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Delayed sleep phase

Farid Talih, Nour Y Gebara, Farah S Andary, Stefania Mondello, Firas Kobeissy, Raffaele Ferri
Circadian rhythm disturbances are common in bipolar affective disorder (BD). Delayed sleep-wake phase syndrome (DSWPD) is the most prevalent circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWDs) and is frequently observed in BD. It is unclear whether DSWPD in BD is an independent process or is a consequence of BD. In this hypothetical review, we discuss the overlap between BD and DSWPD and potential common biomarkers for DSWPD and BD. The review will include a discussion of the genetics of DSWPD and BD. Biomarkers elucidating the pathophysiological processes occurring in these two disorders may offer insight into the etiology and prognosis of both conditions...
February 13, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Philip Gehrman, Arjun Sengupta, Elizabeth Harders, Er Ubeydullah, Allan I Pack, Aalim Weljie
Study Objectives: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Patients with insomnia exhibit hyperarousal in multiple domains, including an elevated metabolic rate, but specific metabolic molecular perturbations are unknown. Furthermore, objective clinical markers of insomnia are not available and current assessment of pathological extent relies on self-report. Here, we provide preliminary evidence that chronic insomnia is remarkably reflected in the periphery through detailed metabolic assessments...
March 7, 2018: Sleep
Solenne Van der Maren, Christophe Moderie, Catherine Duclos, Jean Paquet, Véronique Daneault, Marie Dumont
A number of factors can contribute to a delayed sleep schedule. An important factor could be a daily profile of light exposure favoring a later circadian phase. This study aimed to compare light exposure between 14 young adults complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and 14 matched controls and to identify possible associations between habitual light exposure and circadian phase. Exposure to white and blue light was recorded with ambulatory monitors for 7 consecutive days. Participants also noted their daily use of light-emitting devices before bedtime...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Alexander D Nesbitt
Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) is the most commonly encountered of the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSDs), and is often confused with sleep initiation insomnia. It typically emerges in teenage years and persists into adulthood. In essence, people with the disorder have an abnormally delayed major sleep episode relative to the dark phase of the solar cycle, and hence great difficulty initiating sleep at an appropriately early time, and, as a knock-on effect, waking at a desirable time in the morning, leading to chronic, and often quite severe sleep restriction trying to conform to a 9 to 5 schedule...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Ayano Kuwada, Ikuko Mohri, Ryosuke Asano, Shigeyuki Matsuzawa, Kumi Kato-Nishimura, Ikuko Hirata, Takashi Mitsuhosi, Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Mariko Nakanishi, Masaya Tachibana, Yuko Ohno, Masako Taniike
OBJECTIVE: The Japanese Sleep Questionnaire for Elementary Schoolers (JSQ-ES) was developed to measure the sleep habits and disturbances of Japanese children. The current study aimed to present psychometric properties and describe the score distribution of the JSQ-ES. In addition, it examined correlations between the sleep and daytime behavior of school-aged children. METHOD: Guardians of 4369 elementary school children and 100 children diagnosed with sleep disorders in two clinics completed the JSQ-ES...
January 2018: Sleep Medicine
Maher Soubra, Yara Abou Harb, Sara Hatoum, Nadine Yazbeck, Mirna Khoury, Elie Bou Mansour, Lina Kurdahi Badr
PURPOSE: Noise levels remain high in clinical settings, which may result in stress and sleep disruption, and can lead to immunosuppression, delayed healing, confusion, disorientation, delusions, and increased length of hospital stay. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to assess effects of a multidisciplinary noise reduction program on a pediatric unit in an acute care hospital in a developing country. METHODS: A quality improvement project was carried out over 15 months in a pediatric unit...
January 29, 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Ryan W Logan, Brant P Hasler, Erika E Forbes, Peter L Franzen, Mary M Torregrossa, Yanhua H Huang, Daniel J Buysse, Duncan B Clark, Colleen A McClung
Sleep homeostasis and circadian function are important maintaining factors for optimal health and well-being. Conversely, sleep and circadian disruptions are implicated in a variety of adverse health outcomes, including substance use disorders. These risks are particularly salient during adolescence. Adolescents require 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night, although few consistently achieve these durations. A mismatch between developmental changes and social/environmental demands contributes to inadequate sleep...
December 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Julia F Dewald-Kaufmann, Eduard J Bruin, Marcel Smits, Bonne J H Zijlstra, Frans J Oort, Anne Marie Meijer
The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire is a validated questionnaire that measures symptoms of prolonged insufficient and/or poor sleep and therefore accounts for individuals' sleep need and sleep debt. This study extends its psychometric properties by providing cut-off scores, using a matched sample of 298 healthy adolescents (15.38 ± 1.63 years, 37.9% male, mean Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire score: 32.98 ± 6.51) and 298 adolescents with insomnia/delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (15.48 ± 1...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Michelle A Short, Nathan Weber, Chelsea Reynolds, Scott Coussens, Mary A Carskadon
Study Objectives: This study will, (a) estimate the nightly sleep need of human adolescents, (b) determine the time course and severity of sleep-related deficits when sleep is reduced below this optimal quantity, and (c) determine whether sleep restriction perturbs the circadian system as well as the sleep homeostat. Methods: Thirty-four adolescents aged 15 to 17 years spent 10 days and 9 nights in the sleep laboratory. Between two baseline nights and two recovery nights with 10-hours' time in bed (TIB) per night, participants experienced either severe sleep restriction (5-hr TIB), moderate sleep restriction (7...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
Yoshikazu Takaesu, Yuichi Inoue, Kotaro Ono, Akiko Murakoshi, Kunihiro Futenma, Yoko Komada, Takeshi Inoue
OBJECTIVE: Circadian rhythm dysfunction has been considered to be common in bipolar disorder (BD) and plays an important role in mood dysregulation in this disorder. However, no study has investigated whether circadian rhythm dysfunction would affect the clinical course of BD. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that circadian rhythm dysfunction could be a predictor of relapse in euthymic BD patients. METHODS: One hundred four euthymic outpatients with BD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), participated in this prospective follow-up study from August 2014 to April 2015...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kurt Kräuchi, Elisa Fattori, Alessandra Giordano, Maria Falbo, Antonella Iadarola, Francesca Aglì, Antonella Tribolo, Roberto Mutani, Alessandro Cicolin
Environmental temperature can strongly affect sleep. The habitual sleep phase is usually located between evening decline and morning rise of the circadian rhythm of core body temperature (CBT). However, the thermophysiological mechanisms promoting or disturbing sleep are not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a high heat capacity mattress (HHCM) on CBT, skin temperatures and sleep in comparison to a conventional low heat capacity mattress (LHCM). Based on the higher heat capacity of HHCM an increase in conductive body heat loss enhances the nocturnal decline in CBT can be expected...
December 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Yuliya Boyko, Poul Jennum, Palle Toft
Sleep and circadian rhythm are reported to be severely abnormal in critically ill patients. Disturbed sleep can lead to the development of delirium and, as a result, can be associated with prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and increased mortality. The standard criterion method of sleep assessment, polysomnography (PSG), is complicated in critically ill patients due to the practical challenges and interpretation difficulties. Several PSG sleep studies in the ICU reported the absence of normal sleep characteristics in many critically ill patients, making the standard method of sleep scoring insufficient in this patient group...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
Steven R Pliszka, Timothy E Wilens, Samantha Bostrom, Valerie K Arnold, Andrea Marraffino, Andrew J Cutler, Frank A López, Norberto J DeSousa, Floyd R Sallee, Bev Incledon, Jeffrey H Newcorn
OBJECTIVE: Evening-dosed HLD200 is a delayed-release and extended-release methylphenidate (DR/ER-MPH) formulation consisting of uniform, dual-layered microbeads with an inner drug-loaded core. DR/ER-MPH is designed to delay the initial release of drug by 8-10 hours, and thereafter, provide a controlled, extended drug release to target onset of effect upon awakening that lasts into the evening. This phase 3 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of DR/ER-MPH on symptoms and temporal at-home functional impairment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
August 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Jelena Ciric, Katarina Lazic, Slobodan Kapor, Milka Perovic, Jelena Petrovic, Vesna Pesic, Selma Kanazir, Jasna Saponjic
In order to find out the possible earliest biomarkers of Parkinson's disease (PD) cholinopathy, we followed the impact of bilateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) lesion in rat on: the cortical and hippocampal sleep/wake states architectures, all sleep states related EEG microstructures, sleep spindles, the basal and stimulated locomotor activity. Sleep and basal locomotor activity in adult Wistar rats were followed during their inactive circadian phase, and throughout the same aging period. The bilateral PPT lesions were done by 0...
February 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shunsuke Nagashima, Madoka Osawa, Hiroto Matsuyama, Wataru Ohoka, Aemi Ahn, Tomoko Wakamura
The guidelines for night and shift workers recommend that after night work, they should sleep in a dark environment during the daytime. However, staying in a dark environment during the daytime reduces nocturnal melatonin secretion and delays its onset. Daytime bright-light exposure after night work is important for melatonin synthesis the subsequent night and for maintaining the circadian rhythms. However, it is not clear whether daytime sleeping after night work should be in a dim- or a bright-light environment for maintaining melatonin secretion...
February 2018: Chronobiology International
Tamara Jayne Varcoe, Kathryn L Gatford, David J Kennaway
The in utero environment is inherently rhythmic, with the fetus subjected to circadian changes in temperature, substrates and various maternal hormones. Meanwhile, the fetus is developing an endogenous circadian timing system, preparing for life in an external environment where light, food availability and other environmental factors change predictably and repeatedly every 24 hours. In humans, there are many situations that can disrupt circadian rhythms, including shift work, international travel, insomnias and circadian rhythm disorders (e...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Mairav Cohen-Zion, Elisheva Shiloh
The study aim was to better understand sleep and sleep-related factors affecting everyday executive capacities and academic performance among healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional survey on sleep, phase preference, academic performance and executive functions of high-school students was conducted. Female gender, grade status, sleepiness and evening chronotype accounted for approximately 25-30% of the variance in daily executive ability. Sleep duration was a weak predictor of executive skills. Lower school grades were associated with increased sleepiness, evening preference and poorer executive skills...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
Ingeborg Wijting, Casper Rokx, Charles Boucher, Jeroen van Kampen, Suzan Pas, Theodora de Vries-Sluijs, Carolina Schurink, Hannelore Bax, Maarten Derksen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Marchina van der Ende, Eric van Gorp, Jan Nouwen, Annelies Verbon, Wouter Bierman, Bart Rijnders
BACKGROUND: The high genetic barrier to resistance of dolutegravir might allow for its use as maintenance monotherapy in patients with HIV. We investigated whether dolutegravir monotherapy was non-inferior to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for maintaining virological suppression in patients with HIV-1 infection successfully treated with combination ART. METHODS: We did this open-label, phase 2, randomised non-inferiority trial at two medical centres in the Netherlands...
December 2017: Lancet HIV
Gemma M Paech, Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
We conducted two studies of circadian misalignment in non-Hispanic African and European-Americans. In the first, the sleep/wake (light/dark) schedule was advanced 9 h, similar to flying east, and in the second these schedules were delayed 9 h, similar to flying west or sleeping during the day after night work. We confirmed that the free-running circadian period is shorter in African-Americans compared to European-Americans, and found differences in the magnitude and direction of circadian rhythm phase shifts which were related to the circadian period...
2017: PloS One
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