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Helminths, immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094319/helminth-induced-ly6c-hi-monocyte-derived-alternatively-activated-macrophages-suppress-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Cesar Terrazas, Juan de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Stephanie A Amici, Kyle A Jablonski, Diana Martinez-Saucedo, Lindsay M Webb, Hanna Cortado, Frank Robledo-Avila, Steve Oghumu, Abhay R Satoskar, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis I Terrazas, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano, Santiago Partida-Sánchez
Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087937/myeloid-cell-phenotypes-in-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-helminth-parasite-infections
#2
Rick M Maizels, James P Hewitson
Many major tropical diseases are caused by long-lived helminth parasites that are able to survive by modulation of the host immune system, including the innate compartment of myeloid cells. In particular, dendritic cells and macrophages show markedly altered phenotypes during parasite infections. In addition, many specialized subsets such as eosinophils and basophils expand dramatically in response to these pathogens. The changes in phenotype and function, and their effects on both immunity to infection and reactivity to bystander antigens such as allergens, are discussed...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086814/intestinal-helminth-co-infection-and-associated-factors-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-arba-minch-ethiopia
#3
Getaneh Alemu, Mohammedaman Mama
BACKGROUND: Helminths affect the outcome of tuberculosis by shifting cell mediated immune response to humoral and by total suppression of the host immune system. On the reverse, Mycobacterium infection favors immune escape of helminths. Therefore assessing helminth co-infection rate and predisposing factors in tuberculosis patients is mandatory to set strategies for better case management. METHODS: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch to assess the prevalence and associated factors of intestinal helminths among pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January to August, 2016...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076799/adenylyl-cyclase-type-9-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-asthma-and-allergy-in-brazilian-children
#4
Helena M P Teixeira, Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Maurício Barreto, Camila A Figueiredo, Ryan S Costa
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract. This heterogeneous disease is caused by the interaction of interindividual genetic variability and environmental factors. The gene adenylyl cyclase type 9 (ADCY9) encodes a protein called adenylyl cyclase (AC), responsible for producing the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP is produced by T regulatory cells and is involved in the down-regulation of T effector cells. Failures in cAMP production may be related to an imbalance in the regulatory immune response, leading to immune-mediated diseases, such as allergic disorders...
January 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069101/immune-responses-in-mice-vaccinated-with-a-dna-vaccine-expressing-serine-protease-like-protein-from-the-new-born-larval-stage-of-trichinella-spiralis
#5
Jing Xu, Xue Bai, Li Bo Wang, Hai Ning Shi, Joke W B VAN DER Giessen, Pascal Boireau, Ming Yuan Liu, Xiao Lei Liu
Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic helminth that can infect almost all mammals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a typical type 2 immune responses, while suppresses type 1 immune responses, which is in favour of their parasitism. DNA vaccines have been shown to be capable of eliciting balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as humoral immune responses in small-animal models, which will be advantage to induce protective immune response against helminth infection. In this study, serine protease (Ts-NBLsp) was encoded by a cDNA fragment of new-born T...
January 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066896/parasite-excretory-secretory-products-and-their-effects-on-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Jenny Crowe, Felicity E Lumb, Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
Obesity, one of the main causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is an increasingly common health and economic problem worldwide, and one of the major risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is associated with MetS and obesity. A dominant type 2/anti-inflammatory response is required for metabolic homeostasis within adipose tissue: during obesity, this response is replaced by infiltrating, inflammatory macrophages and T cells. Helminths and certain protozoan parasites are able to manipulate the host immune response towards a TH2 immune phenotype that is beneficial for their survival and there is emerging data that there is an inverse correlation between the incidence of MetS and helminth infections, suggesting that, as with autoimmune and allergic diseases, helminths may play a protective role against MetS disease...
January 9, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040482/schistosoma-antigens-downregulate-cxcl9-production-by-pbmc-of-htlv-1-infected-individuals
#7
Luciane Mota Lima, Luciana Santos Cardoso, Silvane Braga Santos, Ricardo Riccio Oliveira, Sérgio Costa Oliveira, Alfredo Miranda Góes, Alex Loukas, Maria Ilma Araujo
: HTLV-1 is the causal agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The immune response to HTLV-1-infection is polarized to the Th1-type, and the presence of CXCL9/CXCL10 chemokines may lead to an increase in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory molecules in spinal cord tissue, contributing to the damage observed in the development of HAM/TSP. It has been observed that in chronic helminth-infections, such as schistosomiasis, there is a deviation toward the Th2/regulatory immune response...
December 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033666/response-letter-to-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-article-entitled-what-should-be-taken-into-account-during-study-on-immunoregulatory-effects-of-helminths-a-critical-analyzing-on-downregulation-of-immune-responses-in-asthmatic-patients-by-es-products-of-marshallagia
#8
Farahzad Jabbari Azad, Fatemeh Kiaee, Abdorahim Rezaei, Reza Farid Hosseini, Nushinmehr Soleimani, Hassan Borji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009488/chronic-infections-with-viruses-or-parasites-breaking-bad-to-make-good
#9
REVIEW
Andrew Godkin, Katherine A Smith
Eukaryotic forms of life have been continually invaded by microbes and larger multicellular parasites, such as helminths. Over a billion years ago bacterial endosymbionts permanently colonized eukaryotic cells leading to recognized organelles with a distinct genetic lineage, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Colonization of our skin and mucosal surfaces with bacterial commensals is now known to be important for host health. However, the contribution of chronic virus and parasitic infections to immune homeostasis is being increasingly questioned...
December 23, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008805/eosinophils-in-homeostasis-and-their-contrasting-roles-during-inflammation-and-helminth-infections
#10
Julia Strandmark, Sebastian Rausch, Susanne Hartmann
Eosinophil numbers are highly elevated during helminth infections and a range of allergic and inflammatory disorders, but eosinophils are also present in several tissues in the absence of infection. Indeed, new findings demonstrate that eosinophils may be involved in events as diverse as glucose metabolism, mammary gland development, intestinal health, tissue remodeling, thymic selection, and B-cell survival. Although eosinophils often correlate with pathological parameters during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma, the evidence for their contribution to tissue pathology remains controversial...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004808/il-13-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-radiation-lung-injury
#11
Su I Chung, Jason A Horton, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Ayla O White, Eun Joo Chung, Kathryn E Hudak, Bradley T Scroggins, Joseph R Arron, Thomas A Wynn, Deborah E Citrin
Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially lethal late adverse event of thoracic irradiation. Prior research indicates that unrestrained TGF-β1 and/or type 2 cytokine-driven immune responses promote fibrosis following radiation injury, but the full spectrum of factors governing this pathology remains unclear. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a key factor in fibrotic disease associated with helminth infection, but it is unclear whether it plays a similar role in radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that IL-13 drives the progression of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003150/concomitant-helminth-infection-downmodulates-the-vaccinia-virus-specific-immune-response-and-potentiates-virus-associated-pathology
#12
Pedro Henrique Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Lorena Falabella Daher de Freitas, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Fabiana Coelho, Fernando Sérgio Barbosa, Denise Nogueira, Chiara Amorim, Lucas de Carvalho Dhom-Lemos, Luciana Maria Oliveira, Alexandre Barcelos da Silveira, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
The aim of this work was to elucidate the immunopathological mechanisms of how helminths may influence the course of a viral infection, using a murine model. Severe virulence, a relevant increase in the virus titres in the lung and a higher mortality rate were observed in Ascaris and Vaccinia virus (VACV) co-infected mice, compared with VACV mono-infected mice. Immunopathological analysis suggested that the ablation of CD8(+) T cells, the marked reduction of circulating CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ, and the robust pulmonary inflammation were associated with the increase of morbidity/mortality in co-infection and subsequently with the negative impact of concomitant pulmonary ascariasis and respiratory VACV infection for the host...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992545/attempts-to-image-the-early-inflammatory-response-during-infection-with-the-lymphatic-filarial-nematode-brugia-pahangi-in-a-mouse-model
#13
Elmarie Myburgh, Ryan Ritchie, Amy Goundry, Kerry O'Neill, Francesco Marchesi, Eileen Devaney
Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989833/identification-and-characterization-of-protein-14-3-3-in-carcinogenic-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-viverrini
#14
Alok Kafle, Pranom Puchadapirom, Sirikanya Plumworasawat, Rieofarng Dontumprai, Waraporn Chan-On, Sureemas Buates, Thewarach Laha, Banchob Sripa, Sutas Suttiprapa
Protein 14-3-3s are abundant phospho-serine/threonine binding proteins, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Members of this protein family mediate metabolism and signal transduction networks through binding to hundreds of other protein partners. Protein 14-3-3s have been studied in other species of parasitic helminthes, but little is known about this protein in the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. In this study, we identified and characterized protein 14-3-3s of O. viverrini. Seven protein 14-3-3 encoded sequences were retrieved from the O...
October 27, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988094/human-schistosomiasis-in-the-post-mass-drug-administration-era
#15
REVIEW
Francisca Mutapi, Rick Maizels, Alan Fenwick, Mark Woolhouse
Profound changes are occurring in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by a chronic infection with parasitic helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis currently affects 240 million people worldwide, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. The advent and proliferation of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes using the drug praziquantel is resulting in substantial increases in the number of people, mainly children aged 6-14 years, being effectively treated, approaching the point where most people in endemic areas will receive one or more treatments during their lifetimes...
December 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983971/immune-protective-effect-of-echinococcosis-on-colitis-experimental-model-is-dependent-of-down-regulation-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-no-production
#16
Lila Khelifi, Imene Soufli, Moussa Labsi, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a chronic, endemic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in many parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean area, and in particular in Algeria. Helminth parasites have developed complex strategies to modulate the immune responses of their hosts through versatile immune-regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms may regulate immune responses associated with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983724/helminth-burden-and-ecological-factors-associated-with-alterations-in-wild-host-gastrointestinal-microbiota
#17
Lindsay K Newbold, Sarah J Burthe, Anna E Oliver, Hyun S Gweon, Christopher J Barnes, Francis Daunt, Christopher J van der Gast
Infection by gastrointestinal helminths of humans, livestock and wild animals is common, but the impact of such endoparasites on wild hosts and their gut microbiota represents an important overlooked component of population dynamics. Wild host gut microbiota and endoparasites occupy the same physical niche spaces with both affecting host nutrition and health. However, associations between the two are poorly understood. Here we used the commonly parasitized European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) as a model wild host...
December 16, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977856/nematodes-and-human-therapeutic-trials-for-inflammatory-disease
#18
David E Elliott, Joel V Weinstock
Helminth infections likely provide a protective influence against some immune-mediated and metabolic diseases since helminth infection dramatically decreased in developed countries shortly before the explosive rise in the prevalence of these diseases. The capacity of helminths to activate immune-regulatory circuits in their hosts and to modulate the composition of intestinal flora appears to be the mechanisms of protective action. Animal models of disease show that various helminth species prevent and/or block inflammation in various organs in a diverse range of diseases...
December 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977850/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-immune-responses-to-intestinal-helminth-infections
#19
Lewis J Entwistle, Mark S Wilson
Intestinal helminth infections are highly prevalent in the developing world, often resulting in chronic infection and inflicting high host morbidity. With the emergence of drug-resistant parasites, a limited number of chemotherapeutic drugs available and stalling vaccine efforts, an increased understanding of anti-helminth immunity is essential to provide new avenues to therapeutic intervention. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-protein coding RNAs which negatively regulate mRNA translation, thus providing finite control over gene expression in a plethora of biological settings...
December 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958200/update-on-pathology-of-ocular-parasitic-disease
#20
REVIEW
Dipankar Das, Varsha Ramachandra, Saidul Islam, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Jyotirmay Biswas, Akanksha Koul, Panna Deka, Apurba Deka
Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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