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Helminths, immune

Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Julio Furlong-Silva, Hanna Sjoberg, Stephen Cross, Alice Halliday, Ana F Guimaraes, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Nico Van Rooijen, Judith E Allen, Stephen J Jenkins, Mark J Taylor
Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emilia Vendelova, Diyaaeldin Ashour, Patrick Blank, Florian Erhard, Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba, Ulrich Kalinke, Manfred B Lutz
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key directors of tolerogenic and immunogenic immune responses. During the steady state, DCs maintain T cell tolerance to self-antigens by multiple mechanisms including inducing anergy, deletion, and Treg activity. All of these mechanisms help to prevent autoimmune diseases or other hyperreactivities. Different DC subsets contribute to pathogen recognition by expression of different subsets of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors or C-type lectins. In addition to the triggering of immune responses in infected hosts, most pathogens have evolved mechanisms for evasion of targeted responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rebecca K Shears, Allison J Bancroft, Catherine Sharpe, Richard K Grencis, David J Thornton
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) is one of the four major soil-transmitted helminth infections of man, affecting an estimated 465 million people worldwide. An effective vaccine that induces long-lasting protective immunity against T. trichiura would alleviate the morbidity associated with this intestinal-dwelling parasite, however the lack of known host protective antigens has hindered vaccine development. Here, we show that vaccination with ES products stimulates long-lasting protection against chronic infection in male C57BL/6 mice...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
María Elena González-Sánchez, Montserrat Cuquerella, José M Alunda
Haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic gastrointestinal helminth of small ruminants. Natural or experimental repeated infections and several native antigens confer a partially protective immune response but vaccination with subunit antigens has been elusive. Promising results have been obtained with a recombinant form of a somatic antigen (rHc23). In this paper we present the results obtained in vaccination trials in lambs using two dosages of rHc23 and standard adjuvants. Six-months old Manchego females lambs were vaccinated with rHc23 (50 or 200 μg/dose) adjuvanted with 1mL aluminum hydroxide on days -42, -28 and -14 or with 200 μg/dose rHc23 and 5 mg Quil A on days -49, -28 and -7...
2018: PloS One
Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Rabih Darwiche, Selam Gebremedhin, Geert Smant, Jose L Lozano-Torres, Claire Drurey, Jeroen Pollet, Rick M Maizels, Roger Schneiter, Ruud H P Wilbers
Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri is a model parasitic hookworm used to study animal and human helminth diseases. During infection, the parasite releases excretory/secretory (ES) products that modulate the immune system of the host. The most abundant protein family in ES products comprises the venom allergen-like proteins (VALs), which are members of the SCP/TAPS (Sperm-coating protein / Tpx / antigen 5 / pathogenesis related-1 / Sc7) superfamily. There are >30 secreted Heligmosomoides polygyrus VAL proteins (HpVALs) and these proteins are characterized by having either one or two 15 kDa CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) / antigen 5 / pathogenesis related-1) domains...
March 2, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Nathália F Lima, Raquel M Gonçalves-Lopes, Yvonne C M Kruize, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Marcelo U Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infections typically induce an immunoregulatory environment, with markedly reduced immune responses to both parasite-specific and unrelated bystander antigens. Here we tested whether these changes are also observed in human infections with Mansonella ozzardi, a neglected filarial nematode widely distributed across Latin America. METHODS: CD4+ T cell populations from microfilaremic (Fil+) and uninfected (Fil-) inhabitants in M. ozzardi-endemic riverine communities in Brazil were characterized by flow cytometry analysis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Simon A Babayan, Amy Sinclair, Jessica S Duprez, Colin Selman
Throughout the lifespan of an individual, the immune system undergoes complex changes while facing novel and chronic infections. Helminths, which infect over one billion people and impose heavy livestock productivity losses, typically cause chronic infections by avoiding and suppressing host immunity. Yet, how age affects immune responses to lifelong parasitic infection is poorly understood. To disentangle the processes involved, we employed supervised statistical learning techniques to identify which factors among haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), and both innate and adaptive responses regulate parasite burdens and how they are affected by host age...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anuradha Rajamanickam, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Chandra Kumar Dolla, Thomas B Nutman, Subash Babu
Infection with the helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis ( Ss ) is commonly clinically asymptomatic that is often accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Granulocytes are activated during helminth infection and can act as immune effector cells. Plasma levels of eosinophil and neutrophil granular proteins convey an indirect measure of granulocyte degranulation and are prominently augmented in numerous helminth-infected patients. In this study, we sought to examine the levels of eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell activation-associated granule proteins in asymptomatic Ss infection and to understand their kinetics following anthelmintic therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nicola L Harris, P'ng Loke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Immunity
Paul R Giacomin, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Eduardo A Albornoz, Shuting Jin, Mia Bengtsson, Richard Gordon, Trent M Woodruff, Tim Urich, Zoltán Sarnyai, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
Helminth infections in children are associated with impaired cognitive development, however the biological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Using a murine model of gastrointestinal helminth infection, we demonstrate that early-life exposure to helminths promotes local and systemic inflammatory responses and transient changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. Behavioural and cognitive analyses performed 9-months post-infection revealed deficits in spatial recognition memory and an anxiety-like behavioural phenotype in worm-infected mice, which was associated with neuropathology and increased microglial activation within the brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Simon A Babayan, Wei Liu, Graham Hamilton, Elizabeth Kilbride, Evelyn C Rynkiewicz, Melanie Clerc, Amy B Pedersen
Parasitic helminths are extremely resilient in their ability to maintain chronic infection burdens despite (or maybe because of) their hosts' immune response. Explaining how parasites maintain these lifelong infections, identifying the protective immune mechanisms that regulate helminth infection burdens, and designing prophylactics and therapeutics that combat helminth infection, while preserving host health requires a far better understanding of how the immune system functions in natural habitats than we have at present...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tara P Brosschot, Lisa A Reynolds
Intestinal helminths have well-characterized modulatory effects on mammalian immune pathways. Ongoing helminth infection has been associated with both the suppression of allergies and an altered susceptibility to microbial infections. Enteric helminths share a niche with the intestinal microbiota, and the presence of helminths alters the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature of the host. Recent studies have demonstrated that the helminth-modified intestinal microbiome has the capacity to modify host immune responses even in the absence of live helminth infection...
February 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
L E Peachey, R A Molena, T P Jenkins, A Di Cesare, D Traversa, J E Hodgkinson, C Cantacessi
A growing body of evidence, particularly in humans and rodents, supports the existence of a complex network of interactions occurring between gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites and the gut commensal bacteria, with substantial effects on both host immunity and metabolic potential. However, little is known of the fundamental biology of such interactions in other animal species. Nonetheless, given the considerable economic losses associated with GI parasites, particularly in livestock and equines, as well as the global threat of emerging anthelmintic resistance, further explorations of the complexities of host-helminth-microbiota interactions in these species are needed...
February 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
S Dolomatov, T Sataieva, G Pazovsky, W Zukow
Nowadays the number of patients diagnosed with helminthiases shows tendency for steady growth around the world. During last few years, researches in the field of immunology have again turned their attention towards the question of parasitological immunity and tissue response. Helminthiases and other parasitic diseases in some instances can induce central nervous system disorders and violate human behavioral reactions. Studies have suggested an association between epilepsy and helminth infection, but a causal relationship is not established in many helminths, except perhaps with neurocysticercosis...
March 2017: Parazitologiia
Henry H Kou, William Parker
A number of factors in Western society, including inflammatory diets, sedentary lifestyles, vitamin D deficiency and chronic psychological stress, are known to induce inflammation and to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. One factor that is emerging as a potential inflammation inducing factor is biota depletion, or loss of biodiversity from the ecosystem of the human body as a result of industrialization. Originally known as the "hygiene hypothesis", biota alteration theory describes the effects of biota alteration on the human immune system...
February 2, 2018: Brain Research
Everett K Henry, Juan M Inclan-Rico, Mark C Siracusa
Purpose of Review: It is well established that T helper type 2 (TH 2) immune responses are necessary to provide protection against helminth parasites but also to promote the detrimental inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Given the importance of type 2 immunity and inflammation, many studies have focused on better understanding the factors that regulate TH 2 cell development and activation. As a result, significant progress has been made in understanding the signaling pathways and molecular events necessary to promote TH 2 cell polarization...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Juergen Hench, Gieri Cathomas, Matthias S Dettmer
RATIONALE: There is evidence that parasitic helminths can ameliorate colitis in animal models and humans. Although infections with Hymenolepis sp. are clinically benign, the immunomodulatory interactions between host and parasite are largely unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study we examined the intestinal mucosa of an adult asymptomatic patient harboring adult and larval dwarf tapeworms (Hymenolepis nana) who underwent surgery for an unrelated reason. INTERVENTIONS: Routine histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterize the host's response to the parasite...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Catherine Sharpe, David J Thornton, Richard K Grencis
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are a group of successful multi-cellular parasites that have evolved to co-exist within the intestinal niche of multiple species. It is estimated that over 10% of the world's population are chronically infected by GI nematodes, making this group of parasitic nematodes a major burden to global health. Despite the large number of affected individuals there are few effective treatments to eradicate these infections. Research into GI nematode infections has primarily focused on defining the immunological and pathological consequences on host protection...
January 22, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Gebeyaw Getnet Mekonnen, Mark Pearson, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Helminths are multicellular parasites affecting nearly three billion people worldwide. To orchestrate a parasitic existence, helminths secrete different molecules, either in soluble form or contained within extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are secreted by most cell types and organisms, and have varied roles in intercellular communication, including immune modulation and pathogenesis. Areas covered: In this review, we describe the nucleic acid and proteomic composition of EVs from helminths, with a focus on the protein vaccine candidates present on the EV surface membrane, and discuss the potential utility of helminth EVs and their constituent proteins in the fight against helminth infections...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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