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Brown fat PET

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119565/non-invasive-methods-for-the-assessment-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-humans
#1
Maria Chondronikola, Scott Beeman, Richard L Wahl
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a recently rediscovered tissue in people that has shown promise as a potential therapeutic target against obesity and its metabolic abnormalities. Reliable non-invasive assessment of BAT volume and activity is critical to allow evaluating its importance for metabolic control. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in combination with 2-deoxy-2-[(18) F]fluoroglucose ((18) F-FDG) administration is currently the most frequently used and most established method for the detection and quantification of activated BAT in humans...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108812/correlation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-with-other-body-fat-compartments-and-patient-characteristics-a-retrospective-analysis-in-a-large-patient-cohort-using-pet-ct
#2
Cornelia Brendle, Matthias K Werner, Maria Schmadl, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Norbert Stefan, Christina Pfannenberg
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity with different fat compartments of the body, body mass index (BMI), outdoor temperature, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, blood glucose, age, and sex in a large patient population using F-18-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans obtained under thermoneutral conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FDG-PET/CT scans of 4852 patients were retrospectively analyzed for BAT activity...
November 3, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021924/large-unilateral-adrenal-mass-with-surrounding-brown-fat-a-case-report
#3
Gabriel O Ologun, Zinal M Patel, Navpreet K Rana, Andrew Trecartin, Alice Shen, Douglas Trostle, David Bertsch
Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors derived from chromaffin cells located in the adrenal and extra adrenal tissues. Pheochromocytomas are diagnosed biochemically and localized using different imaging modalities. The definitive management is surgical resection. Brown adipose tissues are normally present during fetal development, with regression over time. Brown adipose tissues are thermogenic and usually located in the neck, mediastinum, and retroperitoneum. Here, we report a case of a unilateral pheochromocytoma surrounded by brown fat...
August 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983743/pet-imaging-of-human-brown-adipose-tissue-with-the-tspo-tracer-11-c-pbr28
#4
Chongzhao Ran, Daniel S Albrecht, Miriam A Bredella, Jing Yang, Jian Yang, Steven H Liang, Aaron M Cypess, Marco L Loggia, Nazem Atassi, Anna Moore
PURPOSE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has been recently rediscovered and intensively investigated as a new potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, reliable assessment of BAT mass in vivo represents a considerable challenge. The purpose of this investigation is to demonstrate for the first time that human BAT depots can be imaged with a translocator protein (TSPO)-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(11)C]PBR28 under thermoneutral conditions...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935898/pd-l1-is-an-activation-independent-marker-of-brown-adipocytes
#5
Jessica R Ingram, Michael Dougan, Mohammad Rashidian, Marko Knoll, Edmund J Keliher, Sarah Garrett, Scott Garforth, Olga S Blomberg, Camilo Espinosa, Atul Bhan, Steven C Almo, Ralph Weissleder, Harvey Lodish, Stephanie K Dougan, Hidde L Ploegh
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on a number of immune and cancer cells, where it can downregulate antitumor immune responses. Its expression has been linked to metabolic changes in these cells. Here we develop a radiolabeled camelid single-domain antibody (anti-PD-L1 VHH) to track PD-L1 expression by immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). PET-CT imaging shows a robust and specific PD-L1 signal in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We confirm expression of PD-L1 on brown adipocytes and demonstrate that signal intensity does not change in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic activation...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853013/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-change-of-brown-adipocyte-tissue-and-energy-metabolism-in-obese-mice
#6
Yuanwen Chen, Jianjun Yang, Xin Nie, Zhicheng Song, Yan Gu
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity causing changes in energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-related organ, and the potential effects of bariatric surgery are yet to be investigated. We aimed to study the effects of different bariatric surgeries on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis, brown adipocyte differentiation, and energy metabolism in obese mice and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and subjected to different bariatric procedures: adjustable gastric band (AGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and sham operation (SO)...
August 29, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801960/mri-characterization-of-brown-adipose-tissue-under-thermal-challenges-in-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-young-men
#7
Jie Deng, Lisa M Neff, Nicholas C Rubert, Bin Zhang, Richard M Shore, Jonathan D Samet, Paige C Nelson, Lewis Landsberg
PURPOSE: To implement quantitative Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for brown adipose tissue (BAT) characterization at inactive and cold-activated states in normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects. The hypotheses are that MRI characteristics of BAT would differentiate between nonobese and obese subjects, and activation of BAT in response to thermal challenges that are detected by MRI would be correlated with BAT activity measured by positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629569/in-depth-analysis-of-interreader-agreement-and-accuracy-in-categorical-assessment-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-18-fdg-pet-ct
#8
Anton S Becker, Caroline Zellweger, Khoschy Schawkat, Sanja Bogdanovic, Valerie Doan Phi van, Hannes W Nagel, Christian Wolfrum, Irene A Burger
PURPOSE: To evaluate the interreader agreement of a three-tier craniocaudal grading system for brown fat activation and investigate the accuracy of the distinction between the three grades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After IRB approval, 340 cases were retrospectively selected from patients undergoing (18)FDG-PET/CT between 2007 and 2015 at our institution, with 85 cases in each grade and 85 controls with no active brown fat. Three readers evaluated all cases independently...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590773/factors-influencing-brown-fat-activation-in-fdg-pet-ct-a-retrospective-analysis-of-15-000-cases
#9
Jeffrey D Steinberg, Wouter Vogel, Erik Vegt
OBJECTIVE: Brown fat can exhibit high uptake of fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) and interferes with interpretation of the scan. The goal of this study was to identify factors that may influence brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation. METHODS: A retrospective study of (18)F-FDG PET scans was performed using a database of 15,109 PET/CT reports. BAT activation reported by nuclear medicine physicians and factors influencing BAT activation were gathered...
July 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588036/brown-fat-depots-in-adult-humans-remain-static-in-their-locations-on-pet-ct-despite-changes-in-seasonality
#10
Terence A Jones, Narendra L Reddy, Sarah C Wayte, Oludolapo Adesanya, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Charles E Hutchinson, Thomas M Barber
Active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has been demonstrated through use of positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) scans. The aim of our study was to determine whether active human BAT depots shown on (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans remain static in their location over time. This was a retrospective study. Adult human subjects (n = 15) who had had (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging (n = 38 scans in total) for clinical reasons were included on the basis of (18)F-FDG uptake patterns consistent with BAT activity...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580427/incidental-finding-of-low-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-endurance-trained-individuals-methodological-considerations-for-positron-emission-tomography
#11
Eric T Trexler, Drew McCallister, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Rosa T Branca
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has been shown to have a meaningful impact on energy expenditure and cold-induced thermogenesis. Data from rodent research have suggested that exercise may be a promising method of increasing BAT activity, with potential applications to the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. However, emerging human research using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has identified lower BAT activity in endurance-trained athletes compared to sedentary controls, despite similar metabolic rate responses to cold exposure...
March 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509766/brown-adipose-tissue-detected-by-pet-ct-imaging-is-associated-with-less-central-obesity
#12
Aileen L Green, Ulas Bagci, Sarfaraz Hussein, Patrick V Kelly, Razi Muzaffar, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Medhat M Osman
PURPOSE: This retrospective review was performed to determine whether patients with brown adipose tissue (BAT) detected by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging have less central obesity than BMI-matched control patients without detectable BAT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven adult oncology patients with F-FDG BAT uptake were retrospectively identified from PET/CT studies from 2011 to 2013. The control cohort consisted of 74 adult oncology patients without detectable F-FDG BAT uptake matched for BMI/sex/season...
May 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465871/a-rare-case-of-hibernoma-occasionally-identified-by-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-a-patient-with-lung-cancer
#13
Daniele Penna, Natale Quartuccio, Claudio Testa, Vincenzo Arena, Angelina Cistaro, Ettore Pelosi
Hibernoma is a benign tumor arising from brown fat tissue. Conventional imaging techniques are not able to differentiate it from other benign lesions or malignant fatty tumors. We report the case of a 73-year-old patient who underwent a thorax computed tomography (CT) and was then referred to our department for metabolic assessment of a solitary lung nodule. An F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) scan was performed and demonstrated, in addition, a highly metabolic fat-containing lesion mimicking a malignant fatty tumor in the left great pectoralis muscle...
March 29, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417855/optimization-of-pediatric-pet-ct
#14
REVIEW
Marguerite T Parisi, Mohammed S Bermo, Adam M Alessio, Susan E Sharp, Michael J Gelfand, Barry L Shulkin
PET/CT, the most common form of hybrid imaging, has transformed oncologic imaging and is increasingly being used for nononcologic applications as well. Performing PET/CT in children poses unique challenges. Not only are children more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults but, following radiation exposure, children have a longer postexposure life expectancy in which to exhibit adverse radiation effects. Both the PET and CT components of the study contribute to the total patient radiation dose, which is one of the most important risks of the study in this population...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403942/mr-signal-fat-fraction-analysis-and-t2-weighted-imaging-measure-bat-reliably-on-humans-without-cold-exposure
#15
Milja Holstila, Marko Pesola, Teemu Saari, Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Ronald J H Borra, Pirjo Nuutila, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is compositionally distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) in terms of triglyceride and water content. In adult humans, the most significant BAT depot is localized in the supraclavicular area. Our aim is to differentiate brown adipose tissue from white adipose tissue using fat T2* relaxation time mapping and signal-fat-fraction (SFF) analysis based on a commercially available modified 2-point-Dixon (mDixon) water-fat separation method. We hypothesize that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can reliably measure BAT regardless of the cold-induced metabolic activation, with BAT having a significantly higher water and iron content compared to WAT...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368474/human-brown-fat-radiodensity-indicates-underlying-tissue-composition-and-systemic-metabolic-health
#16
Mueez U Din, Juho Raiko, Teemu Saari, Virva Saunavaara, Nobu Kudomi, Olof Solin, Riitta Parkkola, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
Context: Metabolic imaging studying brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology has increased, in which computed tomography (CT) is commonly used as an anatomical reference for metabolic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. However, the capacity of CT to provide metabolic information has been underexploited. Objective: To evaluate whether CT radiodensity of BAT could noninvasively estimate underlying tissue morphology, regarding amount of stored triglycerides. Furthermore, could the alteration in tissue characteristics due to cold stimulus, as a marker for active BAT, be detected with radiodensity? Can BAT be differentiated from white adipose tissue (WAT) solely using CT-based measurements? Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study evaluating 66 healthy human subjects with CT, PET, and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323929/human-brown-adipose-tissue-temperature-and-fat-fraction-are-related-to-its-metabolic-activity
#17
Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Teemu Saari, Virva Saunavaara, Olli Eskola, Pirjo Nuutila, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
Background and Aim: The metabolic activity of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been previously examined using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether the temperature and the fat fraction (FF) of BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) are associated with BAT metabolic activity determined by deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG)-PET. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men; 25 to 45 years of age) were studied using PET-magnetic resonance imaging during acute cold exposure and at ambient room temperature...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316560/lysopc-acyl-c16-0-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-men
#18
Mariëtte R Boon, Leontine E H Bakker, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Maarten J Vosselman, Ingrid M Jazet, Lenka M Pereira Arias-Bouda, Wouter D Marken van Lichtenbelt, Ko Willems van Dijk, Patrick C N Rensen, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori
INTRODUCTION: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity and associated disorders due to its fat-burning capacity. The current gold standard in assessing BAT activity is [(18)F]FDG PET-CT scan, which has severe limitations including radiation exposure, being expensive, and being labor-intensive. Therefore, indirect markers are needed of human BAT activity and volume. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify metabolites in serum that are associated with BAT volume and activity in men...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231117/compositional-analysis-of-whole-grains-processed-grains-grain-co-products-and-other-carbohydrate-sources-with-applicability-to-pet-animal-nutrition
#19
Alison N Beloshapka, Preston R Buff, George C Fahey, Kelly S Swanson
Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed...
March 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112821/a-pilot-study-on-the-correlation-between-fat-fraction-values-and-glucose-uptake-values-in-supraclavicular-fat-by-simultaneous-pet-mri
#20
Andrew McCallister, Le Zhang, Alex Burant, Laurence Katz, Rosa Tamara Branca
PURPOSE: To assess the spatial correlation between MRI and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) maps of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to measure differences in fat fraction (FF) between glucose avid and non-avid regions of the supraclavicular fat depot using a hybrid FDG-PET/MR scanner. METHODS: In 16 healthy volunteers, mean age of 30 and body mass index of 26, FF, R2*, and FDG uptake maps were acquired simultaneously using a hybrid PET/MR system while employing an individualized cooling protocol to maximally stimulate BAT...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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