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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925846/characteristics-sources-and-cytotoxicity-of-atmospheric-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-urban-roadside-areas-of-hangzhou-china
#1
Hongzhen Bai, Hongjian Zhang
The primary objective of this study is to understand the profiles, sources and cytotoxic effects of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are closely related to urban air contamination and public health, in urban roadside environments. On-road sampling campaigns were conducted from 2014 to 2015 at three urban road sites in Hangzhou, China. Sixteen gaseous and particulate matter (PM) 2.5-bound PAHs were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations at the three sites ranged from 750 to1142 ng/m(3) and 1050 to 1483 ng/m(3) in summer and winter, respectively...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925548/a-better-way-to-die
#2
Mary-Claire Mason
When palliative care expert Jane Carpenter's homeless cousin died in a traffic accident and a post-mortem revealed he had advanced cancer, she decided to make a difference for others like him.
December 7, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925506/aliphatic-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-soils-of-the-northwest-qinling-mountains-patterns-potential-risk-and-an-appraisal-of-the-pah-ratios-to-infer-their-source
#3
Yanhong Liu, Yingqin Wu, Yanqing Xia, Tianzhu Lei, Chuntao Tian, Xiaohuan Hou
Surface soils from the tourist areas of the northwest Qinling Mountains were analyzed to determine the concentrations, probable sources and potential risks of hydrocarbons. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 4.18 to 3240 ng g(-1) and 0.0462 to 101 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The extent of soil contamination by hydrocarbons was generally typified by unpolluted to slightly polluted levels. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) for exposure to soil-borne PAHs indicated complete safety for tourists...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925277/identification-of-sources-of-metal-in-the-agricultural-soils-of-guanzhong-plain-northwest-china
#4
Wenbo Deng, Xuxiang Li, Zhisheng An, Liu Yang, Kang Hou, Yue Zhang
In this study, we conducted a comprehensive survey to assess the possible sources and distribution of metals in the agricultural soils of Guanzhong Plain, northwest China. A total of 227 samples of agricultural soil were collected to determine the content of Pb, Cr, Co, V, Ni, Zn, Cu, As and Mn by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The mean concentrations of metals were 26.2 ± 10.8 mg · kg(-1) , 71.5 ± 16.8 mg · kg(-1) , 12.7 ± 1.81 mg · kg(-1) , 85.1 ± 7.86 mg · kg(-1) , 30...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925241/vertebral-subluxation-repair-in-a-pet-goat
#5
Sara Nannarone, Enrico Bellezza, Yves P Moens, Paula Larenza Menzies
OBJECTIVES: To describe the perioperative management, including surgery, anesthesia, metabolic derangements, and physiotherapy, in a goat referred for paraparesis secondary to a road traffic accident. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMALS: 2-year-old mixed breed dwarf 44 kg female pet goat. METHODS: Clinical examination showed symptoms of early compensatory stages of shock, paraparesis with hyperextension of the thoracic limbs, pain on palpation of the thoracolumbar spine, increased patellar reflexes of both pelvic limbs without superficial sensitivity, but preserved deep pain sensation...
December 7, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925120/factors-associated-with-the-use-of-motorcycle-helmets-in-two-colombian-cities
#6
Jorge Martín Rodríguez Hernández, Fredy Armindo Camelo Tovar, Liany Katerine Ariza Ruiz
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and some characteristics associated with the use of motorcycle helmets in two Colombian cities. The researcher used quantitative and qualitative techniques. The prevalence of the use of a motorcycle helmet among motorcyclists was greater in Ibague (98.1%) than in Valledupar (82.4%); among passengers in the city of Valledupar, it did not reach 2%. Men were 2.1 times more likely to wear helmets than women (IC 95:1.6-2.7). Using qualitative techniques, the factors explaining the reasons for use/non-use of helmets (being hygienic, climatic, esthetic and safety reasons) were identified for Valledupar...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925118/alcohol-abuse-and-involvement-in-traffic-accidents-in-the-brazilian-population-2013
#7
Giseli Nogueira Damacena, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Lucas Sisinno Ribeiro, Célia Landmann Szwarcwald
Abstract This article aims to analyze alcohol abuse and frequent consumption according to sociodemographic characteristics and investigate the risk of greater involvement in traffic accidents, using data from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013, Brazil. Events investigated were alcohol abuse and frequent consumption and if the individual was involved in a traffic accident and sustained an injury in the last 12 months. We investigated both events according to sociodemographic characteristics and assessed the association among them through multivariate logistic regression...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925116/truck-drivers-traffic-accidents-in-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-prevalence-and-predictors
#8
Lucio Garcia de Oliveira, Carlos Vinícius Dias de Almeida, Lucia Pereira Barroso, Marcela Julio Cesar Gouvea, Daniel Romero Muñoz, Vilma Leyton
Abstract The mortality rate of traffic accidents (TA) is high in Brazil. Trucks are the second category of motor vehicles most often involved in TA. However, few studies have addressed the issue of TA among these professionals. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of TA and their predictors in a sample of 684 truck drivers recruited in the state of São Paulo during 2012 and 2013. We requested participants to answer a research instrument on their personal and occupational data and their involvement in TA and traffic violations...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925115/accidents-involving-brazilian-indigenous-treated-at-urgent-and-emergency-services-of-the-unified-health-system
#9
Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Kathie Njaine, Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Maria Conceição de Oliveira
Abstract We analyzed the accidents with Brazilian indigenous treated at urgent and emergency services of the Unified Health System (SUS). Data were obtained from the 2014 Viva Survey, which included 86 services from 24 capitals and the Federal District. The demographic profile of the indigenous, the event and the attendance were characterized. Most of the attended people were male in the 20-39 years age group. Falls and traffic accidents were the main reasons for attendance. Alcohol use was informed by 5.6% of the attended people, a figure that increases to 19...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925111/use-of-motorcycle-in-brazil-users-profile-prevalence-of-use-and-traffic-accidents-occurrence-a-population-based-study
#10
Lenise Menezes Seerig, Giancarlo Bacchieri, Gustavo Giacomelli Nascimento, Aluisio J D Barros, Flávio Fernando Demarco
This study aimed to describe the profile of motorcycle users and determine the prevalence of use. Also, to evaluate the reason for using a motorcycle, users' perceived risk of traffic accident, pattern of helmet wearing and number of accidents related to motorcycle use in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Sampling process was carried out in two stages, with the primary unit being the census track and the secondary the house. The study included 3,004 individuals aged 10 to 59 years, which answered a structured questionnaire...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925110/car-and-motorcycle-deaths-an-evolutionary-perspective
#11
André Luís Dos Santos Medeiros, Paulo Nadanovsky
Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925109/analysis-of-factors-associated-with-traffic-accidents-of-cyclists-attended-in-brazilian-state-capitals
#12
Carlos Augusto Moreira de Sousa, Camila Alves Bahia, Patrícia Constantino
Introduction: Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. Methodology: VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925108/urgent-and-emergency-care-for-pedestrians-injured-in-brazilian-traffic
#13
Liana Wernersbach Pinto, Adalgisa Peixoto Ribeiro, Camila Alves Bahia, Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas
This paper aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of pedestrians injured in traffic accidents treated at urgent and emergency facilities participating in the 2014VIVA Survey and the characterization of these events and consequences for these victims. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the period from September to November 2014 in 24 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We analyzed variables that characterize the victim, the accident and its severity and case outcome. We calculated simple and relative frequencies and performed a bivariate analysis by gender and age group...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925107/characteristics-of-motorcyclists-involved-in-road-traffic-accidents-attended-at-public-urgent-and-emergency-services
#14
Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso Souto, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Cheila Marina de Lima, Marli de Mesquita Silva Montenegro
Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925106/the-moscow-and-brasilia-declarations-on-road-safety-a-parallel-between-two-moments-in-health
#15
Roberto Victor Pavarino
Two high-level multisectoral global conferences on road traffic safety (Moscow, 2009 and Brasilia, 2015), held under the auspices of the United Nations, adopted formal declarations on both occasions. Given the potential of these documents to establish positions, propose guidelines, policies and legal frameworks, this paper compares these charters, in order to identify the emphases, expectations and horizons indicated at each moment, highlighting their health-related items. We describe the WHO's involvement with road safety, considering the ways this relationship signaled the health sector's connection with the theme...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924705/long-term-air-pollution-and-traffic-noise-exposures-and-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#16
Lilian Tzivian, Martha Dlugaj, Angela Winkler, Frauke Hennig, Kateryna Fuks, Dorothee Sugiri, Tamara Schikowski, Hermann Jakobs, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus, Barbara Hoffmann, Christian Weimar
Investigations of adverse effects of air pollution (AP) and ambient noise on cognitive functions are apparently scarce, and findings seem to be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with cognitive performance. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (2006-2008), cognitive performance was evaluated in 4086 participants. Long-term residential exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with land use regression, to and traffic noise (weighted 24-h (LDEN) and nighttime (LNIGHT) means), was assessed according to the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923799/steinmaus-and-smith-respond-to-proximity-to-gasoline-stations-and-childhood-leukemia
#17
Craig Steinmaus, Martyn T Smith
Benzene is an established cause of adult leukemia, but its role in childhood leukemia is less clear. In a recent meta-analysis, we identified associations of childhood leukemia with occupational and household product benzene exposure and traffic-related pollution. Residential proximity to gasoline stations or automobile repair facilities may be another source of benzene, and in 3 studies assessing these sources, we identified a summary relative risk of 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 3.62). Although not statistically significant, this summary relative risk was of a magnitude similar to that of our other positive findings...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923422/first-responders-and-prehospital-care-for-road-traffic-injuries-in-malawi
#18
Linda Chokotho, Wakisa Mulwafu, Isaac Singini, Yasin Njalale, Limbika Maliwichi-Senganimalunje, Kathryn H Jacobsen
: Introduction Road traffic collisions are a common cause of injuries and injury-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Basic prehospital care can be the difference between life and death for injured drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. Problem This study examined the challenges associated with current first response practices in Malawi. METHODS: In April 2014, focus groups were conducted in two areas of Malawi: Karonga (in the Northern Region) and Blantyre (in the Southern Region; both are along the M1 highway), and a qualitative synthesis approach was used to identify themes...
December 7, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923100/effects-of-air-pollution-exposure-on-glucose-metabolism-in-los-angeles-minority-children
#19
C M Toledo-Corral, T L Alderete, R Habre, K Berhane, F W Lurmann, M J Weigensberg, M I Goran, F D Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922536/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-attention-in-primary-school-children-short-term-association
#20
Jordi Sunyer, Elisabet Suades-González, Raquel García-Esteban, Ioar Rivas, Jesús Pujol, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Joan Forns, Xavier Querol, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution's short-term effects are well understood to be marked and preventable, its acute neuropsychological effects have, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. We aim to examine the association between daily variation in traffic-related air pollution and attention. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study from January 2012 to March 2013 in 2,687 school children from 265 classrooms in 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed four domains of children's attention processes every 3 months over four repeated visits providing a total of 10,002 computerized tests on 177 different days using the child Attention Network test (ANT)...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
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