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Brown fat PET

Pasquina Marzola, Federico Boschi, Francesco Moneta, Andrea Sbarbati, Carlo Zancanaro
Localization, differentiation, and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue) is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed and are widely used in pharmaceutical research...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yasuhiro Kamata, Kazutaka Kikuta, Michiro Susa, Kazumasa Nishimoto, Aya Sasaki, Kaori Kameyama, Koji Murakami, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Hideo Morioka
BACKGROUND: Hibernoma is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumor arising from brown fat that cannot be distinguished from other lipogenic tumors on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. On the other hand, the image of hibernoma on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) is different from that of other lipogenic tumors. However, fewer studies have investigated the typical features of hibernoma on PET scans. We present the case of a hibernoma that was incidentally detected on (18)F-FDG-PET...
May 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
Kirsi A Virtanen
Human brown adipose tissue has been acknowledged in newborns and children but in adults the first printed publications are from the beginning of 20th century. Further evidence of the existence of adult brown fat was published throughout the century but only very recently the functionality of active brown adipose tissue in vivo in adulthood was confirmed. This was contributed mainly by advanced imaging technology, namely hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT), being able to combine functional and anatomical imaging data...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
D Lambert, P-Y Marie, P Lacolley, A Benetos, L Joly
OBJECTIVE: Aging led to the development of a proinflammatory phenotype and organ dysfunction. In situations of metabolic syndrome, it is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness and blood pressure.The main objective of this project is to establish a link between inflammation and arterial aging in a situation of metabolic syndrome in arterial and heart levels. DESIGN AND METHOD: The animal model chosen was a murine model developing metabolic syndrome. Mice received during a year, a high fat diet or a control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Gary A Ulaner, Robert Samstein, Oren Cahlon, Wolfgang A Weber, Andreas Rimner
A 29-year-old woman underwent resection of a left anterior mediastinal thymoma and pleurectomy. Postsurgical FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated FDG avidity in the right neck and upper thoracic fat but relatively absent FDG-avid fat in the left neck and upper thorax. Bilateral FDG-avid fat was also apparent in the lower chest and upper abdomen. After surgery, the patient demonstrated Horner syndrome, with left-sided ptosis, miosis, and facial anhidrosis. It is hypothesized that left-sided sympathetic nerves were compromised during surgery, leading to Horner syndrome and denervation of ipsilateral brown fat...
October 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Qi Yan Ang, Hui Jen Goh, Yanpeng Cao, Yiqun Li, Siew-Pang Chan, Judith L Swain, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow
The ability to alter the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human adults is a potential strategy to manage obesity and related metabolic disorders associated with food, drug, and environmental stimuli with BAT activating/recruiting capacity. Infrared thermography (IRT) provides a non-invasive and inexpensive alternative to the current methods (e.g. (18)F-FDG PET) used to assess BAT. We have quantified BAT activation in the cervical-supraclavicular (C-SCV) region using IRT video imaging and a novel image computational algorithm by studying C-SCV heat production in healthy young men after cold stimulation and the ingestion of capsinoids in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
M Hibi, S Oishi, M Matsushita, T Yoneshiro, T Yamaguchi, C Usui, K Yasunaga, Y Katsuragi, K Kubota, S Tanaka, M Saito
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential therapeutic target against obesity and diabetes through thermogenesis and substrate disposal with cold exposure. The role of BAT in energy metabolism under thermoneutral conditions, however, remains controversial. We assessed the contribution of BAT to energy expenditure (EE), particularly diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and substrate utilization in human adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, BAT activity was evaluated in 21 men using (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) after cold exposure (19 °C)...
July 19, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Vibha Singhal, Giovana D Maffazioli, Kate E Ackerman, Hang Lee, Elisa F Elia, Ryan Woolley, Gerald Kolodny, Aaron M Cypess, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT...
2016: PloS One
Kwang Min Kim, Sang Man Kim, Doo Yeon Cho, Soo Jung Park, Nam Seok Joo
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is related with energy expenditure, in contrary to fat-storing white adipose tissue. Recent studies have shown that cold exposure could be related with the expression of BAT in adult subjects assessed by ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, the application in previous clinical trials showed positive effect of xanthigen containing fucoxanthin and punicic acid on body weight and liver fat content. In this short-term intervention study, we evaluated the effect of xanthigen on the expression of BAT by ¹⁸F-FDG PET...
July 2016: Yonsei Medical Journal
Aliya Gifford, Theodore F Towse, Ronald C Walker, Malcolm J Avison, E Brian Welch
Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sébastien M Labbé, Alexandre Caron, Kanta Chechi, Mathieu Laplante, Roger Lecomte, Denis Richard
Classical brown adipocytes such as those found in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) represent energy-burning cells, which have been postulated to play a pivotal role in energy metabolism. Brown adipocytes can also be found in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots [e.g., inguinal WAT (iWAT)] following adrenergic stimulation, and they have been referred to as "beige" adipocytes. Whether the presence of these adipocytes, which gives iWAT a beige appearance, can confer a white depot with some thermogenic activity remains to be seen...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yong Chen, Joschka J Buyel, Mark J W Hanssen, Franziska Siegel, Ruping Pan, Jennifer Naumann, Michael Schell, Anouk van der Lans, Christian Schlein, Holger Froehlich, Joerg Heeren, Kirsi A Virtanen, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, Alexander Pfeifer
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography coupled with computer tomography (PET/CT) is still the standard for measuring BAT activity, but exposes subjects to ionizing radiation. To study BAT function in large human cohorts, novel diagnostic tools are needed. Here we show that brown adipocytes release exosomes and that BAT activation increases exosome release. Profiling miRNAs in exosomes released from brown adipocytes, and in exosomes isolated from mouse serum, we show that levels of miRNAs change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo...
2016: Nature Communications
Maaike Schilperoort, Geerte Hoeke, Sander Kooijman, Patrick C N Rensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an emerging target to combat cardiometabolic disorders as it can take up substantial amounts of glucose and lipids from the circulation for heat production. This review focuses on new concepts in BAT physiology and discusses the need for new techniques to determine BAT activity in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Mouse studies showed that BAT activation selectively increases oxidation of lipids over glucose, by recruiting fatty acids from intracellular triglycerides...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Zhenzhen Liu, Yi Xiao, Zhengxiang Zhou, Xiaoxiao Mao, Jinxing Cai, Lu Xiong, Chaonan Liao, Fulian Huang, Zehao Liu, Md Sayed Ali Sheikh, Jorge Plutzky, He Huang, Tianlun Yang, Qiong Duan
Wnt signaling plays essential role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Activation of Wnt signaling suppresses adipogenesis, but promotes osteogenesis in MSC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of β-catenin and Wnt signaling activity. The mutation of APC gene leads to the activation of Wnt signaling and is responsible for tumorigenesis in APC(min) mouse; however, very few studies focused on its metabolic abnormalities. The present study reports a widespread metabolic disorder phenotype in APC(min) mice...
May 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Dan Shao, Xu-Wei Tian, Qiang Gao, Chang-Hong Liang, Shu-Xia Wang
BACKGROUND: The hypermetabolic environment of the myocardium, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and muscle will have an effect on the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). A low carbohydrate, high fat, and protein-permitted diet before PET/CT scanning can reduce the degree of 18F-FDG uptake by the myocardium, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of a low carbohydrate, high fat and protein-permitted diet on 18F-FDG uptake by myocardium, BAT, and muscle during PET/CT...
March 2, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Maude Pagé, Cesare Quarto, Enrico Mancuso, Raad H Mohiaddin
Metabolically active mediastinal brown adipose tissue may be mistakenly diagnosed as a malignancy on 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET). We report the case of a patient with locally recurrent breast carcinoma in which staging PET/CT revealed a suspicious pericardial lesion for which the patient was referred to our centre. The novelty of this case resides in the fact that by tissue characterization, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging allowed the determination that the lesion corresponded to brown fat, a reassuring finding with important impact on management, because the presence of pericardial metastasis would have disqualified this patient for curative resection of her cancer recurrence...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Laís Bastos Pessanha, André Ribeiro Nogueira de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Alves Guerra, Diego Lima Nava Martins, Ronaldo Garcia Rondina, Melissa Bozzi Nonato Mello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Radiologia Brasileira
Paul Trayhurn, Jonathan R S Arch
Brown adipose tissue is specialised for the generation of heat by non-shivering mechanisms. In rodents, the tissue plays a role in energy balance and the development of obesity, as well as in thermoregulation. Studies using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), together with the identification of uncoupling protein-1, have provided definitive evidence that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans. Brown fat activity is stimulated by cold exposure, declines with age and is inversely proportional to BMI...
December 2014: Current Obesity Reports
Troy Puar, Anouk van Berkel, Martin Gotthardt, Bas Havekes, Ad R M M Hermus, Jacques W M Lenders, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt, Ying Xu, Boudewijn Brans, Henri J L M Timmers
CONTEXT: Patients with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PGLs) may have brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation induced by catecholamine excess. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) can be used for the localization of both PGLs and BAT. It is unknown whether BAT is specifically affected by altered cellular energy metabolism in patients with SDHx- and VHL-related PGLs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine endocrine and paracrine effects of catecholamine excess on BAT activation in patients with PGLs as detected by (18)F-FDG PET/CT, taking into account genetic variation...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Dhritiman Chakraborty, Anish Bhattacharya, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become the common imaging modality in oncological practice. FDG uptake is seen in brown adipose tissue in a significant number of patients. Recognizing the uptake patterns is important for optimal FDG PET interpretation. The introduction of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) revolutionized PET imaging, bringing much-needed anatomical information. Careful review and correlation of FDG PET images with anatomical imaging should be performed to characterize accurately any lesion having high FDG uptake...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
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