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Oriental medicine

Eun Jeong Jang, Sang Chan Kim, Ju-Hee Lee, Jong Rok Lee, Il Kon Kim, Su Youn Baek, Young Woo Kim
BACKGROUND: Laminaria japonica has frequently been used as a food supplement and drug in traditional oriental medicine. Among the major active constituents responsible for the bioactivities of L. japonica, fucoxanthin (FX) has been considered as a potential antioxidant. This study was conducted to examine the effects of L. japonica extract (LJE) or FX against oxidative stress on hepatocytes and to elucidate the overall their cellular mechanisms of the effects. METHODS: We constructed an in vitro model with the treatment of arachidonic acid (AA) + iron in HepG2 cells to stimulate the oxidative damage...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Clyde B Schechter, Aimee M Near, Jinani Jayasekera, Young Chandler, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
BACKGROUND: The Georgetown University-Albert Einstein College of Medicine breast cancer simulation model (Model GE) has evolved over time in structure and function to reflect advances in knowledge about breast cancer, improvements in early detection and treatment technology, and progress in computing resources. This article describes the model and provides examples of model applications. METHODS: The model is a discrete events microsimulation of single-life histories of women from multiple birth cohorts...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Yin Xiong, Yupiao Hu, Fan Li, Lijuan Chen, Qin Dong, Jiabo Wang, Elizabeth A Gullen, Yung-Chi Cheng, Xiaohe Xiao
BACKGROUND: Multiple constituents have been applied currently as markers to control the quality of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). However, those constituents are isolated from each other, failed to present their contribution differences to the bioeffect of CHM. Besides, a CHM for different clinic uses is often controlled by the same quality marker (Q-marker), which cannot correlate its efficacies differentially. PURPOSE: The study aims to promote the quality standard of CHM by the integrated and efficacy-oriented Q-marker of Effect-constituent Index (ECI)...
March 7, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Tae Hyun Ban, Ji-Won Min, Changhwan Seo, Da Rae Kim, Yu Ho Lee, Byung Ha Chung, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Jae Wook Lee, Beom Seok Kim, Sang-Ho Lee, Bum Soon Choi, Jin Suk Han, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: The true incidence of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is thought to be underestimated because numerous ingredients known or suspected to contain aristolochic acid (AA) are used in traditional medicine in Korea. Methods: We collected data on cases of AAN since 1996 via a database in Korea. We evaluated the year of AAN development, route to obtaining AA-containing herbal medicine, gender, reason for taking AA-containing herbal medicine, clinical manifestations, histological findings, phytochemical analysis, and prognosis of patients with AAN...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
M Austin Coker, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Russell W Read, Mark W Swanson, Laura E Dreer, Dawn K DeCarlo, Lindsay Gregg, Cynthia Owsley
Importance: The prevalence of irreversible vision impairment in the United States is expected to increase by 2050. Vision rehabilitation is the primary treatment option. Clinical trials have established its efficacy in improving quality of life. Yet studies indicate that patients experience many barriers to accessing low-vision care. Objectives: To examine the rate of referral for low-vision rehabilitation services by resident and attending ophthalmologists for adults with irreversible vision impairment and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of patients about vision rehabilitation...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Boon Phiaw Kho, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Ching Jou Lim, Fahad Saleem
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research were to determine extra-organisational challenges (e.g. market competition, governing policies) faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, the coping strategies employed to deal with these challenges and explore potential legislative changes that can attenuate the intensity of these challenges. METHODS: Survey questionnaires (n = 184) were posted to all eligible community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaire included sections on participants' demographic data, extra-organisational challenges faced, coping strategies employed and proposals to improve community pharmacy legislations...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Darija Cör, Željko Knez, Maša Knez Hrnčič
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Several of these substances belong to the triterpenoids and polysaccharides classes. Proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, etc. are also present...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seung-Heon Shin, Mi-Kyung Ye, Sung-Yong Choi, Kwan-Kyu Park
Bee venom (BV) has long been used as anti-inflammatory agent in traditional oriental medicine; however, the effect of BV on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is not commonly studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of BV on an allergic CRS mouse model. An allergic CRS mouse model was established following the administration of ovalbumin with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) into the nose. A total of 0.5 or 5 ng/ml of BV were intranasally applied 3 times a week for 8 weeks...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Cary Cuncic, Glenn Regehr, Heather Frost, Joanna Bates
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between preceptor and trainee is becoming recognized as a critical component of teaching, in particular in the negotiation of feedback and in the formation of professional identity. This paper elaborates on the nature of the relationships between preceptor and student that evolve in the context of rural longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs). METHODS: We drew on constructivist grounded theory for the research approach. We interviewed nine LIC family practice preceptors from three sites at one educational institution...
March 12, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Karthikeyan Mohanraj, Bagavathy Shanmugam Karthikeyan, R P Vivek-Ananth, R P Bharath Chand, S R Aparna, Pattulingam Mangalapandi, Areejit Samal
Phytochemicals of medicinal plants encompass a diverse chemical space for drug discovery. India is rich with a flora of indigenous medicinal plants that have been used for centuries in traditional Indian medicine to treat human maladies. A comprehensive online database on the phytochemistry of Indian medicinal plants will enable computational approaches towards natural product based drug discovery. In this direction, we present, IMPPAT, a manually curated database of 1742 Indian Medicinal Plants, 9596 Phytochemicals, And 1124 Therapeutic uses spanning 27074 plant-phytochemical associations and 11514 plant-therapeutic associations...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zsolt J Nagykaldi, Huibert Tange, Jan De Maeseneer
Electronic health records (EHRs) have been in place for decades; however, most existing systems were designed in the prevailing disease- and payment-focused care paradigm that often loses sight of the goals, needs, and values of patients and clinicians. The goal-directed health care model was proposed more than 20 years ago, but no design principles have been developed for corresponding electronic record systems. Newly designed EHRs are needed to facilitate health care that is anchored by patient life and health goals...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Anne Lelièvre, Stéphane Gérard, Sophie Hermabessière, Monique Martinez, Bruno Péran, Yves Rolland
Confronted with the growing incidence of age-related pathologies and the limits of so-called traditional medicine oriented towards the prescribing of medicines, non-pharmacological approaches have grown considerably in the geriatric community. A literature review focused on the therapeutic benefit of humour, laughter and the use of clowns on the physical and psychological health of elderly people.
March 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
M Douglas Jones, Traci Yamashita, Randal G Ross, Jennifer Gong
BACKGROUND: Although medical school programs oriented toward postgraduate specialty training have the potential to reduce the duration and cost of medical school for US medical students, success depends on the ability of students to predict their postgraduate specialties. It is clear that first-year choices are poorly predictive, but it is not known when predictions become sufficiently reliable to support specialty-oriented learning programs. We therefore examined the predictive value of specialty preferences expressed at the ends of the first, second and third years of medical school and asked whether concurrent expressions of confidence in choices improved predictive ability...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Mohammed Benadallah, Oualid Talhi, Fatiha Nouali, Nourredine Choukchou-Braham, Khaldoun Bachari, Artur M S Silva
The present review deals with the progress in medicinal chemistry of spirocyclic compounds, a wider class of natural and synthetic organic molecules, defined as a hybrid of two molecular entities covalently linked via a unique tetrahedral carbon. This spiro central carbon confers to the molecules a tridimensional structurally oriented framework, which is found in many medicinally relevant compounds, a well-known example is the anti-hypertensive spironolactone. Various bioactive natural products possess the privileged spiro linkage and different chemo-types thereof become synthetically accessible since the 20th century...
March 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Ernesto Amato, Antonio Italiano, Lucrezia Auditore, Sergio Baldari
The availability of a resource collecting dose factors for the evaluation of the absorbed doses from external exposure during the manipulation of radioactive substances is fundamental for radiological protection purposes. Monte Carlo simulations are useful for the accurate calculation of dose distributions in complex geometries, particularly in presence of extended spectra of multi-radiation sources. We considered, as possible irradiation scenarios, a point source, a uniform planar source resembling a contaminated surface, several source volumes contained in plastic or glass receptacles, and the direct skin contamination case, implementing the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations in GAMOS (GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations)...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Hadeel Alkhaneen, Faisal Alhusain, Khalid Alshahri, Nawfal Al Jerian
BACKGROUND: Choosing a medical specialty is a poorly understood process. Although studies conducted around the world have attempted to identify the factors that affect medical students' choice of specialty, data is scarce on the factors that influence the choice of specialty of Saudi Arabian medical students, in particular those planning a career in emergency medicine (EM). In this study, we investigated whether Saudi medical students choosing EM are influenced by different factors to those choosing other specialties...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
E V Sherstneva
The organization of curative institutions and their medicinal support was one of the main tasks of the departments (prikaz) of public charity. With this purpose hospital pharmacies were organized as pharmacies with free trading of medicinals to population oriented both to supplying prikaz institutions with medicinals and returning of income from selling medicinals to citizen. The medicinal support of prikaz hospitals was strictly regulated and restricted by strict financial limits. So, the prikaz institutions had no significant success in development of free trade of medicinals...
July 2017: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Arjun H Rash, Robert Sheldon, Maoliosa Donald, Cindy Eronmwon, Vikas P Kuriachan
BACKGROUND: Effective communication between the consultants and physicians form an integral foundation of effective and expert patient care. A broad review of the literature has not been undertaken to determine the components of a consultant's letter of most value to the referring physician. We aimed to identify the components of a consultant's letter preferred by referring physicians. METHODS: We searched Embase and MEDLINE (OVID) Medicine (EBM) Reviews and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for English articles with no restriction on initial date to January 6, 2017...
March 5, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
J Knapp, M Bernhard, T Haltmeier, D Bieler, B Hossfeld, M Kulla
Hemorrhage is the single largest cause of avoidable death in trauma patients, whereby in civil emergency medicine in Europe most life-threatening hemorrhages occur in the abdomen and the pelvis. This is one reason why endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (EBOA), a procedure especially established in vascular surgery, is increasingly propagated for rapid bleeding control in these patients. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the technique, indications, contraindications and complications of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA)...
March 5, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
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