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Trichuris suis

Christine Søholm Hansen, Henrik Hasseldam, Idahella Hyldgaard Bacher, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Helene Kringel
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disease, which affects about 1 in 1000 individuals in the western world. It has been suggested that this relatively high prevalence is linked to a high level of hygiene, i.e. a reduced exposure to various microorganisms, including parasites. Parasites are known to employ different immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory strategies, which enable them to evade destruction by the immune system. We have investigated the immunomodulation by the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis, by measuring the impact of oral administration of T...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
Andrew R Williams, Elsenoor J Klaver, Lisa C Laan, Aina Ramsay, Christos Fryganas, Rolf Difborg, Helene Kringel, Jess D Reed, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Søren Skov, Irma van Die, Stig M Thamsborg
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesized that PAC may suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced responses in human DCs and subsequent T helper type 1 (Th1) -type responses in naive T cells. Moreover, we proposed that, because DCs are likely to be exposed to multiple stimuli, the activity of PAC may synergise with other bioactive molecules that have anti-inflammatory activity, e...
March 2017: Immunology
Dana Ditgen, Emmanuela M Anandarajah, Jan Hansmann, Dominic Winter, Guido Schramm, Klaus D Erttmann, Eva Liebau, Norbert W Brattig
The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp) were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite's mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
Lisa C Laan, Andrew R Williams, Kathrin Stavenhagen, Martin Giera, Gijs Kooij, Iliyan Vlasakov, Hakan Kalay, Helene Kringel, Peter Nejsum, Stig M Thamsborg, Manfred Wuhrer, Christine D Dijkstra, Richard D Cummings, Irma van Die
Clinical trials have shown that administration of the nematode Trichuris suis can be beneficial in treating various immune disorders. To provide insight in the mechanisms by which this worm suppresses inflammatory responses, an active component was purified from T. suis-soluble products (TsSPs) that suppress---- TNF and IL-12 secretion from LPS-activated human dendritic cells (DCs). Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified this compound as prostaglandin (PG)E2. The purified compound showed similar properties compared with TsSPs and commercial PGE2 in modulating LPS-induced expression of many cytokines and chemokines and in modulating Rab7B and P2RX7 expression in human DCs...
November 2, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kristina Roesel, Ian Dohoo, Maximilian Baumann, Michel Dione, Delia Grace, Peter-Henning Clausen
In Eastern Africa, small-scale pig keeping has emerged as a popular activity to generate additional household income. Infections of pigs with gastrointestinal helminths can limit production output, increase production costs, and pose zoonotic risks. A cross-sectional, community-based study in three districts in Eastern and Central Uganda examined the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors in 932 randomly sampled pigs. Using the combined sedimentation-flotation method, 61.4 % (58...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
Jürgen Schölmerich, Klaus Fellermann, Frank W Seibold, Gerhard Rogler, Jost Langhorst, Stefanie Howaldt, Gottfried Novacek, Andreas Munk Petersen, Oliver Bachmann, Harald Matthes, Norbert Hesselbarth, Niels Teich, Jan Wehkamp, Jochen Klaus, Claudia Ott, Karin Dilger, Roland Greinwald, Ralph Mueller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of three different dosages of embryonated, viable eggs of Trichuris suis (TSO) versus placebo for induction of remission in mildly-to-moderately active ileocolonic, uncomplicated Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Adults with active CD (n=252) randomly received six fortnightly doses of 250, 2500 or 7500 TSO/15 ml suspension/day (TSO 250, TSO 2500, TSO 7500), or 15ml placebo solution/day, in a double-blind fashion, with four weeks' follow-up...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Fabienne Schubnell, Sereina von Ah, Robert Graage, Titus Sydler, Xaver Sidler, Daniela Hadorn, Walter Basso
In order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the PathoPig project of the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 Swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; SAFC and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Samples microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium were further tested by PCR/sequencing for species assessment...
December 2016: Parasitology International
Josete Garcia Bersano, Márcia Cristina Mendes, Fernanda Calvo Duarte, Claudia Del Fava, Sueli Moda de Oliveira, Elizabeth Spósito Filha, Eliana Scarcelli Pinheiro, Alessandra Figueiredo de Castro Nassar, Maria Cristina de Vasconcellos Bilynskyj, Renato Akio Ogata, Paulo Henrique Selbmann Sampaio, Margareth Élide Genovez
This paper reports the occurrence of porcine demodicosis caused by the mite Demodex phylloides in hogs reared in a peri-urban family farm located in Francisco Morato, a municipality of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, capital city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In a parcel of forty Landrace - Large White cross hogs, approximately four months old, four animals presented severe skin lesions in the form of small nodules over their entire body, especially in the periocular region, snout, lower abdomen and flanks...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
J Liu, R A Morey, J K Wilson, W Parker
The successful use of helminths as therapeutic agents to resolve inflammatory disease was first recorded 40 years ago. Subsequent work in animal models and in humans has demonstrated that the organisms might effectively treat a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including allergies, autoimmune disorders and inflammation-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. However, available information regarding the therapeutic uses and effects of helminths in humans is limited. This study probes the practices and experiences of individuals 'self-treating' with helminths through the eyes of their physicians...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Eline Palm Hansen, Helene Kringel, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Aaron Jex, Peter Nejsum
microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered as key regulators of gene translation and are becoming increasingly recognized for their involvement in various diseases. This study investigates the miRNA profile in pig serum during the course of an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Trichuris suis. Of this panel, the expression of selected miRNAs in serum from T. suis infected and uninfected pigs were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel assays at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post first infection (wpi)...
June 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Marten A Hoeksema, Lisa C Laan, Juliette J Postma, Richard D Cummings, Menno P J de Winther, Christine D Dijkstra, Irma van Die, Gijs Kooij
Helminths have strong immunoregulatory properties that may be exploited in treatment of chronic immune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Essential players in the pathogenesis of these diseases are proinflammatory macrophages. We present evidence that helminths modulate the function and phenotype of these innate immune cells. We found that soluble products derived from the Trichuris suis (TsSP) significantly affect the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and their subsequent polarization...
August 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Leonardo N Santos, Eduardo S Silva, André S Santos, Pablo H De Sá, Rommel T Ramos, Artur Silva, Philip J Cooper, Maurício L Barreto, Sebastião Loureiro, Carina S Pinheiro, Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Luis G C Pacheco
Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T...
July 2016: Acta Tropica
Mohamed B F Hawash, Martha Betson, Azmi Al-Jubury, Jennifer Ketzis, Arve LeeWillingham, Mads F Bertelsen, Philip J Cooper, D Tim J Littlewood, Xing-Quan Zhu, Peter Nejsum
BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible for parasite dispersal globally...
January 22, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Nermina Vejzagić, Helene Kringel, Johan Musaeus Bruun, Allan Roepstorff, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Anette Blak Grossi, Christian M O Kapel
The therapeutic potential of infective pig whipworm eggs, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), is currently tested in several clinical trials on immune-mediated diseases. This paper studied the embryonic development of TSO in a medicinal raw product, where the parasite eggs were suspended in sulphuric acid (pH1). Unembryonated T. suis egg batches were stored at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40°C (±1°C) and examined at 2, 4, 8, and 14 weeks. Subsequently, sub-batches from each temperature were allowed to embryonate for additional 14 weeks at 25°C, and selected samples were tested for infectivity in Göttingen minipigs...
January 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Iain B H Wilson, Katharina Paschinger
Trichuris suis, a nematode parasite of pigs, has attracted attention as its eggs have been administered to human patients as a potential therapy for inflammatory diseases. The immunomodulatory factors remain molecularly uncharacterised, but in vitro studies suggest that glycans on the parasite's excretory/secretory proteins may play a role. Using an off-line LC-MS approach in combination with chemical and enzymatic treatments, we have examined the N-linked oligosaccharides of T. suis. In addition to the paucimannosidic and oligomannosidic N-glycans typical of many invertebrates, a number of glycans carry N,N'-diacetyllactosamine (LacdiNAc) modified by fucose and/or phosphorylcholine...
January 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
A Andreasen, K Skovgaard, E J Klaver, I van Die, H Mejer, S M Thamsborg, H Kringel
This study investigated the details of the innate and Th1/Treg-type-associated host immune responses in Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum mono- and co-infected pigs and in vitro in stimulated porcine dendritic cell cultures. Forty-eight pigs were allocated into a 2-factorial design with two groups trickle-inoculated with 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day (Group T) or 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day (O). Another group (OT) was infected with both parasites. Group C remained uninfected. Expression of innate and Th1/Treg-cell-associated genes in gut mucosa and associated lymph nodes was determined by qPCR at necropsy day 35 and 71...
January 2016: Parasite Immunology
Andrew R Williams, Aina Ramsay, Tina V A Hansen, Honorata M Ropiak, Helena Mejer, Peter Nejsum, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Stig M Thamsborg
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5...
2015: Scientific Reports
Widi Nugroho, Colin Frank Cargill, I Made Putra, Roy Neville Kirkwood, Darren John Trott, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia, Mitra Slipranata, Michael Philipp Reichel
Village pig husbandry is an important part of livestock production in Papua Province, Eastern Indonesia. However, high level of disease and mortality constrains production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the selected pathogens in village pigs in the Jayawijaya Region of Papua Province, Indonesia. Two studies were conducted: Study 1 determined the prevalence of selected pathogens in dead or moribund pigs sent to the main local market for sale. Study 2 recorded the prevalence of the selected pathogens, on pig farms in the Subdistrict of Wamena that had not recorded a case of pig mortality during the duration of Study 1...
January 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mohamed B F Hawash, Lee O Andersen, Robin B Gasser, Christen Rune Stensvold, Peter Nejsum
BACKGROUND: The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are two parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs, respectively. Although whipworms in human and non-human primates historically have been referred to as T. trichiura, recent reports suggest that several Trichuris spp. are found in primates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sequenced and annotated complete mitochondrial genomes of Trichuris recovered from a human in Uganda, an olive baboon in the US, a hamadryas baboon in Denmark, and two pigs from Denmark and Uganda...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Remigiusz Gałęcki, Rajmund Sokół, Sylwia Koziatek
The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp...
2015: Annals of Parasitology
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