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Helminths, immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938014/intestinal-helminth-infection-drives-carcinogenesis-in-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#1
Eva Pastille, Annika Frede, Henry J McSorley, Jessica Gräb, Alexandra Adamczyk, Sebastian Kollenda, Wiebke Hansen, Matthias Epple, Jan Buer, Rick M Maizels, Robert Klopfleisch, Astrid M Westendorf
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host's immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs). This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926584/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-anthelmintic-effects-of-procyanidins-in-c-elegans
#2
Verena Spiegler, Andreas Hensel, Jochen Seggewiß, Milena Lubisch, Eva Liebau
Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are affected by infestations with soil-transmitted helminths and also in veterinary medicine helminthiases are a severe threat to livestock due to emerging resistances against the common anthelmintics. Proanthocyanidins have been increasingly investigated for their anthelmintic properties, however, except for an interaction with certain proteins of the nematodes, not much is known about their mode of action. To investigate the anthelmintic activity on a molecular level, a transcriptome analysis was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans after treatment with purified and fully characterized oligomeric procyanidins (OPC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924616/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-are-not-associated-with-compromised-antibody-responses-to-previously-administered-measles-and-tetanus-vaccines-among-hiv-1-infected-art-na%C3%A3-ve-kenyan-adults
#3
Helen L Storey, Benson Singa, Jackie Naulikha, Helen Horton, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Judd L Walson
In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, both HIV and helminth infections are prevalent. HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) and helminth infections can both compromise immune responses in humans. To determine whether the presence of helminth infection or the treatment of helminth infection alters unstimulated vaccine responses among HIV-1 infected individuals, we conducted two nested serologic studies. Blood samples were collected for HIV disease monitoring and vaccine-specific serologic assays, while stool was evaluated by direct microscopy methods...
February 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923765/preparation-and-investigation-of-p28gst-loaded-plga-microparticles-for-immunomodulation-of-experimental-colitis
#4
T H Hoang Thi, P A Priemel, Y Karrout, V Driss, M Delbeke, A Dendooven, M P Flament, M Capron, J Siepmann
The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize (in vitro and in vivo) PLGA-based microparticles loaded with an enzymatic protein derived from the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium: glutathione S-transferase P28GST (P28GST). This protein is not only a promising candidate vaccine against schistosomiasis, it also exhibits interesting immunomodulating effects, which can be helpful for the regulation of inflammatory diseases. Helminths express a regulatory role on intestinal inflammation, and immunization by P28GST has recently been shown to be as efficient as infection to reduce inflammation in a murine colitis model...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906255/echinococcus-multilocularis-vesicular-fluid-inhibits-activation-and-proliferation-of-natural-killer-cells
#5
Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Valentine Mougey, Jean-Rene Pallandre, Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore, Yann Godet, Laurence Millon
Alveolar echinococcosis is a severe chronic helminthic disease that mimics slow-growing liver cancer. The immune evasion strategy of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the impact of E. multilocularis vesicular fluid (Em-VF) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on natural killer (NK) cells. PBMC and NK cells were exposed to Em-VF (1 µg/ml) during six days. The effect of Em-VF was assessed on CD69, viability and proliferation, and on and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 10, using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively...
August 25, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906131/effects-of-immunomodulators-on-the-response-induced-by-vaccines-against-autoimmune-diseases
#6
Dante J Marciani
A promising treatment for T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases is the induction of immune tolerance by modulating the immune response against self-antigens, an objective that may be achieved by vaccination. There are two main types of vaccines currently under development. The tolerogenic vaccines, composed of proteins formed by a cytokine fused to a self-antigen, which usually induce tolerance by eliminating the T-cells that are immune reactive against the self-antigen. The immunogenic vaccines, comprised of a self-antigen plus a sole Th2 adjuvant either free or conjugated, that alleviate autoimmunity by switching the immune response against the self-antigen, from a damaging pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 immunity...
September 14, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895020/role-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-allergic-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Lorenzo Cosmi, Francesco Liotta, Laura Maggi, Francesco Annunziato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis...
September 11, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892562/triggering-immunological-memory-against-the-tapeworm-hymenolepis-diminuta-to-protect-against-colitis
#8
Arthur Wang, Toshio Arai, Alec Campbell, Jose Luis Reyes, Fernando Lopes, Derek M McKay
Infection with parasitic helminths can ameliorate the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease. AIM: To use the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, to extend this concept by assessing if triggering a memory response against the worm inhibits dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. METHODS & RESULTS: Initial studies revealed that oral infection with 1, 3 or 5 H. diminuta cysticercoids 8 days before intra-rectal administration of DNBS (3 mg) resulted in less severe inflammation and that infected mice displayed an increased propensity for T helper-2 immunity...
September 11, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892494/infections-by-human-gastrointestinal-helminths-are-associated-with-changes-in-faecal-microbiota-diversity-and-composition
#9
Timothy P Jenkins, Yasara Rathnayaka, Piyumali K Perera, Laura E Peachey, Matthew J Nolan, Lutz Krause, Rupika S Rajakaruna, Cinzia Cantacessi
Investigations of the impact that patent infections by soil-transmitted gastrointestinal nematode parasites exert on the composition of the host gut commensal flora are attracting growing interest by the scientific community. However, information collected to date varies across experiments, and further studies are needed to identify consistent relationships between parasites and commensal microbial species. Here, we explore the qualitative and quantitative differences between the microbial community profiles of cohorts of human volunteers from Sri Lanka with patent infection by one or more parasitic nematode species (H+), as well as that of uninfected subjects (H-) and of volunteers who had been subjected to regular prophylactic anthelmintic treatment (Ht)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882756/opening-a-can-of-worms-leprosy-reactions-and-complicit-soil-transmitted-helminths
#10
Deanna A Hagge, Pawan Parajuli, Chhatra B Kunwar, Divya R S J B Rana, Ruby Thapa, Kapil D Neupane, Peter Nicholls, Linda B Adams, Annemieke Geluk, Mahesh Shah, Indra B Napit
BACKGROUND: >94% of new annual leprosy cases are diagnosed in populations co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH). STH can profoundly dysregulate host immune responses towards Th2 bias, which can be restored over time after deworming. We hypothesize that STH co-infection is associated with leprosy reaction (denoted as simply "reaction" herein) occurrence within a co-endemic population. METHODS: A cohort study was performed on a cohort of Nepalese leprosy patients across treatment and diagnostic classifications who were screened by routine fecal smear microscopy and multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss), Ancyclostoma duodenale (Ad) and Necator americanus (Na)...
September 1, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877578/syphacia-obvelata-a-new-hope-to-induction-of-intestinal-immunological-tolerance-in-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Niloofar Taghipour, Nariman Mosaffa, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mohamad Mohsen Homayoni, Esmaeil Mortaz, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
The ability of nematodes to manipulate the immune system of their host towards a Th2 and T regulatory responses has been proposed to suppress the inflammatory response. Clinical trials have proposed a useful effect of helminth infections on improvement of inflammatory disorders. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata infection to induce intestinal tolerance in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were infected through the cagemates with self-infected BALB/c mice. Four weeks post-infection, expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-10 were assessed in the supernatant of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) culture...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874444/modulation-of-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-function-and-cytokine-responses-in-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-by-il-27-and-il-37
#12
Rajamanickam Anuradha, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Chandrakumar Dolla, Paul Kumaran, Thomas B Nutman, Subash Babu
Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection is associated with diminished antigen - specific Th1- and Th17-associated responses and enhanced Th2-associated responses. IL-27 and IL-37 are 2 known anti-inflammatory cytokines that are highly expressed in Ss infection. We, therefore wanted to examine the role of IL-27 and IL-37 in regulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in Ss infection. To this end, we examined the frequency of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17 and Th22/Tc22 cells in 15 Ss- infected individuals and 10 uninfected individuals, stimulated with parasite antigen following IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization...
September 5, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871165/zoonotic-intestinal-helminths-interact-with-the-canine-immune-system-by-modulating-t-cell-responses-and-preventing-dendritic-cell-maturation
#13
Johannes Junginger, Katharina Raue, Karola Wolf, Elisabeth Janecek, Veronika M Stein, Andrea Tipold, Anne-Rose Günzel-Apel, Christina Strube, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein
Parasite co-evolution alongside the mammalian immune system gave rise to several modulatory strategies by which they prevent exaggerated pathology and facilitate a longer worm survival. As little is known about the immunoregulatory potential of the zoonotic canine parasites Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in the natural host, the present study aimed to investigate whether their larval excretory-secretory (ES) products can modulate the canine immune system. We demonstrated TcES to increase the frequency of CD4+ Foxp3(high) T cells, while both AcES and TcES were associated with elevated Helios expression in Foxp3(high) lymphocytes...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869965/the-neuropeptide-neuromedin-u-stimulates-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-type-2-inflammation
#14
Christoph S N Klose, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Jesper B Moeller, Lucille C Rankin, Anne-Laure Flamar, Hiroki Kabata, Laurel A Monticelli, Saya Moriyama, Gregory Garbès Putzel, Nikolai Rakhilin, Xiling Shen, Evi Kostenis, Gabriele M König, Takashi Senda, Dustin Carpenter, Donna L Farber, David Artis
The type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have important roles in stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses that are required for resistance to helminth infection, promotion of allergic inflammation, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce type 2 cytokines, and although advances have been made in understanding the cytokine milieu that promotes ILC2 responses, how ILC2 responses are regulated by other stimuli remains poorly understood...
September 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868143/recent-advances-in-understanding-basophil-functions-in-vivo
#15
REVIEW
David Voehringer
Basophils are mainly known as pro-inflammatory effector cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Although they were identified over 130 years ago, their in vivo functions are still poorly understood. New insights into basophil development and function have been gained by the development of various transgenic mouse lines and staining techniques to detect and purify these cells from different organs. Several studies over the past few years have identified unexpected functions for basophils, including immunomodulatory properties and interactions with other immune cells...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861721/influence-of-parasitic-worm-infections-on-allergy-diagnosis-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
REVIEW
Abena S Amoah, Daniel A Boakye, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Ronald van Ree
Epidemiological studies from Sub-Saharan Africa indicate that allergies are on the rise in this region especially in urban compared to rural areas. This increase has been linked to improved hygiene, lifestyle changes, and lower exposure to pathogens in childhood. Reduced exposure to parasitic worm (helminth) infections and allergy outcomes has been the focus of a number of population studies over the years. Paradoxically, there are parallels in the immune responses to helminths and to allergies. Both conditions are associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E, high numbers of T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells...
September 1, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853443/type-2-immunity-in-tissue-repair-and-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Richard L Gieseck, Mark S Wilson, Thomas A Wynn
Type 2 immunity is characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, and this immune response is commonly observed in tissues during allergic inflammation or infection with helminth parasites. However, many of the key cell types associated with type 2 immune responses - including T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages - also regulate tissue repair following injury. Indeed, these cell populations engage in crucial protective activity by reducing tissue inflammation and activating important tissue-regenerative mechanisms...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808975/isolation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-mouse-lungs
#18
Claudia U Duerr, Jörg H Fritz
The recently described group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) exert critical roles in type 2 immune responses, epithelial repair at mucosal tissues and metabolic homeostasis. ILC2 release large amounts of type 2 cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, driving type 2 immunity such as the defense against helminths. However, if not tightly regulated ILC2 can trigger unwanted type 2 immunopathologies including allergic airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, and atopic dermatitis. Viral respiratory tract infections, archetypal triggers of type 1 immune responses, often give rise to pulmonary type 2 immunopathologies such as asthma and asthma exacerbations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807291/toxocara-canis-analysis-of-the-kinetics-of-antigen-release-and-antibody-production-in-an-in-vivo-model-for-the-detection-of-past-or-present-infection
#19
Aarón Rodríguez-Caballero, Mario Noé Martínez-Gordillo, Silvia Caballero-Salazar, Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela
Worldwide, Toxocara canis is an important zoonotic nematode of public health concern. This soil-transmitted helminth causes visceral larva and ocular larva migrans in paratenic hosts. The detection of T. canis larva migrans is complicated because current immunological tests detect only IgG antibodies, which can cross-react with antigens from other parasites and cannot distinguish between the past and present infection. Analysis of antigen release and antibody production could help improve the detection of larva migrans...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791259/toxoplasma-co-infection-prevents-th2-differentiation-and-leads-to-a-helminth-specific-th1-response
#20
Norus Ahmed, Timothy French, Sebastian Rausch, Anja Kühl, Katrin Hemminger, Ildiko R Dunay, Svenja Steinfelder, Susanne Hartmann
Nematode infections, in particular gastrointestinal nematodes, are widespread and co-infections with other parasites and pathogens are frequently encountered in humans and animals. To decipher the immunological effects of a widespread protozoan infection on the anti-helminth immune response we studied a co-infection with the enteric nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice previously infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Protective immune responses against nematodes are dependent on parasite-specific Th2 responses associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgG1 antibodies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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