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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#1
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522096/sleep-and-circadian-variability-in-people-with-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-versus-healthy-controls
#2
Helen J Burgess, Margaret Park, James K Wyatt, Muneer Rizvydeen, Louis F Fogg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To compare sleep and circadian variability in adults with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) to healthy controls. PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty participants (22 DSWPD, 18 healthy controls) completed a ten-day protocol, consisting of DLMO assessments on two consecutive nights, a five-day study break, followed by two more DLMO assessments. All participants were instructed to sleep within one hour of their self-reported average sleep schedule for the last four days of the study break...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522084/circadian-phase-dynamics-of-subjective-sleepiness-and-sensitivity-to-blue-light-in-young-adults-complaining-of-a-delayed-sleep-schedule
#3
Christophe Moderie, Solenne Van der Maren, Marie Dumont
OBJECTIVE: To assess factors that might contribute to a delayed sleep schedule in young adults with sub-clinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder. METHODS: Two groups of 14 young adults (eight women) were compared: one group complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and a control group with an earlier bedtime and no complaint. For one week, each subject maintained a target bedtime reflecting their habitual sleep schedule. Subjects were then admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase (dim light melatonin onset), subjective sleepiness, and non-visual light sensitivity...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470767/sleep-wake-rhythm-disturbances-and-perceived-sleep-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#4
Maria Pedersen, Mirjam Ekstedt, Milada C Småstuen, Vegard B Wyller, Dag Sulheim, Even Fagermoen, Anette Winger, Edvard Pedersen, Harald Hrubos-Strøm
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by long-lasting, disabling and unexplained fatigue that is often accompanied by unrefreshing sleep. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate sleep-wake rhythm and perceived sleep in adolescent CFS patients compared to healthy individuals. We analysed baseline data on 120 adolescent CFS patients and 39 healthy individuals included in the NorCAPITAL project. Activity measures from a uniaxial accelerometer (activPAL) were used to estimate mid-sleep time (mid-point of a period with sleep) and time in bed...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462547/changing-adolescent-sleep-patterns-factors-affecting-them-and-the-related-problems
#5
Harpreet Kaur, Harpreet Singh Bhoday
Sleep affects physical growth, behavior and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning and attention especially of a growing child. Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Adolescent sleep patterns deserve particular attention because of the potential impact on school performance. Average sleep period in adolescents is reduced during school days to around seven hours...
March 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460798/from-the-midnight-sun-to-the-longest-night-sleep-in-antarctica
#6
REVIEW
Nathalie Pattyn, Martine Van Puyvelde, Helio Fernandez-Tellez, Bart Roelands, Olivier Mairesse
Sleep disturbances are the main health complaints from personnel deployed in Antarctica. The current paper presents a systematic review of research findings on sleep disturbances in Antarctica. The available sources were divided in three categories: results based on questionnaire surveys or sleep logs, studies using actigraphy, and data from polysomnography results. Other areas relevant to the issue were also examined. These included chronobiology, since the changes in photoperiod have been known to affect circadian rhythms, mood disturbances, exercise, sleep and hypoxia, countermeasure investigations in Antarctica, and other locations lacking a normal photoperiod...
March 14, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455701/chronic-rem-sleep-restriction-in-juvenile-male-rats-induces-anxiety-like-behavior-and-alters-monoamine-systems-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#7
Janaína da Silva Rocha-Lopes, Ricardo Borges Machado, Deborah Suchecki
Adolescence is marked by major physiological changes, including those in the sleep-wake cycle, such as phase delay, which may result in reduced sleep hours. Sleep restriction and/or deprivation in adult rats activate stress response and seem to be a risk factor for triggering emotional disorders. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of prolonged REM sleep restriction in juvenile male rats. Immediately after weaning, on postnatal day 21, three males from each litter were submitted to REM sleep deprivation and the other three animals were maintained in their home-cages...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442311/sleep-phase-delay-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-potential-new-manifestation-of-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-regulator-dysfunction
#8
Judy L Jensen, Christopher R Jones, Christiana Kartsonaki, Kristyn A Packer, Frederick R Adler, Theodore G Liou
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein dysfunction causes CF. Improving survival allows detection of increasingly subtle disease manifestations. CFTR dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) may disturb circadian rhythm and thus sleep phase. We studied sleep in adults to better understand potential CNS CFTR dysfunction. METHODS: We recruited participants from April 2012 through April 2015 and administered the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ)...
April 22, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440811/evaluation-of-circadian-phenotypes-utilizing-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorders
#9
A Hida, Y Ohsawa, S Kitamura, K Nakazaki, N Ayabe, Y Motomura, K Matsui, M Kobayashi, A Usui, Y Inoue, H Kusanagi, Y Kamei, K Mishima
We evaluated the circadian phenotypes of patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), two different circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) by measuring clock gene expression rhythms in fibroblast cells derived from individual patients. Bmal1-luciferase (Bmal1-luc) expression rhythms were measured in the primary fibroblast cells derived from skin biopsy samples of patients with DSWPD and N24SWD, as well as control subjects. The period length of the Bmal1-luc rhythm (in vitro period) was distributed normally and was 22...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388406/mutation-of-the-human-circadian-clock-gene-cry1-in-familial-delayed-sleep-phase-disorder
#11
Alina Patke, Patricia J Murphy, Onur Emre Onat, Ana C Krieger, Tayfun Özçelik, Scott S Campbell, Michael W Young
Patterns of daily human activity are controlled by an intrinsic circadian clock that promotes ∼24 hr rhythms in many behavioral and physiological processes. This system is altered in delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), a common form of insomnia in which sleep episodes are shifted to later times misaligned with the societal norm. Here, we report a hereditary form of DSPD associated with a dominant coding variation in the core circadian clock gene CRY1, which creates a transcriptional inhibitor with enhanced affinity for circadian activator proteins Clock and Bmal1...
April 6, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377393/does-a-brief-behavioural-intervention-delivered-by-paediatricians-or-psychologists-improve-sleep-problems-for-children-with-adhd-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-translational-trial
#12
E Sciberras, M Mulraney, H Heussler, N Rinehart, T Schuster, L Gold, N Hayes, H Hiscock
INTRODUCTION: Up to 70% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems. We have demonstrated the efficacy of a brief behavioural intervention for children with ADHD in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) and now aim to examine whether this intervention is effective in real-life clinical settings when delivered by paediatricians or psychologists. We will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children aged 5-12 years with ADHD (n=320) are being recruited for this translational cluster RCT through paediatrician practices in Victoria and Queensland, Australia...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367676/are-individual-differences-in-sleep-and-circadian-timing-amplified-by-use-of-artificial-light-sources
#13
Krithika Swaminathan, Elizabeth B Klerman, Andrew J K Phillips
Within the human population, there is large interindividual variability in the timing of sleep and circadian rhythms. This variability has been attributed to individual differences in sleep physiology, circadian physiology, and/or light exposure. Recent experimental evidence suggests that the latter is necessary to evoke large interindividual differences in sleep and circadian timing. We used a validated model of human sleep and circadian physiology to test the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in sleep and circadian timing are amplified by self-selected use of artificial light sources...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364473/prevalence-of-circadian-misalignment-and-its-association-with-depressive-symptoms-in-delayed-sleep-phase-disorder
#14
Jade M Murray, Tracey L Sletten, Michelle Magee, Christopher Gordon, Nicole Lovato, Delwyn J Bartlett, David J Kennaway, Leon C Lack, Ronald R Grunstein, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
Study Objective: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and to compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two DSPD patients aged 16-64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO)...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364418/the-benefit-of-directed-forgetting-persists-after-a-daytime-nap-the-role-of-spindles-and-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-in-the-consolidation-of-relevant-memories
#15
Borbála Blaskovich, Ágnes Szollosi, Ferenc Gombos, Mihály Racsmány, Péter Simor
Study Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effect of directed forgetting instruction on memory retention after a 2-hour delay involving a daytime nap or an equivalent amount of time spent awake. We examined the associations between sleep-specific oscillations and the retention of relevant and irrelevant study materials. Methods: We applied a list-method directed forgetting paradigm manipulating the perceived relevance of previously encoded lists of words. Participants were randomly assigned to either a nap or an awake group, and to a remember or a forget subgroup...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#16
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324186/association-of-evening-smartphone-use-with-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-activity-after-awakening-in-adolescents-living-in-high-school-dormitories
#17
Yoko Nose, Rina Fujinaga, Maki Suzuki, Ikuyo Hayashi, Toshio Moritani, Kazuhiko Kotani, Narumi Nagai
PURPOSE: Smartphones are prevalently used among adolescents; however, nighttime exposure to blue-enriched light, through electric devices, is known to induce delays of the circadian rhythm phases and poor morning somatic conditions. We therefore investigated whether evening smartphone use may affect sleep-wake cycle and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity after awaking in dormitory students. METHODS: The participants were high school students, living under dormitory rules regarding the curfew, study, meals, lights-out, and wake-up times...
April 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321642/circadian-rhythm-dysregulation-in-bipolar-spectrum-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Lauren B Alloy, Tommy H Ng, Madison K Titone, Elaine M Boland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent evidence for circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). We examine evidence for endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms in BSDs. We also address whether circadian dysregulation provides vulnerability to onset of BSD and evidence for a new integration of reward and circadian dysregulation in BSD. RECENT FINDINGS: Relative circadian phase delay (e...
April 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320839/sleep-deprivation-and-caffeine-treatment-potentiate-photic-resetting-of-the-master-circadian-clock-in-a-diurnal-rodent
#19
Pawan Kumar Jha, Hanan Bouâouda, Sylviane Gourmelen, Stephanie Dumont, Fanny Fuchs, Yannick Goumon, Patrice Bourgin, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light/dark cycle. However, nonphotic factors, such as behavioral arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei, were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285255/relationships-between-circadian-measures-depression-and-response-to-antidepressant-treatment-a-preliminary-investigation
#20
Leslie M Swanson, Helen J Burgess, Edward D Huntley, Holli Bertram, Ann Mooney, Jennifer Zollars, Richard Dopp, Robert Hoffmann, Roseanne Armitage, J Todd Arnedt
Few studies have examined relationships between circadian rhythms and unipolar major depressive disorder. Further, no study to date has examined circadian markers as predictors of response to depression treatment. In the present study, we examined associations between circadian timing and its alignment with sleep and depression severity in 30 adults with major depressive disorder who completed a randomized controlled trial of two weeks of time in bed (TIB) restriction administered adjunctive to fluoxetine, with a focus on sex differences...
June 2017: Psychiatry Research
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