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microbes, bdnf

Hui-Wen Xiao, Chang Ge, Guo-Xing Feng, Yuan Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Li Dong, Hang Li, Haichao Wang, Ming Cui, Sai-Jun Fan
Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes...
May 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Tamar L Gur, Lena Shay, Aditi Vadodkar Palkar, Sydney Fisher, Vanessa A Varaljay, Scot Dowd, Michael T Bailey
Recent studies demonstrate that exposure to stress changes the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which is associated with development of stress-induced changes to social behavior, anxiety, and depression. Stress during pregnancy has also been related to the emergence of these disorders; whether commensal microbes are part of a maternal intrauterine environment during prenatal stress is not known. Here, we demonstrate that microbiome changes are manifested in the mother, and also found in female offspring in adulthood, with a correlation between stressed mothers and female offspring...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E W Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health-promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviours such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioural and biological responses to stress later in life...
February 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free (GF) mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes. However, the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male SpragueDawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
Raeesah Maqsood, Trevor W Stone
Gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota and the 'gut-brain axis' are proving to be increasingly relevant to early brain development and the emergence of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the influence of the GI tract on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its relationship with receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR), as these are believed to be involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. NMDAR may be associated with the development of schizophrenia and a range of other psychopathologies including neurodegenerative disorders, depression and dementias...
November 2016: Neurochemical Research
Luca Borrelli, Serena Aceto, Claudio Agnisola, Sofia De Paolo, Ludovico Dipineto, Roman M Stilling, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Lucia F Menna, Alessandro Fioretti
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the bi-directional gut-brain axis, a communication that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities. Animal studies reveal that gut bacteria influence behaviour, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and serotonin metabolism. In the present study, we report for the first time an analysis of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 28 days of dietary administration with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501, we found differences in shoaling behaviour, brain expression levels of bdnf and of genes involved in serotonin signalling/metabolism between control and treated zebrafish group...
2016: Scientific Reports
Meng-Juan Gong, Bin Han, Shu-mei Wang, Sheng-wang Liang, Zhong-jie Zou
Previously published reports have revealed the antidepressant-like effects of icariin in a chronic mild stress model of depression and in a social defeat stress model in mice. However, the therapeutic effect of icariin in an animal model of glucocorticoid-induced depression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of icariin in a rat model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression by using a combination of behavioral and biochemical assessments and NMR-based metabonomics...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Tim Arentsen, Henrike Raith, Yu Qian, Hans Forssberg, Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that the indigenous gut microbiota exerts long-lasting programming effects on brain function and behaviour. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used the germ-free (GF) mouse model, devoid of any microbiota throughout development, to assess the influence of the indigenous microbiota on social preference and repetitive behaviours (e.g. self-grooming). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the three-chambered social approach task, we demonstrate that when adult GF mice were given a choice to spend time with a novel mouse or object, they spent significantly more time sniffing and interacting with the stimulus mouse compared to conventionally raised mice (specific pathogen-free, SPF)...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Paola Brun, Serena Gobbo, Valentina Caputi, Lisa Spagnol, Giulia Schirato, Matteo Pasqualin, Elia Levorato, Giorgio Pal├╣, Maria Cecilia Giron, Ignazio Castagliuolo
Gut microbiota-innate immunity axis is emerging as a key player to guarantee the structural and functional integrity of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota, derangement in signaling of innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and modifications in the neurochemical coding of the ENS have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Indeed, TLR2 activation by microbial products controls the ENS structure and regulates intestinal neuromuscular function...
September 2015: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Changwei Yang, Xi Zhu, Ni Liu, Yue Chen, Hexia Gan, Frederic A Troy, Bing Wang
The molecular mechanisms underlying how dietary lactoferrin (Lf) impacts gut development and maturation and protects against early weaning diarrhea are not well understood. In this study, we supplemented postnatal piglets with an Lf at a dose level of 155 and 285 mg/kg/day from 3 to 38 days following birth. Our findings show that the high dose of Lf up-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase (UCHL1) and, to a lesser extent, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, in the duodenum (P<...
August 2014: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Claudia A McCarthy, Robert E Widdop, Devy Deliyanti, Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
Microglia are the resident immune cells within the brain and retina, commonly known as the macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia survey the surrounding milieu to eliminate invading microbes, clear cellular debris and enforce programmed cell death by removing apoptotic cells. Complementary to their 'house-keeping' role, microglia are capable of releasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as various anti-inflammatory cytokines that sustain and support neuronal survival. Although microglia are essential for maintaining a healthy CNS, paradoxically they may undergo phenotypic changes to influence numerous neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease...
August 2013: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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