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Amy E Kalkbrenner, Gayle C Windham, Cheng Zheng, Rob McConnell, Nora L Lee, James J Schauer, Brian Thayer, Juhi Pandey, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to further explore associations of perinatal air toxics with ASD and associated quantitative traits in high-risk multiplex families. METHODS: We included participants of a U.S. family-based study [the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE)] who were born between 1994 and 2007 and had address information...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Fred Feng, Shan Bao, Robert C Hampshire, Michael Delp
This paper demonstrates a unique and promising approach to study driver-bicyclist interactions from a driver's perspective by using in-vehicle sensory data from naturalistic driving studies. A total of 4789 events of drivers overtaking bicyclists were extracted from an existing naturalistic driving study in Michigan, United States. The vehicle lateral placement at the time of passing bicyclists was used as a surrogate safety measure. A number of factors were examined, including the lane marking type, the presence of a bike lane or paved shoulder, the presence of traffic, lane width, and driver distraction...
March 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Oddvar Myhre, Marit Låg, Gro Villanger, Bente Oftedal, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme, Heidi Aase, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Anna Bal-Price, Hubert Dirven
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that air pollution particulate matter (PM) and adsorbed toxicants (organic compounds and trace metals) may affect child development already in utero. Recent studies have also indicated that PM may be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). A pattern of increasing prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested to partly be linked to environmental pollutants exposure, including PM. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between pre- or postnatal exposure to air pollution components and ADHD symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Kamilla A Mukhutdinova, Marat R Kasimov, Arthur R Giniatullin, Guzel F Zakyrjanova, Alexey M Petrov
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the initial denervation of skeletal muscle and subsequent death of motor neurons. A dying-back pattern of ALS suggests a crucial role for neuromuscular junction dysfunction. In the present study, microelectrode recording of postsynaptic currents and optical detection of synaptic vesicle traffic (FM1-43 dye) and intracellular NO levels (DAF-FM DA) were used to examine the effect of the major brain-derived cholesterol metabolite 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC, 0...
March 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Tuomo Kujala, Jakke Mäkelä
We present results from a naturalistic study that tracked how Finnish drivers use their smartphones while on the move. We monitored 30 heavy in-car smartphone users in Finland during June-September 2016, recording the times that they used their phones, the application used at the time of touch (calls excluded), the location and driving speed. Touches per time unit were used as a proxy for estimating visual-manual distraction due to visual-manual tasks. Our data set allows the determining of whether drivers use their phones differently on varying road types (highway, main road, local rural road, urban road)...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Tiago Gai Aita, Cecília Luiz Pereira Stabile, Cássia Cilene Dezan Garbelini, Glaykon Alex Vitti Stabile
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate whether the Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), proposed by Bagheri et al in 2006, can predict intervention needs in the operating room (OR), length of hospital stay, and need for support by other specialties. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of trauma patients from a public tertiary hospital between January 2009 and December 2015, related to age, gender, comorbidities, habits, history of maxillofacial trauma, etiology, and presence and location of fractures and lacerations, in addition to type of treatment performed and period of hospitalization...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Thomas Stephan Hiller, Antje Freytag, Jörg Breitbart, Tobias Teismann, Elisabeth Schöne, Wolfgang Blank, Mercedes Schelle, Horst Christian Vollmar, Jürgen Margraf, Jochen Gensichen
BACKGROUND: Behavior therapy-oriented methods are recommended for treating anxiety disorders in primary care. The treatment of patients with long-term conditions can be improved by case management and structured clinical monitoring. The present paper describes the rationale, design and application of the 'Jena Anxiety Monitoring List' (JAMoL), a monitoring tool for the treatment of patients with panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, in primary care. METHODS: JAMoL's design was based on established clinical measures, the rationale of exposure-based anxiety treatment, and research on family practice-based case management...
March 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Kyung Kate Hyun, Kyungsoo Jeong, Andre Tok, Stephen G Ritchie
Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs)...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Claudio Gariazzo, Massimo Stafoggia, Silvia Bruzzone, Armando Pelliccioni, Francesco Forastiere
Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Wentao Jing, Mohsen Ramezani, Kun An, Inhi Kim
The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect...
2018: PloS One
Xiangyu Chang, Jingzhou Shen, Xiaoling Lu, Shuai Huang
The emerging Bicycle Sharing System (BSS) provides a new social microscope that allows us to "photograph" the main aspects of the society and to create a comprehensive picture of human mobility behavior in this new medium. BSS has been deployed in many major cities around the world as a short-distance trip supplement for public transportations and private vehicles. A unique value of the bike flow data generated by these BSSs is to understand the human mobility in a short-distance trip. This understanding of the population on short-distance trip is lacking, limiting our capacity in management and operation of BSSs...
2018: PloS One
Hyungil Kim, Joseph L Gabbard, Alexandre Miranda Anon, Teruhisa Misu
This article investigates the effects of visual warning presentation methods on human performance in augmented reality (AR) driving. An experimental user study was conducted in a parking lot where participants drove a test vehicle while braking for any cross traffic with assistance from AR visual warnings presented on a monoscopic and volumetric head-up display (HUD). Results showed that monoscopic displays can be as effective as volumetric displays for human performance in AR braking tasks. The experiment also demonstrated the benefits of conformal graphics, which are tightly integrated into the real world, such as their ability to guide drivers' attention and their positive consequences on driver behavior and performance...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yasmine Mosleh, Martin Cajka, Bart Depreitere, Jos Vander Sloten, Jan Ivens
Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Érica Prado Domingues, Guilherme Gomes Silva, Andrei Barbassa Oliveira, Lorrany Marins Mota, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Edimar Olegário de Campos, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Workers in several occupational environments are exposed to pollutants. Street vendors, for example, typically work in a high-traffic urban environment and are exposed to numerous air pollutants, including genotoxic substances emitted by motor vehicles. This study examined the genotoxic effects of exposure to air pollution. We conducted cytological analyses to assess frequencies of micronucleated (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells in a sample of exfoliated oral mucosa cells. We compared street vendors and control subjects in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and also collected quantitative information on exposure conditions of all test subjects, including concentrations of particulate matter...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Segun I Popoola, Aderemi A Atayero, Nasir Faruk, Joke A Badejo
In this data article, the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Quality of Service (QoS) of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks in Nigeria are provided and analyzed. The data provided in this paper contain the Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR), Drop Call Rate (DCR), Stand-alone Dedicated Channel (SDCCH) congestion, and Traffic Channel (TCH) congestion for the four GSM network operators in Nigeria (Airtel, Etisalat, Glo, and MTN). These comprehensive data were obtained from the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC)...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Kristie Wrasman, Salvatore L Alioto, Yorke Zhang, Kyle Hoban, Marjon Khairy, Bruce L Goode, Beverly Wendland
Endocytosis is a fundamental process for internalizing material from the plasma membrane, including many transmembrane proteins that are selectively internalized depending on environmental conditions. In most cells, the main route of entry is clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), a process that involves the coordinated activity of over 60 proteins; however, there are likely as-yet unidentified proteins involved in cargo selection and/or regulation of endocytosis. We performed a mutagenic screen to identify novel endocytic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the methionine permease Mup1 tagged with pHluorin (pHl), a pH-sensitive GFP variant whose fluorescence is quenched upon delivery to the acidic vacuole lumen...
March 14, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Chen Bin Tian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of acupuncture on mild postpartum depression (PPD). METHODS: 15 patients diagnosed with PPD were enrolled in the study. Patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria received acupuncture therapy eight times over 4 weeks in the form of two 20-min treatment sessions per week. The treatment site was the BL67 acupuncture point (on the outside of the fifth toenail). After disinfecting the skin on the toes, sterile steel needles were gently inserted into the acupuncture point until the patient started to feel numb or swollen, a sensation known as de qi ...
March 14, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Ellen Generaal, Erik J Timmermans, Jasper E C Dekkers, Johannes H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Which neighbourhood factors most consistently impact on depression and anxiety remains unclear. This study examines whether objectively obtained socioeconomic, physical and social aspects of the neighbourhood in which persons live are associated with the presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data are from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including participants (n = 2980) with and without depressive and anxiety disorders in the past year (based on DSM-based psychiatric interviews)...
March 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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