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chlorhexidine gluconate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811083/phenotypic-chlorhexidine-and-triclosan-susceptibility-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-australia
#1
C Hughes, J Ferguson
Antiseptics such as chlorhexidine gluconate and triclosan are widely used in healthcare settings for both skin antisepsis and decolonisation of Staphylococcus aureus. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 198 methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates to both chlorhexidine and triclosan using an agar dilution method. Of these, 10% (19/198) showed a raised MIC to chlorhexidine and 3% (6/198) showed an elevated MIC to triclosan. The multilocus sequence type (MLST) of each isolate was predicted using a binary method, and although ST93-MRSA-IV was the most common, ST22-MRSA-IV was shown to have statistically higher chlorhexidine MIC values compared with non ST22-MRSA-IV isolates (z = -8...
August 12, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803661/daily-bathing-strategies-and-cross-transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-impact-of-chlorhexidine-impregnated-wipes-in-a-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-endemic-intensive-care-unit
#2
Jesus Ruiz, Paula Ramirez, Esther Villarreal, Monica Gordon, Inmaculada Saez, Alfonso Rodríguez, María Jesús Castañeda, Álvaro Castellanos-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Health-care associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critical care units. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated wipes in the daily bathing of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent cross-transmission and colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) METHODS: Prospective cohort study with an intervention of 11 months. The intervention consisted of using CHG-impregnated wipes for the daily bathing of patients on mechanical ventilation or colonized by MDROs...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799984/lidocaine-spray-as-a-local-analgesic-for-intravenous-cannulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Joris Datema, Jeroen Veldhuis, Jolita Bekhof
OBJECTIVES: Lidocaine spray is an effective analgesic of mucous membranes. Lidocaine spray is also used during intravenous (i.v.) cannulation, especially in children. However, the analgesic effect of lidocaine spray during i.v. cannulation has not been studied. We aimed to assess the analgesic effectiveness of lidocaine spray during i.v. cannulation. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in seventeen healthy adults who received an i...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767690/a-simplified-prevention-bundle-with-dual-hand-hygiene-audit-reduces-early-onset-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-cardiovascular-surgery-units-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#4
Kang-Cheng Su, Yu Ru Kou, Fang-Chi Lin, Chieh-Hung Wu, Jia-Yih Feng, Shiang-Fen Huang, Tao-Fen Shiung, Kwei-Chun Chung, Yu-Hsiu Tung, Kuang-Yao Yang, Shi-Chuan Chang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of a simplified prevention bundle with alcohol-based, dual hand hygiene (HH) audit on the incidence of early-onset ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: This 3-year, quasi-experimental study with interrupted time-series analysis was conducted in two cardiovascular surgery intensive care units in a medical center. Unaware external HH audit (eHH) performed by non-unit-based observers was a routine task before and after bundle implementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757088/emergence-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-orange-county-california-and-support-for-early-regional-strategies-to-limit-spread
#5
Shruti K Gohil, Raveena Singh, Justin Chang, Adrijana Gombosev, Tom Tjoa, Matthew Zahn, Patti Steger, Susan S Huang
BACKGROUND: The east-to-west spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represents an opportunity to explore strategies to limit spread in nonendemic areas. We evaluated CRE emergence and regional support for containment strategies. METHODS: A 17-question cross-sectional survey was administered to infection prevention programs in Orange County, CA (31 hospitals serving 3 million residents), between January and September 2014. Questions addressed newly detected hospital- and community-onset CRE cultures (2008-2013), current CRE control strategies, and support for prevention strategies for a hypothetical regional intervention...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738398/the-compatibility-of-chlorhexidine-and-a-skin-care-product-line-a-real-world-analysis-of-hospital-acquired-infection-rates
#6
Priscilla L Phillips, Daniel Young, Debashish Chakravarthy
Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) use helps reduce hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Chlorhexidine gluconate effectiveness can be reduced by use of skin care products. Although laboratory work can be performed to prove compatibility, such work has limitations. The purpose of this study was to compare HAI rates when CHG antiseptic wipes were used in conjunction with a silicone- and micronutrient-based skin care product line (SMSP) and when CHG wipes were used without the SMSP. Using commercial distribution data, 17 hospitals that purchased both CHG wipes and SMSP were identified...
July 2017: Health Care Manager
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732564/desiccation-and-ethanol-resistances-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-embedded-in-biofilm-the-favorable-antiseptic-efficacy-of-combination-chlorhexidine-gluconate-and-ethanol
#7
Shyh-Ren Chiang, Fang Jung, Hung-Jen Tang, Chung-Hua Chen, Chi-Chung Chen, Hsiu-Yin Chou, Yin-Ching Chuang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Globally, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) has emerged as an important pathogen in nosocomial outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the biofilm formation and survival of MDRABs, and to investigate the antiseptic efficacy of hand sanitizers for the MDRABs, embedded with biofilm (MDRAB-Bs). METHODS: The MDRABs were selected randomly after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and their biofilm formation was analyzed...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713109/comparative-evaluation-of-neem-mouthwash-on-plaque-and-gingivitis-a-double-blind-crossover-study
#8
Md Jalaluddin, U B Rajasekaran, Sam Paul, R S Dhanya, C B Sudeep, V J Adarsh
AIM: The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of neem-containing mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, crossover clinical trial included 40 participants aged 18 to 35 years with washout period of 1 week between the crossover phases. A total of 20 participants, each randomly allocated into groups I and II, wherein in the first phase, group I was provided with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and group II with 2% neem mouthwash...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710437/inhibition-of-ctgf-ameliorates-peritoneal-fibrosis-through-suppression-of-fibroblast-and-myofibroblast-accumulation-and-angiogenesis
#9
Norihiko Sakai, Miki Nakamura, Kenneth E Lipson, Taito Miyake, Yasutaka Kamikawa, Akihiro Sagara, Yasuyuki Shinozaki, Shinji Kitajima, Tadashi Toyama, Akinori Hara, Yasunori Iwata, Miho Shimizu, Kengo Furuichi, Shuichi Kaneko, Andrew M Tager, Takashi Wada
Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a serious complication in various clinical settings, but the mechanisms driving it remain to be fully determined. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is known to regulate fibroblast activities. We therefore examined if CTGF inhibition has anti-fibrotic effects in PF. PF was induced by repetitive intraperitoneal injections of chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) in mice with type I pro-collagen promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression to identify fibroblasts. FG-3019, an anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody, was used to inhibit CTGF...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688183/evaluation-of-ph-and-calcium-ion-diffusion-from-calcium-hydroxide-pastes-and-mta
#10
María Del M Sáez, Gabriela L López, Diana Atlas, María L de la Casa
The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate changes in pH and calcium ion diffusion through root dentin from calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pastes at 7, 30 and 60 days; and the relationship between pH and ion diffusion. Thirty-two human premolars were used. Crowns were sectioned and root canals instrumented and filled in with the following preparations: 1) Ca(OH) 2 + distilled water (n=7); 2) Ca(OH) 2 + 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate (n=7); 3) MTA + distilled water (n=7); 4) MTA + 0...
April 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683004/evaluation-of-compatibility-of-a-gum-mastic-liquid-adhesive-and-liquid-adhesive-remover-with-an-alcoholic-chlorhexidine-gluconate-skin-preparation
#11
Marcia Ryder, Collette Duley
The compatibility of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol (CHG/IPA) skin preparation with a gum mastic liquid adhesive (GMLA) and liquid adhesive remover (LAR) was assessed in healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects completed test material combination with microbial sampling at 3- and 7-day time points. Mean log10 reductions from baseline for normal flora were assessed. There was no significant difference in reduction of normal flora on skin prepped with CHG/IPA versus skin prepped with CHG/IPA followed by GMLA or LAR...
July 2017: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666212/time-kill-kinetic-analysis-of-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-based-on-hydrogen-peroxide-photolysis-against-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm
#12
Midori Shirato, Keisuke Nakamura, Taro Kanno, Peter Lingström, Yoshimi Niwano, Ulf Örtengren
A recently developed antimicrobial technique utilizing hydroxyl radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis represents a promising new therapy for preventing and treating dental caries. The present study compared the antimicrobial time-kill kinetics of H2O2 photolysis, conventional antiseptics, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against biofilm-forming Streptococcus mutans (cariogenic bacteria) grown on hydroxyapatite disks. H2O2 photolysis was performed by irradiating the biofilm immersed in 3% H2O2 with 365-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light at an irradiance of 1000mW/cm(2) for up to 1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619777/peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-dressing-and-securement-in-patients-with-cancer-the-pisces-trial-protocol-for-a-2x2-factorial-superiority-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Claire M Rickard, Nicole M Marsh, Joan Webster, Nicole C Gavin, Raymond J Chan, Alexandra L McCarthy, Peter Mollee, Amanda J Ullman, Tricia Kleidon, Vineet Chopra, Li Zhang, Matthew R McGrail, Emily Larsen, Md Abu Choudhury, Samantha Keogh, Evan Alexandrou, David J McMillan, Merehau Cindy Mervin, David L Paterson, Marie Cooke, Gillian Ray-Barruel, Maria Isabel Castillo, Andrew Hallahan, Amanda Corley, E Geoffrey Playford
INTRODUCTION: Around 30% of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) fail from vascular, infectious or mechanical complications. Patients with cancer are at highest risk, and this increases morbidity, mortality and costs. Effective PICC dressing and securement may prevent PICC failure; however, no large randomised controlled trial (RCT) has compared alternative approaches. We designed this RCT to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of dressing and securements to prevent PICC failure...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611000/sterility-of-selected-operative-sites-during-total-laparoscopic-hysterectomy
#14
Marie E Shockley, Benjamin Beran, Heather Nutting, Katrin Arnolds, Michael L Sprague, Stephen Zimberg
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the type and quantity of bacteria found intraoperatively on the abdomen, vagina, surgical gloves, instrument tips, and uterus at distinct time points during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). DESIGN: Observational study (Canadian Task Force classification III). SETTING: Academic affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-one women undergoing TLH for benign indications in 2016. INTERVENTIONS: After antibiotic prophylaxis and chlorhexidine preparation, swabs were collected from the vaginal fornices and abdomen...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590235/chlorhexidine-whole-body-washing-of-patients-reduces-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-has-a-direct-effect-on-the-distribution-of-the-st5-mrsa-ii-new-york-japan-clone
#15
Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Vanessa Valero-Moreno, Elvira Garza-González
PURPOSE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes the skin of hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To prevent colonization and infection by S. aureus, better disinfection practices are required. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine whole-body washing on hospital-acquired S. aureus infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a tertiary hospital in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted over 18 months to evaluate the effect of 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate (CXG) whole-body washing of ICU adult patients on chlorhexidine and antibiotic resistance, biofilm production and clonal distribution of S...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575883/effects-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-on-intestinal-flora-in-peritoneal-fibrosis
#16
Muammer Bilici, Ibrahim Ilker Oz, Sevil Uygun Ilikhan, Ali Borazan
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on intestinal flora in peritoneal fibrosis. METHODS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as the control group, which received 0.9% saline (3 mL/d) intraperitoneally; the chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally, and the ESA group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally and epoetin beta (3 doses of 20 IU/kg/wk) subcutaneously...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566853/bacteriostatic-effect-of-simvastatin-on-selected-oral-streptococci-in-vitro
#17
Eugene J Whitaker, Abdulaziz Alshammari
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Simvastatin is a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, which has been found to have a number of pleiotropic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of simvastatin against selected oral streptococci as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). METHODS: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus salivarius were the test microorganisms. The serial dilution method was used to determine the MIC of simvastatin against these organisms...
January 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557536/preoperative-hand-decontamination-in-ophthalmic-surgery-a-comparison-of-the-removal-of-bacteria-from-surgeons-hands-by-routine-antimicrobial-scrub-versus-an-alcoholic-hand-rub
#18
Yaara Forer, Colin Block, Shahar Frenkel
PURPOSE: The goal of this experiment was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of routine preoperative hand washing using commercial medicated sponge brushes versus an alcoholic hand rub, by comparing bacterial growth on ophthalmic surgeons' hands after application of each of these methods. METHODS: Twenty ophthalmic surgeons were recruited at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. Samples were collected twice from the hands of each surgeon after hand decontamination using two different protocols during routine surgical practice...
May 30, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546811/antimicrobial-activity-of-a-cationic-guanidine-compound-against-two-pathogenic-oral-bacteria
#19
E Escamilla-García, A G Alcázar-Pizaña, J C Segoviano-Ramírez, C Del Angel-Mosqueda, A P López-Lozano, E Cárdenas-Estrada, M A De La Garza-Ramos, C E Medina-De La Garza, M Márquez
This study evaluated the potential antimicrobial properties of a polyguanidine (CatDex) on two oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1340 μmoL L(-1) (CHX 0.12%) was used as control. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were grown in BHI media. Bacterial sensitivity and antimicrobial activity were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer methods. To study side effects, that is, toxicity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were used. Fluorometric cytotoxicity and confocal microscopy assays were used in order to test cell viability...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537349/effects-of-topical-antiseptic-solutions-used-during-total-knee-arthroplasty-on-suture-tensile-strength
#20
Jared M Newman, Jaiben George, Jeffery T Shepherd, Alison K Klika, Carlos A Higuera, Viktor E Krebs
INTRODUCTION: Irrigating a surgical wound with an antiseptic solution is commonly performed while suturing following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to help prevent wound complications. The purpose of this study was to: 1) evaluate the mean load to failure of different sutures, and 2) compare the mean load to failure of the sutures after soaking in four different antiseptic solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Load-to-failure tests were conducted on four sets of comparable sutures (eight sutures) from two different companies Ethicon Inc...
May 24, 2017: Surgical Technology International
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