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Vessela Krasteva, Irena Jekova, Ramun Schmid
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) as a biometric modality based on two straightforward binary QRS template matching characteristics. Different perspectives of the human verification problem are considered, regarding the optimal lead selection and stability over sample size, gender, age, heart rate (HR). METHODS: A clinical 12-lead resting ECG database, including a population of 460 subjects with two-session recordings (>1 year apart) is used...
2018: PloS One
Mireia Calvo, Daniel Romero, Virginie Le Rolle, Nathalie Béhar, Pedro Gomis, Philippe Mabo, Alfredo I Hernández
Ventricular arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome (BS) typically occur at rest and especially during sleep, suggesting that changes in the autonomic modulation may play an important role in arrhythmogenesis. The autonomic response to exercise and subsequent recovery was evaluated on 105 patients diagnosed with BS (twenty-four were symptomatic), by means of a time-frequency heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, so as to propose a novel predictive model capable of distinguishing symptomatic and asymptomatic BS populations...
2018: PloS One
Vibeke Strand, Arthur Kavanaugh, Alan J Kivitz, Désirée van der Heijde, Kenneth Kwok, Ermeg Akylbekova, Arif Soonasra, Mark Snyder, Carol Connell, Eustratios Bananis, Josef S Smolen
INTRODUCTION: Here we examine the relationship between achieving different levels of disease activity with tofacitinib (an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis), long-term structural progression, and patient-reported physical function. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of two 24-month, phase III randomized controlled trials in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve (ORAL Start [NCT01039688]) or MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients (ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]) receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily as either monotherapy or with background MTX...
May 14, 2018: Rheumatology and Therapy
Aleksandr S Oreshonkov, Evgenii Roginskii, Alexander S Krylov, Alexandr A Ershov, Vladimir Nikolaevich Voronov
Crystal structure of LaF3 single crystal is refined in tysonite-type trigonal unit cell P-3c1 using density functional theory calculations and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that trigonal structure with P-3c1 space group is more energy-efficient than hexagonal structure with space group P63cm. Simulated Raman spectra obtained using LDA approximation is in much better agreement with experimental data than obtained with PBE and PBEsol functionals of GGA. The calculated frequency value of silent mode B2 in case of hexagonal structure P63cm was found to be imaginary (unstable mode), thus the energy surface obtains negative curvature with respect to the corresponding normal coordinates of the mode which leads to instability of the hexagonal structure in harmonic approximation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Geethanjali Purushothaman, Raunak Vikas
This paper focuses on identification of an effective pattern recognition scheme with the least number of time domain features for dexterous control of prosthetic hand to recognize the various finger movements from surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight channels EMG from 8 able-bodied subjects for 15 individuals and combined finger activities have been considered in this work. In this work, an attempt has been made to recognize a number of classes with the least number of features. Therefore, EMG signals are pre-processed using dual tree complex wavelet transform to improve the discriminating capability of features and time domain features such as zero crossing, slope sign change, mean absolute value, and waveform length is extracted from the pre-processed data...
May 9, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Vera Marie Kroesen, Paula Rodríguez-Martínez, Eric García, Yaiza Rosales, Jorge Díaz, Montse Martín-Céspedes, Gustavo Tapia, Maria Rosa Sarrias, Pere-Joan Cardona, Cristina Vilaplana
An excessive, non-productive host-immune response is detrimental in active, chronic tuberculosis (TB) disease as it typically leads to tissue damage. Given their anti-inflammatory effect, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can potentially attenuate excessive inflammation in active TB disease. As such, we investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of low-dose aspirin (LDA) (3 mg/kg/day), either alone or in combination with common anti-TB treatment or BCG vaccination, on disease outcome in an experimental murine model of active TB...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mao-Dong Chen, Jing Zhang, Gui-Xiang Yang, Jie-Min Lin, Yan-Qiu Feng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of using radiomic features for differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HHE). METHODS: Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from a total of 135 HCC and HHE lesions. The radiomic texture features of each lesion were extracted on the hepatobiliary phase images, and the performance of each feature was assessed in differentiation and classification of HCC and HHE...
April 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Nicola Caporaso, Martin B Whitworth, Chenhao Cui, Ian D Fisk
We report on the analysis of volatile compounds by SPME-GC-MS for individual roasted coffee beans. The aim was to understand the relative abundance and variability of volatile compounds between individual roasted coffee beans at constant roasting conditions. Twenty-five batches of Arabica and robusta species were sampled from 13 countries, and 10 single coffee beans randomly selected from each batch were individually roasted in a fluidised-bed roaster at 210 °C for 3 min. High variability (CV = 14...
June 2018: Food Research International
Marco Caredda, Margherita Addis, Massimo Pes, Nicola Fois, Gabriele Sanna, Giovanni Piredda, Gavino Sanna
The aim of this work was to measure the physico-chemical and the colorimetric parameters of ovaries from Mugil cephalus caught in the Tortolì lagoon (South-East coast of Sardinia) along the steps of the manufacturing process of Bottarga, together with the rheological parameters of the final product. A lowering of all CIELab coordinates (lightness, redness and yellowness) was observed during the manufacture process. All CIELab parameters were used to build a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) predictive model able to determine in real time if the roes had been subdued to a freezing process, with a success in prediction of 100%...
June 2018: Food Research International
Yun Huang, Si-Cheng Li, Ji Hu, Hai-Bin Ruan, He-Ming Guo, Hong-Hong Zhang, Xin Wang, Yu-Fang Pei, Yang Pan, Chen Fang
AIMS: To investigate whether microbial dysbiosis is associated with T1D in Chinese population and to explore relationships between the composition of gut microbiome and clinical data. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 10 healthy and 12 T1D Han Chinese subjects between the ages of 12 to 33. Fecal samples were collected for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA sequencing, followed by analyses of the gut microbiota composition. RESULTS: Bacterial communities differed between healthy and T1D subjects...
May 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Kim Lauper, Dan C Nordström, Karel Pavelka, Maria Victoria Hernández, Tore K Kvien, Eirik Klami Kristianslund, Maria Jose Santos, Žiga Rotar, Florenzo Iannone, Catalin Codreanu, Galina Lukina, Sara L Gale, Khaled Sarsour, Yves Luder, Delphine Sophie Courvoisier, Cem Gabay
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of tocilizumab (TCZ) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (TNFi) as monotherapy or in combination with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the use of at least one biologic DMARD (bDMARD). METHODS: We included patients with RA having used at least one bDMARD from 10 European registries. We compared drug retention using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) change over time with mixed-effects models for longitudinal data...
May 5, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Hong Wang, Shaohong Zhang, Limei Wan, Hong Sun, Jie Tan, Qiucheng Su
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current clinical screening methods to detect lung cancer are expensive and associated with many complications. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that offers a convenient method to gain molecular information about biological samples. In this study, we measured the serum Raman spectral intensity of healthy volunteers and patients with different stages of non-small cell lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of serum laser Raman spectroscopy as a low cost alternative method in the screening and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
April 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Daniel Backenroth, Zihuai He, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Valentina Boeva, Lynn Pethukova, Ekta Khurana, Angela Christiano, Joseph D Buxbaum, Iuliana Ionita-Laza
We describe a method based on a latent Dirichlet allocation model for predicting functional effects of noncoding genetic variants in a cell-type- and/or tissue-specific way (FUN-LDA). Using this unsupervised approach, we predict tissue-specific functional effects for every position in the human genome in 127 different tissues and cell types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our predictions by using several validation experiments. Using eQTL data from several sources, including the GTEx project, Geuvadis project, and TwinsUK cohort, we show that eQTLs in specific tissues tend to be most enriched among the predicted functional variants in relevant tissues in Roadmap...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Erica M Christensen, David J Harris, S K Morgan Ernest
While studies increasingly document long-term change in community composition, whether long-term change occurs gradually or via rapid reorganization events remains unclear. We used Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and a change-point model to examine the long-term dynamics of a desert rodent community undergoing compositional change over a 38-year span. Our approach detected three rapid reorganization events, where changes in the relative abundances of dominant and rare species occurred, and a separate period of increased variance in the structure of the community...
May 2, 2018: Ecology
Jiuqi Han, Yuwei Zhao, Hongji Sun, Jiayun Chen, Ang Ke, Gesen Xu, Hualiang Zhang, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang
Superior feature extraction, channel selection and classification methods are essential for designing electroencephalography (EEG) classification frameworks. However, the performance of most frameworks is limited by their improper channel selection methods and too specifical design, leading to high computational complexity, non-convergent procedure and narrow expansibility. In this paper, to remedy these drawbacks, we propose a fast, open EEG classification framework centralized by EEG feature compression, low-dimensional representation, and convergent iterative channel ranking...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Haijun Lei, Yujia Zhao, Yuting Wen, Qiuming Luo, Ye Cai, Gang Liu, Baiying Lei
This paper solves the multi-class classification problem for Parkinson's disease (PD) analysis by a sparse discriminative feature selection framework. Specifically, we propose a framework to construct a least square regression model based on the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and locality preserving projection (LPP). This framework utilizes the global and local information to select the most relevant and discriminative features to boost classification performance. Differing in previous methods for binary classification, we perform a multi-class classification for PD diagnosis...
April 13, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Sha Lv, Jing Yu, Xiaoxiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive network meta-analysis was designed to clarify contradictions and offer valuable clinical guidance in the treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). METHOD: The included clinical trials were selected from the relevant medical journal databases and screened. Treatments were ranked by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Heat plots were constructed to analyze the inconsistency between direct data and network results, and adjusted funnel plots were constructed to assess publication bias...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Taciano M Barbosa, Leomir A S de Lima, Marfran C D Dos Santos, Simão D Vasconcelos, Renata A Gama, Kássio M G Lima
Unequivocal identification of fly specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. Herein, a simple, non-destructive and rapid method based on two vibrational spectroscopy techniques [Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy] coupled with variable selection techniques such as genetic algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) and successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) were applied for identifying and discriminating six species of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) native to Neotropical regions...
April 23, 2018: Acta Tropica
Ronald F Van Vollenhoven, Eun Bong Lee, Lara Fallon, Samuel H Zwillich, Bethanie Wilkinson, Douglass Chapman, Ryan Demasi, Edward Keystone
OBJECTIVE: Optimal targeted treatment in rheumatoid arthritis requires early identification of failure to respond. This post-hoc analysis explored the relationship between early disease activity changes and achievement of low disease activity (LDA) and remission targets with tofacitinib. METHODS: Data were from two randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 studies. In ORAL Start (NCT01039688), methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID, or MTX, for 24 months...
April 26, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Egor Trushin, Andreas Görling
We show that electronic phase transitions in zinc-blende semimetals with quadratic band touching (QBT) at the center of the Brillouin zone, like GaBi, InBi, or HgTe, can occur exclusively due to a change of the electronic temperature without the need to involve structural transformations or electron-phonon coupling. The commonly used Kohn-Sham density-functional methods based on local and semilocal density functionals employing the local density approximation (LDA) or generalized gradient approximations (GGAs), however, are not capable of describing such phenomena because they lack an intrinsic temperature dependence and account for temperature only via the occupation of bands, which essentially leads only to a shift of the Fermi level without changing the shape or topology of bands...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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