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Helminths, immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346656/host-responses-to-intestinal-nematodes
#1
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, antimicrobial peptide production and smooth muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
January 13, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339033/helminth-modulation-of-lung-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Christian Schwartz, Emily Hams, Padraic G Fallon
Parasitic helminths must establish chronic infections to complete their life cycle and therefore are potent modulators of multiple facets of host physiology. Parasitic helminths have coevolved with humans to become arguably master selectors of our immune system, whereby they have impacted on the selection of genes with beneficial mutations for both host and parasite. While helminth infections of humans are a significant health burden, studies have shown that helminths or helminth products can alter susceptibility to unrelated infectious or inflammatory diseases...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321187/infection-by-the-helminth-parasite-fasciola-hepatica-requires-rapid-regulation-of-metabolic-virulence-and-invasive-factors-to-adjust-to-its-mammalian-host
#3
Krystyna Cwiklinski, Heather Jewhurst, Paul McVeigh, Tara Barbour, Aaron G Maule, Jose Tort, Sandra M O'Neill, Mark W Robinson, Sheila Donnelly, John P Dalton
The parasite Fasciola hepatica infects a broad range of mammals with impunity.  Following ingestion of parasites (metacercariae) by the host, newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) emerge from their cysts, rapidly penetrate the duodenal wall and migrate to the liver.  Successful infection takes just a few hours and involves negotiating hurdles presented by host macromolecules, tissues and micro-environments, as well as the immune system.  Here, transcriptome and proteome analysis of ex vivo F. hepatica metacercariae and NEJ reveal the rapidity and multitude of metabolic and developmental alterations that take place in order for the parasite to establish infection...
January 10, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302015/s1p-dependent-interorgan-trafficking-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-supports-host-defense
#4
Yuefeng Huang, Kairui Mao, Xi Chen, Ming-An Sun, Takeshi Kawabe, Weizhe Li, Nicholas Usher, Jinfang Zhu, Joseph F Urban, William E Paul, Ronald N Germain
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate counterparts of adaptive T lymphocytes, contributing to host defense, tissue repair, metabolic homeostasis, and inflammatory diseases. ILCs have been considered to be tissue-resident cells, but whether ILCs move between tissue sites during infection has been unclear. We show here that interleukin-25- or helminth-induced inflammatory ILC2s are circulating cells that arise from resting ILC2s residing in intestinal lamina propria. They migrate to diverse tissues based on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated chemotaxis that promotes lymphatic entry, blood circulation, and accumulation in peripheral sites, including the lung, where they contribute to anti-helminth defense and tissue repair...
January 5, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290328/human-intestinal-microbiota-interaction-between-parasites-and-the-host-immune-response
#5
REVIEW
Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Miriam E Nieves-Ramírez, Patricia Moran, Liliana Rojas, Tobias Portillo, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, B Brett Finlay, Cecilia Ximenez
The human gut is a highly complex ecosystem with an extensive microbial community, and the influence of the intestinal microbiota reaches the entire host organism. For example, the microbiome regulates fat storage, stimulates or renews epithelial cells, and influences the development and maturation of the brain and the immune system. Intestinal microbes can protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Hence, the maintenance of homeostasis between the gut microbiota and the rest of the body is crucial for health, with dysbiosis affecting disease...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262347/recent-advances-in-type-2-cell-mediated-immunity-insights-from-helminth-infection
#6
REVIEW
Nicola L Harris, P'ng Loke
Type-2-cell-mediated immune responses play a critical role in mediating both host-resistance and disease-tolerance mechanisms during helminth infections. Recently, type 2 cell responses have emerged as major regulators of tissue repair and metabolic homeostasis even under steady-state conditions. In this review, we consider how studies of helminth infection have contributed toward our expanding cellular and molecular understanding of type-2-cell-mediated immunity, as well as new areas such as the microbiome...
December 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246800/eosinophils-mediate-tissue-injury-in-autoimmune-skin-disease-bullous-pemphigoid
#7
Lan Lin, Bin-Jin Hwang, Donna A Culton, Ning Li, Susan Burette, Beverly H Koller, Kelly A Messingham, Janet A Fairley, James J Lee, Russell P Hall, Lijia An, Luis A Diaz, Zhi Liu
Eosinophils are typically associated with unique inflammatory settings, including allergic inflammation and helminth infections. However, new information suggests that eosinophils contribute more broadly to inflammatory responses and participate in local immune regulation and the tissue remodeling/repair events linked with a variety of diseases. Eosinophilic infiltration has long been a histologic hallmark of bullous pemphigoid (BP), a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies directed against basement membrane protein BP180...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239289/immune-complex-detection-in-saliva-samples-an-innovative-proposal-for-the-diagnosis-of-human-strongyloidiasis
#8
L R Bosqui, A L R Gonçalves, M R F Gonçalves-Pires, W R Pavanelli, I Conchon-Costa, J M Costa-Cruz, I N Costa
Human strongyloidiasis is caused by helminth Strongyloides stercoralis. It has a worldwide distribution, often neglected and cause of severe morbidity. The parasitological diagnosis is hindered by the low and irregular amount of larvae in feces. The goal of the present study was to detect IgG and IgG immune complex using conventional serum samples and saliva as alternative samples. We collected samples from 60 individuals, namely: group I composed of 30 healthy individuals; and group II composed of 30 individuals eliminating S...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238348/the-mannose-receptor-in-regulation-of-helminth-mediated-host-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Irma van Die, Richard D Cummings
Infection with parasitic helminths affects humanity and animal welfare. Parasitic helminths have the capacity to modulate host immune responses to promote their survival in infected hosts, often for a long time leading to chronic infections. In contrast to many infectious microbes, however, the helminths are able to induce immune responses that show positive bystander effects such as the protection to several immune disorders, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergies. They generally promote the generation of a tolerogenic immune microenvironment including the induction of type 2 (Th2) responses and a sub-population of alternatively activated macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225962/tlr-specific-immune-responses-against-helminth-infections
#10
REVIEW
Sivaprakasam Rajasekaran, Rajamanickam Anuradha, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
Despite marked improvement in the quality of lives across the globe, more than 2 million individuals in socioeconomically disadvantaged environments remain infected by helminth (worm) parasites. Owing to the longevity of the worms and paucity of immunologic controls, these parasites survive for long periods within the bloodstream, lymphatics, and gastrointestinal tract resulting in pathologic conditions such as anemia, cirrhosis, and lymphatic filariasis. Despite infection, an asymptomatic state may be maintained by the host immunoregulatory environment, which involves multiple levels of regulatory cells and cytokines; a breakdown of this regulation is observed in pathological disease...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201030/toll-like-receptor-4-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-promote-ifn-type-i-expression-to-enhance-th2-responses-to-nippostrongylus-brasiliensis
#11
Christophe Pellefigues, Shiau-Choot Tang, Alfonso Schmidt, Ruby F White, Olivier Lamiable, Lisa M Connor, Christiane Ruedl, Jurek Dobrucki, Graham Le Gros, Franca Ronchese
The induction of Th2 responses is thought to be multifactorial, and emerge from specific pathways distinct from those associated with antagonistic antibacterial or antiviral Th1 responses. Here, we show that the recognition of non-viable Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) in the skin induces a strong recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Nb also activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling with expression of Ifnb transcripts in the skin and the development of an IFN type I signature on helminth antigen-bearing dendritic cells in draining lymph nodes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171863/schistosoma-mansoni-specific-immune-responses-and-allergy-in-uganda
#12
Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Joyce Kabagenyi, Margaret Nampijja, Richard E Sanya, Bridgious Walusimbi, Jacent Nassuuna, Emily L Webb, Alison M Elliott
Low allergy-related disease (ARD) prevalence in low-income countries may be partly attributed to helminth infections. In the Schistosoma mansoni (Sm)-endemic Lake Victoria islands (Uganda), we recently observed positive helminth-allergy associations, despite low ARD prevalence. To understand how Sm-induced cytokine and antibody profiles might influence allergic response profiles in this population, we assessed Schistosoma worm (SWA)- and egg antigen (SEA)-specific Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-5, IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine profiles (n=407), and total (n=471), SWA-, SEA- and allergen (house dust mite [HDM] and cockroach)-specific (as)IgE and IgG4 profiles (n=2117) by ELISA...
November 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170498/a-structurally-distinct-tgf-%C3%AE-mimic-from-an-intestinal-helminth-parasite-potently-induces-regulatory-t-cells
#13
Chris J C Johnston, Danielle J Smyth, Ravindra B Kodali, Madeleine P J White, Yvonne Harcus, Kara J Filbey, James P Hewitson, Cynthia S Hinck, Alasdair Ivens, Andrea M Kemter, Anna O Kildemoes, Thierry Le Bihan, Dinesh C Soares, Stephen M Anderton, Thomas Brenn, Stephen J Wigmore, Hannah V Woodcock, Rachel C Chambers, Andrew P Hinck, Henry J McSorley, Rick M Maizels
Helminth parasites defy immune exclusion through sophisticated evasion mechanisms, including activation of host immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells. The mouse parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus can expand the host Treg population by secreting products that activate TGF-β signalling, but the identity of the active molecule is unknown. Here we identify an H. polygyrus TGF-β mimic (Hp-TGM) that replicates the biological and functional properties of TGF-β, including binding to mammalian TGF-β receptors and inducing mouse and human Foxp3(+) Treg cells...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169803/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-two-leucine-aminopeptidases-of-the-blood-fluke-schistosoma-mansoni
#14
Gabriela Maggioli, Gabriel Rinaldi, Ines Giaudrone, Patricia Berasain, José F Tort, Paul J Brindley, Carlos Carmona
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease (NTD) and considered the most important of the human helminthiases in terms of morbidity and mortality. Whereas treatment with praziquantel has been effective since the 1980s, the potential for the emergence of drug resistance has propelled the search for new interventions. Studies have revealed key roles of proteases in parasitic helminths during establishment of infection, tissue invasion, immune evasion, parasite feeding and development throughout the different developmental stages, pinpointing them as possible candidates...
November 20, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165352/antibody-based-protective-immunity-against-helminth-infections-antibody-phage-display-derived-antibodies-against-bmr1-antigen
#15
Anizah Rahumatullah, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Rahmah Noordin, Theam Soon Lim
Helminth parasite infections are significantly impacting global health, with more than two billion infections worldwide with a high morbidity rate. The complex life cycle of the nematodes has made host immune response studies against these parasites extremely difficult. In this study, we utilized two phage antibody libraries; the immune and naïve library were used to identify single chain fragment variable (scFv) clones against a specific filarial antigen (BmR1). The V-gene analysis of isolated scFv clones will help shed light on preferential VDJ gene segment usage against the filarial BmR1 antigen in healthy and infected states...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163497/interactions-between-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-cells-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system
#16
REVIEW
Cornelia Symowski, David Voehringer
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a major source of cytokines, which are also produced by Th2 cells and several cell types of the innate immune system. Work over the past few years indicates that ILC2s play a central role in regulating type 2 immune responses against allergens and helminths. ILC2s can interact with a variety of cells types of the innate and adaptive immune system by cell-cell contacts or by communication via soluble factors. In this review, we provide an overview about recent advances in our understanding how ILC2s orchestrate type 2 immune responses with focus on direct interactions between ILC2s and other cells of the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162324/modulation-of-human-macrophage-activity-by-ascaris-antigens-is-dependent-on-macrophage-polarization-state
#17
Sara Almeida, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro. Mɸs were exposed to A. suum ABF at different stages of their differentiation and/or polarization. Mɸ were first differentiated from monocytes into either uncommitted (M-), classically activated (M(GM-CSF)) or alternatively activated (M(M-CSF)) phenotypes and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 15, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152559/fasciola-hepatica-esps-could-indistinctly-activate-or-block-multiple-toll-like-receptors-in-a-human-monocyte-cell-line
#18
Olgary Figueroa-Santiago, Ana M Espino
Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic helminth that induces Th2/Treg responses in its mammalian host. Some reports have suggested that ESPs achieve these polarized immune responses by delaying the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages during the early stages of innate immunity, a process that is mediated by TLR4. The present study aimed to investigate whether TLRs other than TLR4 could also be targeted by F. hepatica ESPs. To achieve this aim a screening system was optimized using THP1-Blue CD14 cells. ESPs were first separated based on their molecular weight and according their net charge by ion exchange chromatography (IEC)...
2017: Annals of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144463/a-single-cell-survey-of-the-small-intestinal-epithelium
#19
Adam L Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M Delorey, Michael R Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes of intestinal epithelial cell and their gene signatures. We found unexpected diversity in hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells and constructed the taxonomy of newly identified subtypes, and distinguished between two subtypes of tuft cell, one of which expresses the epithelial cytokine Tslp and the pan-immune marker CD45, which was not previously associated with non-haematopoietic cells...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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