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nootropic, randomized controlled trial

Jie Zhang, Ruili Wei, Zhongqin Chen, Benyan Luo
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a common symptom in post-stroke patients. Piracetam is a commonly used nootropic agent that promises various benefits to brain function, including language improvement. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether piracetam facilitates the rehabilitation of language performance in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of piracetam treatment in post-stroke patients published in any language were included, excluding those involving pre-existing cognitive disorders such as dementia and mood disturbances...
July 2016: CNS Drugs
Yujin Jeon, Binna Kim, Jieun E Kim, Bori R Kim, Soonhyun Ban, Jee Hyang Jeong, Oran Kwon, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Chang-Won Ahn, Jong-Hoon Kim, Sung Ug Jung, Soo-Hyun Park, In Kyoon Lyoo, Sujung Yoon
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined whether the administration of ganglioside, an active ingredient of deer bone extract, can improve working memory performance by increasing gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Seventy-five individuals with subjective cognitive impairment were chosen to receive either ganglioside (330[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day or 660[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Todd M Solomon, Jarrett Leech, Guy B deBros, Cynthia A Murphy, Andrew E Budson, Elizabeth A Vassey, Paul R Solomon
OBJECTIVE: Alpha BRAIN® is a nootropic supplement that purports to enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this self-described cognitive enhancing nootropic on cognitive functioning in a group of healthy adults by utilizing a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled design. METHODS: A total of 63-treatment naïve individuals between 18 and 35 years of age completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial...
March 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Sarah Chau, Nathan Herrmann, Myuri T Ruthirakuhan, Jinghan Jenny Chen, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) provide modest symptomatic relief but do not slow the progression of the disease. Latrepirdine may modulate several targets involved in AD pathology, including lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial permeability, voltage-gated calcium ion channels as well as neurotransmitter receptor activity, and thus potentially represents both a symptomatic and disease-modifying intervention. Several randomized, placebo-controlled trials have sought to evaluate the effect of latrepirdine on cognition, function and behaviour in patients with AD...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ping-Hui Kuo, Ching-I Lin, Yue-Hwa Chen, Wan-Chun Chiu, Shyh-Hsiang Lin
Ageing accompanied by a decline in cognitive performance may be a result of the long-term effects of oxidative stress on neurologic processes. It has been shown that high-cholesterol contents in the blood and brain may lead to the deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) protein in the brain, which damages brain cells. The present study was designed to observe the effect of polyphenol-rich Oriental plums on cognitive function and cerebral neurodegeneration-related protein expression in mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 5 months...
May 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Serge Gauthier, Jefferson Voltaire Proaño, Jianping Jia, Lutz Froelich, Johannes Christophe Vester, Edith Doppler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a systematic and quantitative summary of benefit and risk of Cerebrolysin in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to avoid major deficiencies of an earlier meta-analysis. DESIGN: This is a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Trials were identified with the help of PubMed, the Cochrane Dementia Group database, the Center for Collaborative Neurosciences, and references from reviews; no language restrictions were applied...
2015: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Ying Li, Shan Hai, Yan Zhou, Bi Rong Dong
BACKGROUND: Rarer dementias include Huntington's disease (HD), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia in multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Cholinesterase inhibitors, including donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine, are considered to be the first-line medicines for Alzheimer's disease and some other dementias, such as dementia in Parkinson's disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors are hypothesised to work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine...
March 3, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Daniela Mastroiacovo, Catherine Kwik-Uribe, Davide Grassi, Stefano Necozione, Angelo Raffaele, Luana Pistacchio, Roberta Righetti, Raffaella Bocale, Maria Carmela Lechiara, Carmine Marini, Claudio Ferri, Giovambattista Desideri
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. DESIGN: This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermediate flavanol (IF)], or 48 mg [low flavanol (LF)] cocoa flavanols (CFs)...
March 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Laure Rouch, Philippe Cestac, Olivier Hanon, Charlène Cool, Catherine Helmer, Béatrice Bouhanick, Bernard Chamontin, Jean-Franҫois Dartigues, Bruno Vellas, Sandrine Andrieu
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypertension, particularly midlife high blood pressure, has been associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. In this context, antihypertensive drugs might have a preventive effect, but the association remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to examine all published findings that investigated this relationship and discuss the mechanisms underlying the potential benefits of antihypertensive medication use...
February 2015: CNS Drugs
Brisa Solé, Esther Jiménez, Anabel Martinez-Aran, Eduard Vieta
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and disabling psychiatric illness often accompanied of cognitive dysfunction which may persist even when patients achieve clinical remission. Currently, cognitive deficits emerge as a potential target because they compromise the functional outcome of depressed patients. The aim of this study was to review data for several potential pharmacological treatments targeting cognition in MDD, resulting from monotherapy or adjunctive treatment. An extensive and systematic Pubmed/Medline search of the published literature until March 2014 was conducted using a variety of search term to find relevant articles...
February 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Arianna Goracci, Silvia di Volo, Francesco Casamassima, Simone Bolognesi, Jim Benbow, Andrea Fagiolini
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder, including new therapeutic approaches such as centrally acting sympathomimetics, nootropics, lisdexamfetamine, and substance abuse treatment agents such as acamprosate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, and naltrexone. METHODS: The study was conducted by searching the MEDLINE database using the keywords "binge eating disorder," "obesity," and "pharmacological therapy...
January 2015: Journal of Addiction Medicine
David Vauzour, Noemi Tejera, Colette O'Neill, Valeria Booz, Baptiste Jude, Insa M A Wolf, Neil Rigby, Jose Manuel Silvan, Peter J Curtis, Aedin Cassidy, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Gerald Rimbach, Anne Marie Minihane
Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis...
March 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Julia Day, Karolis Zienius, Karin Gehring, David Grosshans, Martin Taphoorn, Robin Grant, Jing Li, Paul D Brown
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are common in people who have received cranial irradiation and have a serious impact on daily functioning and quality of life. The benefit of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in this population is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing or ameliorating cognitive deficits in adult patients treated with cranial irradiation. SEARCH METHODS: In August 2014...
December 18, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andre F Carvalho, Kamilla K Miskowiak, Thomas N Hyphantis, Cristiano A Kohler, Gilberto S Alves, Beatrice Bortolato, Paulo Marcelo G Sales, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Michael Berk, Roger S McIntyre
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction encompassing several domains, including memory, executive function, processing speed and attention. Cognitive deficits persist in a significant proportion of patients even in remission, compromising psychosocial functioning and workforce performance. While monoaminergic antidepressants may improve cognitive performance in MDD, most antidepressants have limited clinical efficacy. The overarching aims of this review were: (1) to synthesize extant literature on putative biological pathways related to cognitive dysfunction in MDD and (2) to review novel neurotherapeutic targets for cognitive enhancement in MDD...
2014: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Diana Wucherer, Tilly Eichler, Ingo Kilimann, Johannes Hertel, Bernhard Michalowsky, Jochen René Thyrian, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge about antidementia drug treatment in community dwelling people with dementia in Germany. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of treatment with antidementia drugs in patients in primary care, and the socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with antidementia drug treatment. METHODS: Present analyses are based on preliminary data from the DelpHi-trial, an ongoing GP-based, cluster-randomized, controlled intervention trial to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in Germany...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ahmed Dahir Mohamed, Chris Roberts Lewis
BACKGROUND: Modafinil is a medication licensed for the treatment of narcolepsy. However, it has been reported that healthy individuals without wakefulness disorders are using modafinil off-label to enhance cognitive functioning. Although some studies have reported that modafinil improves cognitive task performance in healthy volunteers, numerous other studies have failed to detect cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil on several well-established neuropsychological tasks. Interestingly, several clinical and preclinical studies have found that improved cognitive task performance by modafinil is accompanied by slower response times...
2014: PloS One
Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Frans R Verhey, Rafael Blesa, Christine A F von Arnim, Anke Bongers, John Harrison, John Sijben, Elio Scarpini, Maurits F J Vandewoude, Bruno Vellas, Renger Witkamp, Patrick J G H Kamphuis, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND: The medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect, is designed to improve synapse formation and function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCT) with Souvenaid of 12 and 24 week duration (Souvenir I and Souvenir II) showed that memory performance was improved in drug-naïve mild AD patients, whereas no effects on cognition were observed in a 24-week RCT (S-Connect) in mild to moderate AD patients using AD medication...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ananya Sadhu, Prabhat Upadhyay, Aruna Agrawal, Kaliappan Ilango, Dipankar Karmakar, Gur Prit Inder Singh, Govind Prasad Dubey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The enigmatic etiology of neurodegenerative diseases poses a challenge for the development of novel and efficient drugs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polyherbal (test) formulation on cognitive functions, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in healthy elderly as well as senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) patients. METHOD: A randomized double-blind placebo- and active-controlled clinical trial was performed in healthy elderly subjects and SDAT patients with an age range of 60-75 years...
December 2014: Clinical Drug Investigation
David Wilkinson, Kristian Windfeld, Eskild Colding-Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: In human beings, 5-HT6 receptors are almost exclusively expressed in the brain, particularly in areas relevant for cognition, such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex. We assessed the effect on cognitive performance of Lu AE58054 (idalopirdine), a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist, in donepezil-treated patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: For this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial (LADDER), we recruited patients from 48 outpatient clinical sites in seven countries...
November 2014: Lancet Neurology
Jun Wang, Lan Tan, Hui-Fu Wang, Chen-Chen Tan, Xiang-Fei Meng, Chong Wang, Shao-Wen Tang, Jin-Tai Yu
BACKGROUND: In the past 20 years, substantial evidence from laboratory and epidemiologic studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory medications could defer or prevent the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, several studies do not corroborate these findings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of anti-inflammatory drug use on the incidence of AD. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to March 2014...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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