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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431344/novelty-helmet-use-and-motorcycle-rider-fatality
#1
Thomas M Rice, Lara Troszak, Taryn Erhardt, Roger B Trent, Motao Zhu
OBJECTIVES: To compare the risk of fatal injury across helmet types among collision-involved motorcyclists. METHODS: We used data from a cohort of motorcyclists involved in police-reported traffic collisions. Eighty-four law enforcement agencies in California collected detailed information on helmet and rider characteristics during collision investigations in June 2012 through July 2013. Multiply-adjusted risk ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. RESULTS: The adjusted fatal injury risk ratio for novelty helmets was 1...
April 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431334/one-hundred-injured-patients-a-day-multicenter-emergency-room-surveillance-of-trauma-in-pakistan
#2
A A Hyder, S He, W Zafar, M U Mir, J A Razzak
OBJECTIVES: Injuries increasingly contribute to the global burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. This study presents results from a large-scale surveillance study on injury from several urban emergency departments (EDs) in Pakistan. The objective is to document the burden of injuries that present to the healthcare system in Pakistan and to test the feasibility of an ED-based injury and trauma surveillance system. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted using active surveillance approach...
April 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429178/sleep-habits-fatigue-and-sleepiness-in-chiclayo-peru-s-bus-drivers
#3
Fátima Deza-Becerra, Jorge Rey de Castro, Carol Gonzales-Gonzales, Franco Ernesto León-Jiménez, Jorge Osada-Liy, Edmundo Rosales-Mayor
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study are to describe sleep habits, fatigue, and sleepiness in Chiclayo's (Peru) bus drivers and explore their relation with traffic accidents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a non-probability consecutive sampling. The sample size was 126 drivers. Sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and sleep hygiene with validated questionnaires. We used a history of traffic accident or a near-traffic accident as an independent variable and applied chi-squared, t, and Mann-Whitney U tests to evaluate initial associations, which were later tested with a multivariate analysis...
April 21, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428151/impact-of-front-of-pack-nutrition-information-and-label-design-on-children-s-choice-of-two-snack-foods-comparison-of-warnings-and-the-traffic-light-system
#4
Alejandra Arrúa, María Rosa Curutchet, Natalia Rey, Patricia Barreto, Nadya Golovchenko, Andrea Sellanes, Guillermo Velazco, Medy Winokur, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426989/the-thermal-impact-of-subsurface-building-structures-on-urban-groundwater-resources-a-paradigmatic-example
#5
Jannis Epting, Stefan Scheidler, Annette Affolter, Paul Borer, Matthias H Mueller, Lukas Egli, Alejandro García-Gil, Peter Huggenberger
Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425731/changes-in-perception-action-tuning-over-long-time-scales-how-children-and-adults-perceive-and-act-on-dynamic-affordances-when-crossing-roads
#6
Elizabeth E O'Neal, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lucas J Franzen, Pooya Rahimian, Junghum Paul Yon, Joseph K Kearney, Jodie M Plumert
This investigation examined developmental change in how children perceive and act on dynamic affordances when crossing roads on foot. Six- to 14-year-olds and adults crossed roads with continuous cross-traffic in a large-screen, immersive pedestrian simulator. We observed change both in children's gap choices and in their ability to precisely synchronize their movement with the opening of a gap. Younger children were less discriminating than older children and adults, choosing fewer large gaps and more small gaps...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424677/responses-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-to-the-hytrosavirus-replication-impacts-on-host-s-vitellogenesis-and-immunity
#7
Henry M Kariithi, Xu Yao, Fahong Yu, Peter E Teal, Chelsea P Verhoeven, Drion G Boucias
Hytrosaviridae family members replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of their adult dipteran hosts and are transmitted to uninfected hosts via saliva during feeding. Despite inducing similar gross symptoms (SG hypertrophy; SGH), hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) have distinct pathobiologies, including sex-ratio distortions in tsetse flies and refusal of infected housefly females to copulate. Via unknown mechanism(s), SGHV replication in other tissues results in reduced fecundity in tsetse flies and total shutdown of vitellogenesis and sterility in housefly females...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424676/seasonal-fluctuations-of-microbial-aerosol-in-live-poultry-markets-and-the-detection-of-endotoxin
#8
Bo Wu, Kai Meng, Liangmeng Wei, Yumei Cai, Tongjie Chai
Microbial aerosol whose species and concentrations are closely related to human health is ubiquitous. The effect of microbes on human and animal health and production performance is, in many cases, caused by the spreading of air. Samples in this experiment were from a live poultry market (LPM) in Tai'an, China, collected three times a day (8 am, 14 pm, and 20 pm) over three consecutive days each month for 11 months (Original sampling plan was a year, the government due to the environmental protection, the was LPM closed)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424616/whole-blood-cytokine-response-to-local-traffic-related-particulate-matter-in-peruvian-children-with-and-without-asthma
#9
Jesse P Negherbon, Karina Romero, D'Ann L Williams, Rafael E Guerrero-Preston, Thomas Hartung, Alan L Scott, Patrick N Breysse, William Checkley, Nadia N Hansel
This study sought to investigate if acute phase immune responses of whole blood from Peruvian children with controlled and uncontrolled asthma differed from children without asthma, following exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (TRPM). TRPM, including particulate matter from diesel combustion, has been shown to stimulate acute airway inflammation in individuals with and without asthma. For this study, a whole blood assay (WBA) was used to test peripheral whole blood samples from 27 children with asthma, and 12 without asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#10
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424575/contribution-of-autonomic-reflexes-to-the-hyperadrenergic-state-in-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
Edgar Toschi-Dias, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Chiara Cogliati, Nazareno Paolocci, Eleonora Tobaldini, Nicola Montano
Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome representing the clinical endpoint of many cardiovascular diseases of different etiology. Given its prevalence, incidence and social impact, a better understanding of HF pathophysiology is paramount to implement more effective anti-HF therapies. Based on left ventricle (LV) performance, HF is currently classified as follows: (1) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); (2) with mid-range EF (HFmrEF); and (3) with preserved EF (HFpEF). A central tenet of HFrEF pathophysiology is adrenergic hyperactivity, featuring increased sympathetic nerve discharge and a progressive loss of rhythmical sympathetic oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424066/short-term-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-vanadium-and-changes-in-asthma-gene-dna-methylation-and-lung-function-decrements-among-urban-children
#12
Kyung Hwa Jung, David Torrone, Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Matthew Perzanowski, Joshua Bautista, Jacqueline R Jezioro, Lori Hoepner, Jamie Ross, Frederica P Perera, Steven N Chillrud, Rachel L Miller
BACKGROUND: Both short and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants have been associated with asthma and reduced lung function. We hypothesized that short-term indoor exposure to fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and vanadium (V) would be associated with altered buccal cell DNA methylation of targeted asthma genes and decreased lung function among urban children in a nested subcohort of African American and Dominican children. METHODS: Six day integrated levels of air pollutants were measured from children's homes (age 9-14; n = 163), repeated 6 months later (n = 98)...
April 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423053/-she-s-a-dog-at-the-end-of-the-day-guide-dog-owners-perspectives-on-the-behaviour-of-their-guide-dog
#13
Peter J Craigon, Pru Hobson-West, Gary C W England, Chantelle Whelan, Emma Lethbridge, Lucy Asher
A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422921/population-based-estimate-of-trauma-related-deaths-for-law-enforcement-personnel-risks-for-death-are-higher-and-increasing-over-time
#14
Alexander L Eastman, Michael W Cripps, Kareem R Abdelfattah, Kenji Inaba, Thomas G Weiser, David A Spain, Kristan L Staudenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Trauma-related deaths remain an important public health problem. One group susceptible to death due to traumatic mechanisms is U.S. Law Enforcement (LE). We hypothesized that LE officers experienced a higher chance of violent death compared to the general U.S. population and that risks have increased over time. METHODS: The National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) is a population-based survey of occupational deaths...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422834/feasibility-and-safety-of-emergency-laparoscopic-partial-splenectomy-a-retrospective-analysis
#15
Hongyu Li, Yonggang Wei, Bing Peng, Bo Li, Fei Liu
The increased awareness of asplenia-related life-threatening complications has led to the development of parenchyma sparing splenic resections in past few years. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic partial splenectomy (LPS) in selected emergency patients.From January 2013 to December 2015, there were 46 emergency patients, diagnosed with splenic rupture, admitted in our department. Selection criteria for LPS: (1) Preoperative CT scan revealed single pole rupture without spleen pedicle injury; (2) BP>90/60 mm Hg and heart rates <120 bpm; (3) No sigh of multiple organ injury...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422679/a-bio-inspired-approach-to-traffic-network-equilibrium-assignment-problem
#16
Xiaoge Zhang, Sankaran Mahadevan
Finding an equilibrium state of the traffic assignment plays a significant role in the design of transportation networks. We adapt the path finding mathematical model of slime mold Physarum polycephalum to solve the traffic equilibrium assignment problem. We make three contributions in this paper. First, we propose a generalized Physarum model to solve the shortest path problem in directed and asymmetric graphs. Second, we extend it further to resolve the network design problem with multiple source nodes and sink nodes...
April 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422665/human-factors-and-neurophysiological-metrics-in-air-traffic-control-a-critical-review
#17
Pietro Arico, Gianluca Borghini, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Stefano Bonelli, Alessia Golfetti, Ilenia Graziani, Simone Pozzi, Jean-Paul Imbert, Geraud Granger, Railane Benhacene, Dirk Schaefer, Fabio Babiloni
This article provides the reader a focused and organised review of the research progresses on neurophysiological indicators, also called "neurometrics", to show how neurometrics could effectively address some of the most important Human Factors (HFs) needs in the Air Traffic Management (ATM) field. The state of the art on the most involved HFs and related cognitive processes (e.g. mental workload, cognitive training) is presented together with examples of possible applications in the current and future ATM scenarios, in order to better understand and highlight the available opportunities of such neuroscientific applications...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422547/active-travel-behavior-in-a-border-region-of-texas-and-new-mexico-motivators-deterrents-and-characteristics
#18
Ipek N Sener, Richard J Lee
BACKGROUND: Active travel has been linked with improved transportation and health outcomes, such as reduced traffic congestion and air pollution, improved mobility, accessibility and equity, and increased physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to better understand active travel characteristics, motivators, and deterrents in the El Paso, Texas, region. METHODS: A multimodal transportation survey brought together elements of transportation and health, with a focus on attitudinal characteristics...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420928/road-traffic-crash-related-injured-and-fatal-victims-in-karachi-from-2007-to-2014-a-time-series-analysis
#19
Rashid Jooma, Masood Ali Shaikh
Injuries and deaths due to road traffic crashes (RTC) are major public health concern. The Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Center, collects RTC data on injuries and fatalities from five emergency departments in Karachi. Data generating process (DGP) for RTC from 2007 to 2014, for monthly number of fatal and injured victims were analyzed using autoregressive integrated moving average and vector auto regression, time series models. Results provide strong evidence that the DGP for the current levels of the number of fatalities and injured owing to RTCs are significantly influenced by the own past history of the two series...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420102/efficient-actor-recovery-paradigm-for-wireless-sensor-and-actor-networks
#20
Reem K Mahjoub, Khaled Elleithy
The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS)...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
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