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Helminths, immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772478/bacillus-thuringiensis-cry5b-protein-as-a-new-pan-hookworm-cure
#1
Yan Hu, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Alice C Y Lee, Joseph F Urban, Melanie M Miller, Bin Zhan, David J Koch, Jason B Noon, Ambily Abraham, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Dwight D Bowman, Gary R Ostroff, Raffi V Aroian
Hookworms are intestinal nematode parasites that infect nearly half a billion people and are globally one of the most important contributors to iron-deficiency anemia. These parasites have significant impacts in developing children, pregnant women and working adults. Of all the soil-transmitted helminths or nematodes (STNs), hookworms are by far the most important, with disease burdens conservatively estimated at four million DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) and with productivity losses of up to US$139 billion annually...
May 4, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772005/atrophy-of-skin-draining-lymph-nodes-predisposes-for-impaired-immune-responses-to-secondary-infection-in-mice-with-chronic-intestinal-nematode-infection
#2
Xiaogang Feng, Cajsa Classon, Graciela Terán, Yunlong Yang, Lei Li, Sherwin Chan, Ulf Ribacke, Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Jonathan M Coquet, Susanne Nylén
Intestinal nematodes suppress immune responses in the context of allergy, gut inflammation, secondary infection and vaccination. Several mechanisms have been proposed for this suppression including alterations in Th2 cell differentiation and increased Treg cell suppressive function. In this study, we show that chronic nematode infection leads to reduced peripheral responses to vaccination because of a generalized reduction in the available responsive lymphocyte pool. We found that superficial skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs) in mice that are chronically infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomides polygyrus, do not reach the same cellularity as worm-free mice upon subsequent BCG infection in the skin...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761403/characterizing-activation-proliferation-and-ontogeny-of-murine-macrophages-in-parasitic-helminth-infections
#3
Dominik Rückerl
Helminth parasites infect approximately 1/3 of the human population. They induce a characteristic immune response whose main focus seems to be to contain the worm parasites and avoid excessive damage to the host. Macrophages are a central player in this response and research using helminth infection models has highlighted the heterogeneity of macrophage responses including distinct recruitment mechanisms, subset-specific activation profiles, and functional diversity. Thus, helminth infection models offer the excellent opportunity to analyze a unique part of the macrophage activation spectrum as well as dissect the functional contributions of macrophages to a wide variety of biologically relevant conditions like wound healing, fibrosis, and immunoregulation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760697/hookworm-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-interact-with-host-cells-and-prevent-inducible-colitis-in-mice
#4
Ramon M Eichenberger, Stephanie Ryan, Linda Jones, Geraldine Buitrago, Ramona Polster, Marcela Montes de Oca, Jennifer Zuvelek, Paul R Giacomin, Lindsay A Dent, Christian R Engwerda, Matthew A Field, Javier Sotillo, Alex Loukas
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts, allowing them to establish chronic infections. This is mediated by creating an immunoregulatory environment. Indeed, hookworms are such potent suppressors of inflammation that they have been used in clinical trials to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Since the recent description of helminths (worms) secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosome-like EVs from different helminths have been characterized and their salient roles in parasite-host interactions have been highlighted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752313/schistosomiasis-induces-persistent-dna-methylation-and-tuberculosis-specific-immune-changes
#5
Andrew R DiNardo, Tomoki Nishiguchi, Emily M Mace, Kimal Rajapakshe, Godwin Mtetwa, Alexander Kay, Gugu Maphalala, W Evan Secor, Rojelio Mejia, Jordan S Orange, Cristian Coarfa, Kapil N Bhalla, Edward A Graviss, Anna M Mandalakas, George Makedonas
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, determine immune cell phenotype. To understand the epigenetic alterations induced by helminth coinfections, we evaluated the longitudinal effect of ascariasis and schistosomiasis infection on CD4+ T cell DNA methylation and the downstream tuberculosis (TB)-specific and bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced immune phenotype. All experiments were performed on human primary immune cells from a longitudinal cohort of recently TB-exposed children. Compared with age-matched uninfected controls, children with active Schistosoma haematobium and Ascaris lumbricoides infection had 751 differentially DNA-methylated genes, with 72% hypermethylated...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751492/aluminum-adjuvant-containing-vaccines-in-the-context-of-the-hygiene-hypothesis-a-risk-factor-for-eosinophilia-and-allergy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-subpopulation
#6
REVIEW
Todd D Terhune, Richard C Deth
There are similarities between the immune response following immunization with aluminum adjuvants and the immune response elicited by some helminthic parasites, including stimulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophilia. Immunization with aluminum adjuvants, as with helminth infection, induces a Th2 type cell mediated immune response, including eosinophilia, but does not induce an environment conducive to the induction of regulatory mechanisms. Helminths play a role in what is known as the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that decreased exposure to microbes during a critical time in early life has resulted in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and atopic disorders over the past few decades, especially in Western countries...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743881/host-defense-versus-immunosuppression-unisexual-infection-with-male-or-female-schistosoma-mansoni-differentially-impacts-the-immune-response-against-invading-cercariae
#7
Martina Sombetzki, Nicole Koslowski, Anne Rabes, Sonja Seneberg, Franziska Winkelmann, Carlos Fritzsche, Micha Loebermann, Emil C Reisinger
Infection with the intravascular diecious trematode Schistosoma spp . remains a serious tropical disease and public health problem in the developing world, affecting over 258 million people worldwide. During chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection, complex immune responses to tissue-entrapped parasite eggs provoke granulomatous inflammation which leads to serious damage of the liver and intestine. The suppression of protective host immune mechanisms by helminths promotes parasite survival and benefits the host by reducing tissue damage...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716541/onchocerca-infected-cattle-produce-strong-antibody-responses-to-excretory-secretory-proteins-released-from-adult-male-onchocerca-ochengi-worms
#8
Djafsia Boursou, Dieudonné Ndjonka, Albert Eisenbarth, Kingsley Manchang, Archille Paguem, Nancy Ngwafu Ngwasiri, Jacqueline Dikti Vildina, Babette Abanda, Ralf Krumkamp, Silke van Hoorn, Alfons Renz, Mbunkah Daniel Achukwi, Eva Liebau, Norbert W Brattig
BACKGROUND: The front line molecules from filarial worms and other nematodes or helminthes are their Excretory-Secretory (ES) products. Their interaction with the host cells, proteins and immune system accounts for the skin and eye pathology or hyposensitivity observed in human onchocerciasis. ES products and adult worms' crude extracts from Onchocerca ochengi, a filarial nematode that infects the African zebu cattle, were utilized in the present study as a model for studying Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in man...
May 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709067/the-pathogenicity-of-il-33-on-steroid-resistant-eosinophilic-inflammation-via-the-activation-of-memory-type-st2-cd4-t-cells
#9
REVIEW
Kiyoshi Hirahara, Naoko Mato, Koichi Hagiwara, Toshinori Nakayama
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in many animals and have unique epithelial barrier systems to protect the host from continuous invasion of various harmful particles, such as viruses and bacteria. IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, is released from epithelial cells in the mucosal organs and drives the type 2 immune response by activating a number of immune cells in cases of helminth infection. However, IL-33 derived from epithelial cells also causes various allergic diseases via the activation of ST2-positive immune cells, including memory-type (CD62Llow CD44hi ) ST2+ CD4+ T cells in the lung...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698559/tuftsin-phosphorylcholine-tpc-equally-effective-to-methylprednisolone-in-ameliorating-lupus-nephritis-in-a-mice-model
#10
Asaf Shemer, Shay Kivity, Ora Shovman, Ori Perry, Abdulla Watad, Dana Ben-Ami Shor, Alex Volkov, Iris Barshack, Nicola L Bragazzi, Alexander Krule, Mati Fridkin, Howard Amital, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld
BACKGROUND: The role of helminth treatment in autoimmune diseases is constantly growing. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disease with challenging treatment options. Tuftsin phosphorylcholine (TPC) is a novel helminth-based compound that modulates the host immune network. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential value of TPC in ameliorating lupus nephritis in a murine model and specifically to compare the efficacy of TPC to the existing first-line therapy for SLE: corticosteroids (methylprednisolone)...
April 26, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694887/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-suppresses-protective-immunity-to-gastrointestinal-helminth-infection
#11
Rafid Alhallaf, Zainab Agha, Catherine M Miller, Avril A B Robertson, Javier Sotillo, John Croese, Matthew A Cooper, Seth L Masters, Andreas Kupz, Nicholas C Smith, Alex Loukas, Paul R Giacomin
Inflammasomes promote immunity to microbial pathogens by regulating the function of IL-1-family cytokines such as IL-18 and IL-1β. However, the roles for inflammasomes during parasitic helminth infections remain unclear. We demonstrate that mice and humans infected with gastrointestinal nematodes display increased IL-18 secretion, which in Trichuris-infected or worm antigen-treated mice and in macrophages co-cultured with Trichuris antigens or exosome-like vesicles was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3-deficient mice displayed reduced pro-inflammatory type 1 cytokine responses and augmented protective type 2 immunity, which was reversed by IL-18 administration...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684754/increases-in-helminth-induced-il-21-protein-levels-disappear-upon-sample-freezing
#12
Anupama Ariyaratne, Edina K Szabo, Joel Bowron, Constance A M Finney
IL-21 is a much studied cytokine that has been implicated in the regulation of TH1, TH2, TH17 and regulatory immune responses; its signalling is a promising therapeutic target for autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. Despite its biological importance, measuring IL-21 reliably has proved difficult. ELISAs are commonly used to measure cytokines in various biological samples. However, results obtained are only as good as the quality of the sample. Here, we show that when using fresh samples, a significant increase in IL-21 was measured in the intestinal homogenate of mice infected with the intestinal worm Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670630/helminth-infections-recognition-and-modulation-of-the-immune-response-by-innate-immune-cells
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Cristina Motran, Leonardo Silvane, Laura Silvina Chiapello, Martin Gustavo Theumer, Laura Fernanda Ambrosio, Ximena Volpini, Daiana Pamela Celias, Laura Cervi
The survival of helminths in the host over long periods of time is the result of a process of adaptation or dynamic co-evolution between the host and the parasite. However, infection with helminth parasites causes damage to the host tissues producing the release of danger signals that induce the recruitment of various cells, including innate immune cells such as macrophages (Mo), dendritic cells (DCs), eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. In this scenario, these cells are able to secrete soluble factors, which orchestrate immune effector mechanisms that depend on the different niches these parasites inhabit...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668708/dectin-1-2-induced-autocrine-pge2-signaling-licenses-dendritic-cells-to-prime-th2-responses
#14
Maria M M Kaisar, Manuel Ritter, Carlos Del Fresno, Hulda S Jónasdóttir, Alwin J van der Ham, Leonard R Pelgrom, Gabriele Schramm, Laura E Layland, David Sancho, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Martin Giera, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
The molecular mechanisms through which dendritic cells (DCs) prime T helper 2 (Th2) responses, including those elicited by parasitic helminths, remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that soluble egg antigen (SEA) from Schistosoma mansoni, which is well known to drive potent Th2 responses, triggers DCs to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which subsequently-in an autocrine manner-induces OX40 ligand (OX40L) expression to license these DCs to drive Th2 responses. Mechanistically, SEA was found to promote PGE2 synthesis through Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, and via a downstream signaling cascade involving spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2)...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668679/similarities-and-differences-between-helminth-parasites-and-cancer-cell-lines-in-shaping-human-monocytes-insights-into-parallel-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion
#15
Prakash Babu Narasimhan, Leor Akabas, Sameha Tariq, Naureen Huda, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Helen Sabzevari, Robert Hofmeister, Thomas B Nutman, Roshanak Tolouei Semnani
A number of features at the host-parasite interface are reminiscent of those that are also observed at the host-tumor interface. Both cancer cells and parasites establish a tissue microenvironment that allows for immune evasion and may reflect functional alterations of various innate cells. Here, we investigated how the phenotype and function of human monocytes is altered by exposure to cancer cell lines and if these functional and phenotypic alterations parallel those induced by exposure to helminth parasites...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666821/probiotics-for-the-control-of-helminth-zoonosis
#16
REVIEW
Abadi Amare Reda
This paper is a comprehensive, concise, and an up to date review about probiotics effect and mechanisms against helminth infections of zoonotic importance. Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans in a reversible way. Despite zoonotic helminth diseases being still a challenge to the public health and the agriculture industries globally, they were still neglected in both human and veterinary medicine. Moreover, the increasing emergence of anthelmintic drug resistance constitutes failures of most disease control strategies, alarming for a quest to new alternative control approaches...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574798/modulation-of-human-dendritic-cell-activity-by-giardia-and-helminth-antigens
#17
Anneka Summan, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite known to modulate host immune responses, including dendritic cell (DC) function. Co-infections of intestinal pathogens are common, and thus DCs may be concurrently exposed to antigens from multiple parasites. Here, we investigated the effects of G. duodenalis products on human monocyte-derived DC function independently and in combination with helminth antigens (Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis). All antigens individually induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype in DCs, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12p70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion...
March 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560020/cytokine-profiles-among-patients-co-infected-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-and-soil-borne-helminths-attending-kampala-international-university-teaching-hospital-in-uganda
#18
Richard Bwanika, Charles D Kato, Johnson Welishe, Daniel C Mwandah
Background: Malaria and helminths share the same geographical distribution in tropical Africa. Studies of the interaction of helminth and malaria co-infection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. This study aimed to determine Cytokine profiles among patients co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and soil borne helminth attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital (KIU). Methods: A case control study of 240 patients were recruited at KIU teaching hospital...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559144/endocrine-immune-interactions-during-chronic-toxocariasis-caused-by-toxocara-canis-in-a-murine-model-new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-an-old-infection
#19
Víctor Hugo Del Río-Araiza, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Fernando Alba-Hurtado, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán, Olga CUenca-Micò, Jorge Morales-Montor
Toxocara canis is the helminth causing Toxocariasis, a parasitic disease with medical and veterinary implications. Their final host are members of the family Canidae and as paratenic hosts, most of the mammals are sensitive (man, rat, mouse, among others). It has been reported that a pituitary hormone, prolactin, it is responsible for reactivation and migration of larvae to the uterus and mammary gland during the last third of gestation in bitches. In addition, this hormone has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the immune response...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547639/interleukin-4-activated-macrophages-mediate-immunity-to-filarial-helminth-infection-by-sustaining-ccr3-dependent-eosinophilia
#20
Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Julio Furlong-Silva, Hanna Sjoberg, Stephen Cross, Alice Halliday, Ana F Guimaraes, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Nico Van Rooijen, Judith E Allen, Stephen J Jenkins, Mark J Taylor
Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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