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Helminths, immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719267/comparison-of-cytokine-responses-in-ecuadorian-children-infected-with-giardia-ascaris-or-both-parasites
#1
Jill Weatherhead, Andrea Arévalo Cortés, Carlos Sandoval, Maritza Vaca, Martha Chico, Sophia Loor, Philip J Cooper, Rojelio Mejia
AbstractMore than 2 billion people are infected with parasites globally, and the majority have coinfections. Intestinal protozoa and helminths induce polarizing CD4(+) T-helper cell 1 (Th1) mediated cytokine responses within the host. Such immune polarization may inhibit the ability of the host to mount an adequate immune response for pathogen clearance to concurrent pathogens. The current study evaluated the plasma cytokine profile in Ascaris and Giardia coinfected children compared with Giardia- and Ascaris-only infected children...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715423/antibody-trapping-a-novel-mechanism-of-parasite-immune-evasion-by-the-trematode-echinostoma-caproni
#2
Alba Cortés, Javier Sotillo, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Javier Molina-Durán, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, causing an enormous impact in global health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries. In this context, the study of helminth biology, with emphasis on host-parasite interactions, appears as a promising approach for developing new tools to prevent and control these infections. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role that antibody responses have on helminth infections is still not well understood...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708895/yeast-expressed-recombinant-as16-protects-mice-against-ascaris-suum-infection-through-induction-of-a-th2-skewed-immune-response
#3
Junfei Wei, Leroy Versteeg, Zhuyun Liu, Brian Keegan, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Neima Briggs, Kathryn M Jones, Ulrich Strych, Coreen M Beaumier, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan
BACKGROUND: Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703913/a-suum-infection-modulates-inflammation-implication-of-cd4-cd25-hi-foxp3-t-cells-and-il-10
#4
Tiago de Oliveira Titz, Claudia Andréa Alves de Araújo, Cristina Satomi Enobe, Paula Ordonhez Rigato, Telma Miyuki Oshiro, Maria Fernanda de Macedo-Soares
Helminth infections have the ability to modulate host's immune response through mechanisms that allow the chronic persistence of the worms in the host. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved on the suppressive effect of Ascaris suum infection using a murine experimental model of LPS-induced inflammation. We found that infection with A. suum markedly inhibited leukocyte influx induced by LPS into air pouches, suppressed secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) and induced high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β...
July 13, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695899/innate-scavenger-receptor-a-regulates-adaptive-t-helper-cell-responses-to-pathogen-infection
#5
Zhipeng Xu, Lei Xu, Wei Li, Xin Jin, Xian Song, Xiaojun Chen, Jifeng Zhu, Sha Zhou, Yong Li, Weiwei Zhang, Xiaoxiao Dong, Xiaowei Yang, Feng Liu, Hui Bai, Qi Chen, Chuan Su
The pattern recognition receptor (PRR) scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has an important function in the pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases and in innate immune responses to pathogen infections. However, little is known about the role of SR-A in the host adaptive immune responses to pathogen infection. Here we show with mouse models of helminth Schistosoma japonicum infection and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation that SR-A is regulated by pathogens and suppresses IRF5 nuclear translocation by direct interaction...
July 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694301/helminth-antigens-counteract-a-rapid-high-fat-diet-induced-decrease-in-adipose-tissue-eosinophils
#6
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens, Menno P de Winther
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4 induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684424/il-4-upregulates-cyclooxygenase-1-expression-in-macrophages
#7
Ashley E Shay, Bastihalli T Diwakar, Bo-Jhih Guan, Vivek Narayan, Joseph F Urban, K Sandeep Prabhu
Macrophages use various cell-surface receptors to sense their environment and undergo polarized responses. The cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, released from T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells, drive macrophage polarization toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2). This phenotype is associated with the expression of potent pro-resolving mediators, such as the prostaglandin (PG) D2-derived cyclopentenone metabolite, 15d-PGJ2, produced by the cyclooxygenase (Ptgs; Cox) pathway. Interestingly, IL-4 treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly downregulates Cox-2 protein expression, while Cox-1 levels are significantly increased...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676845/th2-1-hybrid-cells-occurring-in-murine-and-human-strongyloidiasis-share-effector-functions-of-th1-cells
#8
Cristin N Bock, Subash Babu, Minka Breloer, Anuradha Rajamanickam, Yukhti Boothra, Marie-Luise Brunn, Anja A Kühl, Roswitha Merle, Max Löhning, Susanne Hartmann, Sebastian Rausch
Infections by the soil-transmitted threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis affect 30-100 million people worldwide, predominantly in tropic and sub-tropic regions. Here we assessed the T helper cell phenotypes in threadworm-infected patients and experimental murine infections with focus on CD4(+) T cells co-expressing markers of Th2 and Th1 differentiation. We show that mice infected with the close relative S. ratti generate strong Th2 responses characterized by the expansion of CD4(+) GATA-3(+) cells expressing IL-4/-5/-13 in blood, spleen, gut-draining lymph nodes, lung and gut tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669386/dietary-cinnamaldehyde-enhances-acquisition-of-specific-antibodies-following-helminth-infection-in-pigs
#9
Andrew R Williams, Tina V A Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Bin Ahmad, Dennis S Nielsen, Kerstin Skovgaard, Stig M Thamsborg
Dietary phytonutrients such as cinnamaldehyde (CA) may contribute to immune function during pathogen infections, and CA has been reported to have positive effects on gut health when used as feed additive for livestock. Here, we investigated whether CA could enhance antibody production and specific immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664463/therapeutic-potential-of-helminths-in-autoimmune-diseases-helminth-derived-immune-regulators-and-immune-balance
#10
REVIEW
Meng Wang, Linxiang Wu, Rennan Weng, Weihong Zheng, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyue Lv
Helminths have accompanied human throughout history by releasing immune-evasion molecules that could counteract an aberrant immune response within the host. In the past decades, helminth infections are becoming less prevalent possibly due to the developed sanitation. Meanwhile, the incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing, which cannot be exclusively explained by the changes of susceptibility genes. While the hygiene hypothesis casts light on the problem. The infections of helminths are believed to interact with and regulate human immunity with the byproduct of suppressing the autoimmune diseases...
June 29, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659212/helminth-induced-apoptosis-a-silent-strategy-for-immunosuppression
#11
Amin Zakeri
During microbial infections, both innate and adaptive immunity are activated. Viruses and bacteria usually induce an acute inflammation in the first setting of infection, which helps the eliciting an effective immune response. In contrast, macroparasites such as helminths are a highly successful group of invaders known to be capable of maintaining a chronic infestation with the minimum instigation. Undoubtedly, generating such an immunoregulatory environment requires the exploitation of various immunosuppressive mechanisms to debilitate host immunity supporting their survival and replication...
June 29, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658554/are-ilc2s-jekyll-and-hyde-in-airway-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Kafi N Ealey, Kazuyo Moro, Shigeo Koyasu
Asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease of the airways characterized by lung inflammation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), mucus overproduction, and remodeling of the airways. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play a crucial role in the initiation and propagation of type 2 inflammatory programs in allergic asthma models, independent of adaptive immunity. In response to allergen, helminths or viral infection, damaged airway epithelial cells secrete IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which activate ILC2s to produce type 2 cytokines such as IL-5, IL-13, and IL-9...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658553/type-two-innate-lymphoid-cells-the-janus-cells-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Hadi Maazi, Omid Akbari
Innate lymphoid cells are functionally diverse subsets of immune cells including the conventional natural killer cells, lymphoid tissue inducers, type 1, 2, and 3 with significant roles in immunity and pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) resemble type 2 helper (Th2) cells in cytokine production and contribute to anti-helminth immunity, maintaining mucosal tissue integrity, and adipose tissue browning. ILC2s play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and asthma...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626924/group-2-ilcs-a-way-of-enhancing-immune-protection-against-human-helminths
#14
Norman Nausch, Francisca Mutapi
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play crucial roles in type 2 immune responses associated with allergic and autoimmune diseases, viral and helminth infections and tissue homeostasis. Experimental models show that in helminth infections ILC2s provide an early source of type 2 cytokines and therefore are essential for the induction of potentially protective type 2 responses. Much of our knowledge of ILC2s in helminth infections has come from experimental mouse models with very few studies analysing ILC2s in natural human infections...
June 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621034/depletion-of-foxp3-tregs-improves-control-of-larval-echinococcus-multilocularis-infection-by-promoting-co-stimulation-and-th1-17-immunity
#15
Junhua Wang, Stephan Müller, Renyong Lin, Myriam Siffert, Dominique A Vuitton, Hao Wen, Bruno Gottstein
INTRODUCTION: The growth potential of the tumor-like Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode (causing alveolar echinococcosis, AE) is directly linked to the nature/function of the periparasitic host immune-mediated processes. Previous studies had shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) become gradually up-regulated in the course of both chronic human and murine AE. Thus we now tackled the role of FoxP3(+) Tregs and FoxP3(+) -Treg-regulated immune response in contributing to the control of this helminthic infection...
June 16, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606164/the-importance-of-patient-compliance-in-repeated-rounds-of-mass-drug-administration-mda-for-the-elimination-of-intestinal-helminth-transmission
#16
Sam H Farrell, James E Truscott, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Systematic non-compliance to chemotherapeutic treatment among a portion of the eligible population is thought to be a major obstacle to the elimination of helminth infections by mass drug administration (MDA). MDA for helminths is repeated at defined intervals such as yearly or every 2 years, as a consequence of the inability of the human host to develop fully protective immunity to reinfection. As such, how an individual complies to these repeated rounds of MDA can have a significant impact on parasite transmission...
June 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602842/immune-responses-and-parasitological-observations-induced-during-probiotic-treatment-with-medicinal-trichuris-suis-ova-in-a-healthy-volunteer
#17
Andrew R Williams, Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Christian L Hvas, Jens F Dahlerup, Lars Iversen, C Rune Stensvold, Jørgen Agnholt, Peter Nejsum
Ingestion of eggs (ova) of the porcine nematode parasite Trichuris suis (TSO) may reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders, however the development of TSO treatment as a useful therapy for autoimmune diseases is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the development of the parasite and the nature of the local immune responses in humans. Here, we used colonoscopy to investigate the development of T. suis and related mucosal and systemic immune responses during TSO treatment in an intestinally healthy male volunteer...
June 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588142/recent-evolution-of-extreme-cestode-growth-suppression-by-a-vertebrate-host
#18
Jesse N Weber, Natalie C Steinel, Kum Chuan Shim, Daniel I Bolnick
Parasites can be a major cause of natural selection on hosts, which consequently evolve a variety of strategies to avoid, eliminate, or tolerate infection. When ecologically similar host populations present disparate infection loads, this natural variation can reveal immunological strategies underlying adaptation to infection and population divergence. For instance, the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus persistently infects 0-80% of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lakes on Vancouver Island...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583216/the-role-of-rare-innate-immune-cells-in-type-2-immune-activation-against-parasitic-helminths
#19
Lauren M Webb, Elia D Tait Wojno
The complexity of helminth macroparasites is reflected in the intricate network of host cell types that participate in the Type 2 immune response needed to battle these organisms. In this context, adaptive T helper 2 cells and the Type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have been the focus of research for years, but recent work has demonstrated that the innate immune system plays an essential role. Some innate immune cells that promote Type 2 immunity are relatively abundant, such as macrophages and eosinophils...
June 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575319/translational-research-in-the-nonhuman-primate-model-of-tuberculosis
#20
Taylor W Foreman, Smriti Mehra, Andrew A Lackner, Deepak Kaushal
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis predominantly establishes subclinical latent infection over the lifetime of an individual, with a fraction of infected individuals rapidly progressing to active disease. The immune control in latent infection can be perturbed by comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, and coinfection with helminthes or HIV. Modeling the varying aspects of natural infection remains incomplete when using zebrafish and mice. However, the nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis offers a unique and accurate model to investigate host responses to infection, test novel therapeutics, and thoroughly assess preclinical vaccine candidates...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
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