, Peter Nejsum
microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered as key regulators of gene translation and are becoming increasingly recognized for their involvement in various diseases. This study investigates the miRNA profile in pig serum during the course of an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Trichuris suis. Of this panel, the expression of selected miRNAs in serum from T. suis infected and uninfected pigs were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel assays at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post first infection (wpi)...
June 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095802/treatment-with-trichuris-suis-soluble-products-during-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation-reduces-inflammatory-responses-through-epigenetic-remodeling
#16
Marten A Hoeksema, Lisa C Laan, Juliette J Postma, Richard D Cummings, Menno P J de Winther, Christine D Dijkstra, Irma van Die, Gijs Kooij
Helminths have strong immunoregulatory properties that may be exploited in treatment of chronic immune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Essential players in the pathogenesis of these diseases are proinflammatory macrophages. We present evidence that helminths modulate the function and phenotype of these innate immune cells. We found that soluble products derived from the Trichuris suis (TsSP) significantly affect the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and their subsequent polarization...
August 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038556/de-novo-assembly-and-characterization-of-the-trichuris-trichiura-adult-worm-transcriptome-using-ion-torrent-sequencing
#17
Leonardo N Santos, Eduardo S Silva, André S Santos, Pablo H De Sá, Rommel T Ramos, Artur Silva, Philip J Cooper, Maurício L Barreto, Sebastião Loureiro, Carina S Pinheiro, Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Luis G C Pacheco
Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T...
July 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26800683/whipworms-in-humans-and-pigs-origins-and-demography
#18
Mohamed B F Hawash, Martha Betson, Azmi Al-Jubury, Jennifer Ketzis, Arve LeeWillingham, Mads F Bertelsen, Philip J Cooper, D Tim J Littlewood, Xing-Quan Zhu, Peter Nejsum
BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible for parasite dispersal globally...
January 22, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26790737/temperature-dependent-embryonic-development-of-trichuris-suis-eggs-in-a-medicinal-raw-material
#19
Nermina Vejzagić, Helene Kringel, Johan Musaeus Bruun, Allan Roepstorff, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Anette Blak Grossi, Christian M O Kapel
The therapeutic potential of infective pig whipworm eggs, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), is currently tested in several clinical trials on immune-mediated diseases. This paper studied the embryonic development of TSO in a medicinal raw product, where the parasite eggs were suspended in sulphuric acid (pH1). Unembryonated T. suis egg batches were stored at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40°C (±1°C) and examined at 2, 4, 8, and 14 weeks. Subsequently, sub-batches from each temperature were allowed to embryonate for additional 14 weeks at 25°C, and selected samples were tested for infectivity in Göttingen minipigs...
January 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650734/sweet-secrets-of-a-therapeutic-worm-mass-spectrometric-n-glycomic-analysis-of-trichuris-suis
#20
Iain B H Wilson, Katharina Paschinger
Trichuris suis, a nematode parasite of pigs, has attracted attention as its eggs have been administered to human patients as a potential therapy for inflammatory diseases. The immunomodulatory factors remain molecularly uncharacterised, but in vitro studies suggest that glycans on the parasite's excretory/secretory proteins may play a role. Using an off-line LC-MS approach in combination with chemical and enzymatic treatments, we have examined the N-linked oligosaccharides of T. suis. In addition to the paucimannosidic and oligomannosidic N-glycans typical of many invertebrates, a number of glycans carry N,N'-diacetyllactosamine (LacdiNAc) modified by fucose and/or phosphorylcholine...
January 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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