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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926821/autopsies-in-the-elderly-erzurum-study
#1
Ozge Timur, Pinar Tosun Tasar, Merve Gulsah Ulusoy, Azem Irez, Filiz Yildirim, Dogan Nasir Binici, Sevnaz Sahin, Ahmet Nezih Kok
INTRODUCTION: Clinical and forensic autopsies are the best methods for determining cause of death. The aim of this study was to determine demographic and etiologic characteristics in geriatric forensic cases analyzed in Erzurum, Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Autopsy reports and prosecution documents of decedents aged 65 and older autopsied in the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute, Erzurum Division between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 were screened retrospectively...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926804/name-that-tune-mitigation-of-driver-fatigue-via-a-song-naming-game
#2
Michael C Trumbo, Aaron P Jones, Charles S H Robinson, Kerstan Cole, James D Morrow
Fatigued driving contributes to a substantial number of motor vehicle accidents each year. Music listening is often employed as a countermeasure during driving in order to mitigate the effects of fatigue. Though music listening has been established as a distractor in the sense that it increases cognitive load during driving, it is possible that increased cognitive load is desirable under particular circumstances. For instance, during situations that typically result in cognitive underload, such as driving in a low-traffic monotonous stretch of highway, it may be beneficial for cognitive load to increase, thereby necessitating allocation of greater cognitive resources to the task of driving and attenuating fatigue...
September 16, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926373/exposure-to-mobile-source-air-pollution-in-early-life-and-childhood-asthma-incidence-the-kaiser-air-pollution-and-pediatric-asthma-study
#3
Audrey Flak Pennington, Matthew J Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Josephine T Bates, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Craig Hansen, Armistead G Russell, Paige E Tolbert, Lyndsey A Darrow
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution exacerbates childhood asthma, but it is unclear what role it plays in asthma development. METHODS: The association between exposure to primary mobile source pollutants during pregnancy and during infancy and asthma incidence by ages 2 through 6 was examined in the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a racially diverse birth cohort of 24,608 children born between 2000 and 2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925962/strengthening-of-existing-bridge-structures-for-shear-and-bending-with-carbon-textile-reinforced-mortar
#4
Martin Herbrand, Viviane Adam, Martin Classen, Dominik Kueres, Josef Hegger
Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a large number of structures are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extend their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile-reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of pre-stressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly...
September 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925292/using-a-media-campaign-to-increase-engagement-with-a-mobile-based-youth-smoking-cessation-program
#5
Amy Sanders, Cendrine Robinson, Shani C Taylor, Samantha D Post, Jeffrey Goldfarb, Rui Shi, Yvonne M Hunt, Erik M Augustson
PURPOSE: To describe the impact of the National Cancer Institute's promotion of its youth smoking cessation program, Smokefree Teen (SFT). DESIGN: We provide a description of campaign strategies and outcomes as a means to engage a teen audience in cessation resources using a cost-effective approach. SETTING: The campaign occurred nationally, using traditional (TV and radio), online, and social media outreach. PARTICIPANTS: Ads targeted adolescent smokers (aged 14-17)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923824/snapin-promotes-hiv-1-transmission-from-dendritic-cells-by-dampening-tlr8-signaling
#6
Elham Khatamzas, Madeleine Maria Hipp, Daniel Gaughan, Tica Pichulik, Alasdair Leslie, Ricardo A Fernandes, Daniele Muraro, Sarah Booth, Kieran Zausmer, Mei-Yi Sun, Benedikt Kessler, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Alison Simmons
HIV-1 traffics through dendritic cells (DCs) en route to establishing a productive infection in T lymphocytes but fails to induce an innate immune response. Within DC endosomes, HIV-1 somehow evades detection by the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8). Using a phosphoproteomic approach, we identified a robust and diverse signaling cascade triggered by HIV-1 upon entry into human DCs. A secondary siRNA screen of the identified signaling factors revealed several new mediators of HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4(+) T cells in DCs, including the dynein motor protein Snapin...
September 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923754/temporal-and-spatial-variations-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-soils-from-a-typical-organic-sewage-irrigation-area
#7
Bo Wu, Shuhai Guo, Xiaojun Li, Jianing Wang
In the water shortage countries and areas, untreated sewage irrigation led to the extensive organic pollution of farmland soil, which seriously threatened environmental security. In this study, we selected Shenfu irrigation area (SIA) as the study area, and it was the first and largest organic sewage irrigation area in China. We analyzed the temporal and spatial variations in concentrations, risk and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil of the SIA. The results show that the PAH concentrations decreased slowly and environmental risk fluctuated after stopping sewage irrigation...
September 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923753/concentration-and-spatial-distribution-of-organophosphate-esters-in-the-soil-sediment-profile-of-kathmandu-valley-nepal-implication-for-risk-assessment
#8
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Adrian Covaci
Despite the fact that soil and sediments, which act as a sink or potential source of organic pollutants, have been polluted with organophosphate esters (OPEs) around the globe, extremely constrained data is accessible on environmental concentration and fate of OPEs in solid matrices in whole of the South Asia particularly if there should be an occurrence in Nepal. In this study, surface soil (N=19) and sediments samples (N=20) were analyzed for eight different OPE in Kathmandu Valley during October 2014. The concentration of ∑8OPE measured in sediments samples was 12 times higher than soil and ranged 983-7460ng/g dw (median 2210ng/g dw) and 65-27,500ng/g dw (186ng/g dw), respectively...
September 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922733/assessing-the-ground-vibrations-produced-by-a-heavy-vehicle-traversing-a-traffic-obstacle
#9
Loïc Ducarne, Daniel Ainalis, Georges Kouroussis
Despite advancements in alternative transport networks, road transport remains the dominant mode in many modern and developing countries. The ground-borne motions produced by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle (e.g. speed hump, train tracks) pose a fundamental problem in transport annoyance in urban areas. In order to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle, a two-step numerical model is developed. The first step involves simulating the dynamic loads generated by the heavy vehicle using a multibody approach, which includes the tyre-obstacle-ground interaction...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920168/the-online-measured-black-carbon-aerosol-and-source-orientations-in-the-nam-co-region-tibet
#10
Xin Zhang, Jing Ming, Zhongqin Li, Feiteng Wang, Guoshuai Zhang
Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m(3), reflecting a global background level...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919377/combination-cancer-therapy-using-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-natural-killer-cells-as-drug-carriers
#11
Elizabeth L Siegler, Yu Jeong Kim, Xianhui Chen, Natnaree Siriwon, John Mac, Jennifer A Rohrs, Paul D Bryson, Pin Wang
The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs include chemo-resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. Numerous nanoparticle-based active targeting approaches have emerged to enhance the intracellular concentration of drugs in tumor cells; however, efficient delivery of these systems to the tumor site while sparing healthy tissue remains elusive. Recently, much attention has been given to human immune-cell-directed nanoparticle drug delivery, because immune cells can traffic to the tumor and inflammatory sites...
August 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919037/a-link-between-linearmycin-biosynthesis-and-extracellular-vesicle-genesis-connects-specialized-metabolism-and-bacterial-membrane-physiology
#12
B Christopher Hoefler, Reed M Stubbendieck, N Kalyani Josyula, Sabrina M Moisan, Emma M Schulze, Paul D Straight
Specialized metabolites support bacterial competitive fitness as antibiotics, signals, pigments, and metal scavengers. Little is known about how specialized metabolites are processed and trafficked for their diverse competitive functions. Linearmycins A and B are linear polyketides with antifungal and antibacterial activity but are colony-localized in imaging mass spectrometry of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 (S. sp. Mg1). To decipher a connection between colony localization and antibiotic activity, we identified the linearmycin gene cluster and investigated linearmycin production and distribution by S...
August 24, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918308/appropriateness-of-different-pedagogical-approaches-to-road-safety-education-for-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-dcd
#13
C Purcell, A R Romijn
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918281/distribution-of-vocs-in-urban-and-rural-atmospheres-of-subtropical-india-temporal-variation-source-attribution-ratios-ofp-and-risk-assessment
#14
Amit Kumar, Deepak Singh, Krishan Kumar, Braj Bihari Singh, Vinod Kumar Jain
This paper reports the first study which comprises the seasonal, diurnal variability, source characterization, ozone forming potential and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at three sites (two urban and one rural) in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India. The study was performed during three seasons of the year 2013-14 and two different categories of VOCs (aromatics and halogenated) have been selected. The study used the sampling and analytical procedures of NIOSH methods. Results showed that the mean concentration of sum of VOCs (∑VOC) is significantly higher at urban sites (110...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917818/assessment-of-shipping-emissions-on-four-ports-of-portugal
#15
R A O Nunes, M C M Alvim-Ferraz, F G Martins, S I V Sousa
In the last few years, ship emissions have attracted growing attention in the scientific community. The main reason is the constant increase of marine emissions over the last twenty years due to the intensification of port traffic. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ship emissions (PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, N2O CH4, NMVOC, and HC) through the activity-based methodology in four of the main ports of Portugal (Leixões, Setúbal, Sines and Viana do Castelo) during 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed according to ship types (bulk carrier, container, general cargo, passenger, Ro-Ro cargo, tanker and others) and operational modes (manoeuvring, hotelling and during cruising)...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917129/residential-road-traffic-noise-and-general-mental-health-in-youth-the-role-of-noise-annoyance-neighborhood-restorative-quality-physical-activity-and-social-cohesion-as-potential-mediators
#16
Angel Dzhambov, Boris Tilov, Iana Markevych, Donka Dimitrova
Given the ubiquitous nature of both noise pollution and mental disorders, their alleged association has not escaped the spotlight of public health research. The effect of traffic noise on mental health is probably mediated by other factors, which have not been elucidated sufficiently. Herein, we aimed to disentangle the pathways linking road traffic noise to general mental health in Bulgarian youth, with a focus on several candidate mediators - noise annoyance, perceived restorative quality of the living environment, physical activity, and neighborhood social cohesion...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917096/how-bicycle-level-of-traffic-stress-correlate-with-reported-cyclist-accidents-injury-severities-a-geospatial-and-mixed-logit-analysis
#17
Chen Chen, Jason C Anderson, Haizhong Wang, Yinhai Wang, Rachel Vogt, Salvador Hernandez
Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes...
September 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916839/study-of-tissue-level-hypoxic-response-in-microfluidic-environment
#18
Adnan Morshed, Prashanta Dutta
Availability of essential species like oxygen is critical in shaping the dynamics of tumor growth. When the intracellular oxygen level falls below normal, it initiates major cascades in cellular dynamics leading to tumor cell survival. In a cellular block with cells growing away from the blood vessel, the scenario can be aggravated for the cells further inside the block. In this study, the dynamics of intracellular species inside a colony of tumor cells are investigated by varying the cell block thickness and cell types in a microfluidic cell culture device...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916666/regional-evaluation-of-the-severity-based-stroke-triage-algorithm-for-emergency-medical-services-using-discrete-event-simulation
#19
Brittany M Bogle, Andrew W Asimos, Wayne D Rosamond
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Severity-Based Stroke Triage Algorithm for Emergency Medical Services endorses routing patients with suspected large vessel occlusion acute ischemic strokes directly to endovascular stroke centers (ESCs). We sought to evaluate different specifications of this algorithm within a region. METHODS: We developed a discrete event simulation environment to model patients with suspected stroke transported according to algorithm specifications, which varied by stroke severity screen and permissible additional transport time for routing patients to ESCs...
September 15, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915545/air-pollution-at-rochester-ny-long-term-trends-and-multivariate-analysis-of-upwind-so2-source-impacts
#20
Fereshteh Emami, Mauro Masiol, Philip K Hopke
There have been many changes in the air pollutant sources in the northeastern United States since 2001. To assess the effect of these changes, trend analyses of the monthly average values were performed on PM2.5 and its components including major ions, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and gaseous pollutant concentrations measured between 2001 (in some cases 1999) and 2015 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation sites in Rochester, NY. Mann-Kendall regression with Sen's slope was applied to estimate the trends and seasonality...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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