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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240005/surgery-for-diverticulitis-in-the-21st-century-recent-evidence
#1
Arden M Morris, Cindy Kin
Sigmoid diverticulitis is an increasingly common disease in Western countries. As technology has led to increased knowledge about the disease and options for treatment, management strategies have become less certain. In previous years, the rationale for early elective surgery was largely preventive, due to concern that diverticulitis recurrence would result in increased risk of sepsis or the need for a colostomy. New technology has enabled diagnosis, through computed tomography scans, predictive information through clinical and administrative databases, and less invasive treatment options, through laparoscopic techniques...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239628/cubic-meter-volume-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Zhao Wang, Benjamin Potsaid, Long Chen, Chris Doerr, Hsiang-Chieh Lee, Torben Nielson, Vijaysekhar Jayaraman, Alex E Cable, Eric Swanson, James G Fujimoto
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1...
December 2016: Optica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239154/anti-trypanosomatid-drug-discovery-an-ongoing-challenge-and-a-continuing-need
#3
REVIEW
Mark C Field, David Horn, Alan H Fairlamb, Michael A J Ferguson, David W Gray, Kevin D Read, Manu De Rycker, Leah S Torrie, Paul G Wyatt, Susan Wyllie, Ian H Gilbert
The WHO recognizes human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease and the leishmaniases as neglected tropical diseases. These diseases are caused by parasitic trypanosomatids and range in severity from mild and self-curing to near invariably fatal. Public health advances have substantially decreased the effect of these diseases in recent decades but alone will not eliminate them. In this Review, we discuss why new drugs against trypanosomatids are required, approaches that are under investigation to develop new drugs and why the drug discovery pipeline remains essentially unfilled...
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237783/fouling-in-membrane-bioreactors-an-updated-review
#4
REVIEW
Fangang Meng, Shaoqing Zhang, Yoontaek Oh, Zhongbo Zhou, Hang-Sik Shin, So-Ryong Chae
The goal of the current article is to update new findings in membrane fouling and emerging fouling mitigation strategies reported in recent years (post 2010) as a follow-up to our previous review published in Water Research (2009). According to a systematic review of the literature, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are still actively investigated in the field of wastewater treatment. Notably, membrane fouling remains the most challenging issue in MBR operation and attracts considerable attention in MBR studies. In this review, we summarized the updated information on foulants composition and characteristics in MBRs, which greatly improves our understanding of fouling mechanisms...
February 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237563/endoscopic-management-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-strictures-a-new-application-for-a-proven-technology-in-bariatric-surgery
#5
EDITORIAL
Kenneth B Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237363/a-new-strategy-to-maximize-organic-matter-valorization-in-municipalities-combination-of-urban-wastewater-with-kitchen-food-waste-and-its-treatment-with-anmbr-technology
#6
P Moñino, D Aguado, R Barat, E Jiménez, J B Giménez, A Seco, J Ferrer
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating the kitchen food waste (FW) jointly with urban wastewater (WW) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by anaerobic membrane technology (AnMBR). The experience was carried out in six different periods in an AnMBR pilot-plant for a total of 536days, varying the SRT, HRT and the food waste penetration factor (PF) of food waste disposers. The results showed increased methane production of up to 190% at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, compared with WW treatment only...
February 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237207/the-probabilistic-efficiency-frontier-a-framework-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-in-germany-put-into-practice-for-hepatitis-c-treatment-options
#7
Axel C Mühlbacher, Andrew Sadler
BACKGROUND: The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen) adapted the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to conform to statutory provisions on cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies. EF serves as a framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness and indirectly for pricing and reimbursement decisions. OBJECTIVES: To calculate an EF on the basis of single multidimensional benefit by taking patient preferences and uncertainty into account; to evaluate whether EF is useful to inform decision makers about cost-effectiveness of new therapies; and to find whether a treatment is efficient at given prices demonstrated through a case study on chronic hepatitis C...
February 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237193/evaluating-frameworks-that-provide-value-measures-for-health-care-interventions
#8
Jeanne S Mandelblatt, Scott D Ramsey, Tracy A Lieu, Charles E Phelps
The recent acceleration of scientific discovery has led to greater choices in health care. New technologies, diagnostic tests, and pharmaceuticals have widely varying impact on patients and populations in terms of benefits, toxicities, and costs, stimulating a resurgence of interest in the creation of frameworks intended to measure value in health. Many of these are offered by providers and/or advocacy organizations with expertise and interest in specific diseases (e.g., cancer and heart disease). To help assess the utility of and the potential biases embedded in these frameworks, we created an evaluation taxonomy with seven basic components: 1) define the purpose; 2) detail the conceptual approach, including perspectives, methods for obtaining preferences of decision makers (e...
February 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237138/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-chorioretinal-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Paulo Ricardo Chaves De Oliveira, Alan Richard Berger, David Robert Chow
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel imaging modality that incorporates blood motion contrast to create angiograms of the retinal vasculature in a noninvasive manner, without the use of dye. It is a safe procedure and can be repeated as frequently as desired. The use of OCTA for delineation of choroidal neovascular membranes, for the study of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic patients, to assess nonperfused areas in retinal occlusions and vascular changes in macular telangiectasia are some of the potential OCTA applications...
February 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237120/application-of-crispr-cas9-to-autophagy-research
#10
J O'Prey, J Sakamaki, A D Baudot, M New, T Van Acker, S A Tooze, J S Long, K M Ryan
The ability to efficiently modulate autophagy activity is paramount in the study of the field. Conventional broad-range autophagy inhibitors and genetic manipulation using RNA interference (RNAi), although widely used in autophagy research, are often limited in specificity or efficacy. In this chapter, we address the problems of conventional autophagy-modulating tools by exploring the use of three different CRISPR/Cas9 systems to abrogate autophagy in numerous human and mouse cell lines. The first system generates cell lines constitutively deleted of ATG5 or ATG7 whereas the second and third systems express a Tet-On inducible-Cas9 that enables regulated deletion of ATG5 or ATG7...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237004/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-cardiology
#11
REVIEW
Ornella Milanesi, Giovanni Stellin, Pietro Zucchetta
Accurate cardiovascular imaging is essential for the successful management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography and angiography have been for long time the most important imaging modalities in pediatric cardiology, but nuclear medicine has contributed in many situations to the comprehension of physiological consequences of CHD, quantifying pulmonary blood flow symmetry or right-to-left shunting. In recent times, remarkable improvements in imaging equipments, particularly in multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have led to the progressive integration of high resolution modalities in the clinical workup of children affected by CHD, reducing the role of diagnostic angiography...
March 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236853/in-pursuit-of-cancer-metastasis-therapy-by-bacteria-and-its-biofilms-history-or-future
#12
Mohd Adnan, Saif Khan, Eyad Al-Shammari, Mitesh Patel, Mohd Saeed, Sibte Hadi
The 20th century observation of increasing comprehensive load of cancer, advanced cancer prevention strategies, creative hypotheses and control procedures by research communities are being traversed and stimulated in multiple facets. Inference of genetically modified non-pathogenic and natural bacterial species as potential anti-tumor agents is one such original perspective. Live, genetically modified non-pathogenic or attenuated bacterial species are able to form biofilms by multiplying selectively or non-selectively on cancer cells, which will lead to metastasis disruption...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236817/optimal-wastewater-loading-under-conflicting-goals-and-technology-limitations-in-a-riverine-system
#13
Mojtaba Rafiee, Steve W Lyon, Banafsheh Zahraie, Georgia Destouni, Nemat Jaafarzadeh
  This paper investigates a novel simulation-optimization (S-O) framework for identifying optimal treatment levels and treatment processes for multiple wastewater dischargers to rivers. A commonly used water quality simulation model, Qual2K, was linked to a Genetic Algorithm optimization model for exploration of relevant fuzzy objective-function formulations for addressing imprecision and conflicting goals of pollution control agencies and various dischargers. Results showed a dynamic flow dependence of optimal wastewater loading with good convergence to near global optimum...
March 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236777/multidetector-ct-improving-surgical-outcomes-in-breast-cancer-miso-bc-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Julie Cox, Helen Hancock, Rebecca Maier, Jonathan Spratt, Chooi May Lee, Amir Bhatti, James Mason
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of malignant axillary nodes in breast cancer guides the extent of axillary surgery: patients with known axillary malignancy receive a more extensive single operation at the same time as surgery to their breast. A multicentre randomised controlled trial assessed whether a Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the axilla could more accurately diagnose malignant axillary lymph node involvement in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer when compared to usual care...
February 22, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236533/single-beam-acoustic-trapping-of-red-blood-cells-and-polystyrene-microspheres-in-flowing-red-blood-cell-saline-and-plasma-suspensions
#15
Hsiao-Chuan Liu, Ying Li, Ruimin Chen, Hayong Jung, K Kirk Shung
Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBATs) represent a new technology for particle and cell trapping. The advantages of SBATs are their deep penetration into tissues, reduction of tissue damage and ease of application to in vivo studies. The use of these tools for applications in drug delivery in vivo must meet the following conditions: large penetration depth, strong trapping force and tissue safety. A reasonable penetration depth for SBATs in the development of in vivo applications was established in a previous study conducted in water with zero velocity...
February 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236452/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-prostate-cancer-what-s-new
#16
V Catalá, J C Vilanova, J M Gaya, F Algaba, T Martí
Prostatic multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has recently had a wide development becoming a key tool in the diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in prostate cancer (Pca). The fast development both in technology and in reading (PIRADS V2) requires a continuous updating of knowledge within this area. The aim of this article is to present an updated revision of technical aspects, reading patterns and prostatic MP-MRI in Pca, with a multidisciplinary approach. Currently guidelines establish the use of the MP-MRI when there is a high PSA and a negative prostatic biopsy; tumor staging; evaluation in candidates to active surveillance; focal treatments plans and tumoral recurrence evaluation...
February 21, 2017: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236208/seeking-evidence-of-multidisciplinarity-in-environmental-geochemistry-and-health-an-analysis-of-arsenic-in-drinking-water-research
#17
Abiodun D Aderibigbe, Alex G Stewart, Andrew S Hursthouse
A multidisciplinary approach to research affords the opportunity of objectivity, creation of new knowledge and potentially a more generally acceptable solution to problems that informed the research in the first place. It increasingly features in national programmes supporting basic and applied research, but for over 40 years, has been the arena for many research teams in environmental geochemistry and health. This study explores the nature of multidisciplinary research in the earth and health sciences using a sample selected from co-authored articles reporting research on arsenic (As) in drinking water from 1979 to 2013...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236183/validation-of-a-google-street-view-based-neighborhood-disorder-observational-scale
#18
Miriam Marco, Enrique Gracia, Manuel Martín-Fernández, Antonio López-Quílez
Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing new tools to measure neighborhood features using the benefits of emerging technologies. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a neighborhood disorder observational scale using Google Street View (GSV). Two groups of raters conducted virtual audits of neighborhood disorder on all census block groups (N = 92) in a district of the city of Valencia (Spain). Four different analyses were conducted to validate the instrument. First, inter-rater reliability was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficients, indicating moderated levels of agreement among raters...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235989/bacillus-thuringiensis-a-successful-insecticide-with-new-environmental-features-and-tidings
#19
REVIEW
Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Elena Valijanian, Reza Sharafi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known as the most successful microbial insecticide against different orders of insect pests in agriculture and medicine. Moreover, Bt toxin genes also have been efficiently used to enhance resistance to insect pests in genetically modified crops. In light of the scientific advantages of new molecular biology technologies, recently, some other new potentials of Bt have been explored. These new environmental features include the toxicity against nematodes, mites, and ticks, antagonistic effects against plant and animal pathogenic bacteria and fungi, plant growth-promoting activities (PGPR), bioremediation of different heavy metals and other pollutants, biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles, production of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer, and anticancer activities (due to parasporins)...
February 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235983/-a%C3%A2-new-continuous-gait-analysis-system-for-ankle-fracture-aftercare
#20
B J Braun, N T Veith, S C Herath, R Hell, M Rollmann, M Orth, J H Holstein, T Pohlemann
BACKGROUND: Correct aftercare following lower extremity fractures remains a controversial issue. Reliable, clinically applicable weight-bearing recommendations have not yet been defined. The aim of the current study was to establish a new gait analysis insole during physical therapy aftercare of ankle fractures to test patients' continuous, long-term compliance to partial weight-bearing restrictions and investigate whether patients can estimate their weight-bearing compliance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The postoperative gait of 14 patients after operative treatment of Weber B-type ankle fractures was monitored continuously for six weeks (OpenGO, Moticon GmbH, Munich)...
February 24, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
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