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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934153/inhibitory-effect-of-selaginellins-from-selaginella-tamariscina-beauv-spring-against-cytochrome-p450-and-uridine-5-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase-isoforms-on-human-liver-microsomes
#1
Jae-Kyung Heo, Phi-Hung Nguyen, Won Cheol Kim, Nguyen Minh Phuc, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Selaginella tamariscina (Beauv.) has been used for traditional herbal medicine for treatment of cancer, hepatitis, and diabetes in the Orient. Numerous bioactive compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, and selaginellins have been identified in this medicinal plant. Among them, selaginellins having a quinone methide unit and an alkylphenol moiety have been known to possess anticancer, antidiabetic, and neuroprotective activity. Although there have been studies on the biological activities of selaginellins, their modulatory potential of cytochrome P450 (P450) and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities have not been previously evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930765/encouraging-reflexivity-in-a-residency-leadership-development-program-expanding-outside-the-competency-approach
#2
Justin T Clapp, Emily K B Gordon, Dimitry J Baranov, Beulah Trey, Felice Y Tilin, Lee A Fleisher
PROBLEM: While leadership development is increasingly a goal of academic medicine, it is typically framed as competency acquisition, which can limit its focus to a circumscribed set of social behaviors. This orientation may also reinforce the cultural characteristics of academic medicine that can make effective leadership difficult, rather than training leaders capable of examining and changing this culture. Expanding leadership development so it promotes social reflexivity presents a way to bolster some of the weaknesses of the competency paradigm...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930437/c-and-n-metalated-nitriles-the-relationship-between-structure-and-selectivity
#3
Xun Yang, Fraser F Fleming
Metalated nitriles are exceptional nucleophiles capable of forging highly hindered stereocenters in cases where enolates are unreactive. The excellent nucleophilicity emanates from the powerful inductive stabilization of adjacent negative charge by the nitrile, which has a miniscule steric demand. Inductive stabilization is the key to understanding the reactivity of metalated nitriles because this permits a continuum of structures that range from N-metalated ketenimines to nitrile anions. Solution and solid-state analyses reveal two different metal coordination sites, the formally anionic carbon and the nitrile nitrogen, with the site of metalation depending intimately on the solvent, counterion, temperature, and ligands...
September 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924506/automated-classification-of-tropical-shrub-species-a-hybrid-of-leaf-shape-and-machine-learning-approach
#4
Miraemiliana Murat, Siow-Wee Chang, Arpah Abu, Hwa Jen Yap, Kien-Thai Yong
Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921634/the-role-of-whole-brain-diffusion-mri-as-a-tool-for-studying-human-in-vivo-cortical-segregation-based-on-a-measure-of-neurite-density
#5
Fernando Calamante, Ben Jeurissen, Robert E Smith, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Alan Connelly
PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion MRI can be used to study cortical segregation based on a contrast related to neurite density, thus providing a complementary tool to myelin-based MRI techniques used for myeloarchitecture. METHODS: Several myelin-sensitive MRI methods (e.g., based on T1 , T2 , and T2*) have been proposed to parcellate cortical areas based on their myeloarchitecture. Recent improvements in hardware, acquisition, and analysis methods have opened the possibility of achieving a more robust characterization of cortical microstructure using diffusion MRI...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912113/mobile-augmented-reality-as-a-feature-for-self-oriented-blended-learning-in-medicine-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Christoph Noll, Ute von Jan, Ulrike Raap, Urs-Vito Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Advantages of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) application-based learning versus textbook-based learning were already shown in a previous study. However, it was unclear whether the augmented reality (AR) component was responsible for the success of the self-developed app or whether this was attributable to the novelty of using mobile technology for learning. OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to test the hypothesis whether there is no difference in learning success between learners who employed the mobile AR component and those who learned without it to determine possible effects of mAR...
September 14, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911817/natural-neuro-inflammatory-inhibitors-from-caragana-turfanensis
#7
Yan Song, Lan Pan, Wenjie Li, Yingying Si, Di Zhou, Chengjian Zheng, Xiaofang Hao, Xinyue Jia, Yuemei Jia, Minghui Shi, Xiaoguang Jia, Ning Li, Yue Hou
Because of the critical role of over-activated microglia in the progress of neurodegenerative diseases, it has been selected as a potential therapeutic target for drug discovery. In order to find natural neuroinflammatory inhibitors, we carried out a bioactivity-oriented phytochemical research of Caragana turfanensis Kom. (Krassn.), which is a folk medicine widely distributed in Xinjiang. As a result, a new coumarin lactone caraganolide A (1) and 35 known components were characterized from the effective extract of C...
August 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902615/irregular-analytical-errors-in-diagnostic-testing-a-novel-concept
#8
Michael Vogeser, Christoph Seger
BACKGROUND: In laboratory medicine, routine periodic analyses for internal and external quality control measurements interpreted by statistical methods are mandatory for batch clearance. Data analysis of these process-oriented measurements allows for insight into random analytical variation and systematic calibration bias over time. However, in such a setting, any individual sample is not under individual quality control. The quality control measurements act only at the batch level. Quantitative or qualitative data derived for many effects and interferences associated with an individual diagnostic sample can compromise any analyte...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901871/citizenship-and-learning-disabled-people-the-mental-health-charity-mind-s-1970s-campaign-in-historical%C3%A2-context
#9
Jonathan Toms
Current policy and practice directed towards people with learning disabilities originates in the deinstitutionalisation processes, civil rights concerns and integrationist philosophies of the 1970s and 1980s. However, historians know little about the specific contexts within which these were mobilised. Although it is rarely acknowledged in the secondary literature, MIND was prominent in campaigning for rights-based services for learning disabled people during this time. This article sets MIND's campaign within the wider historical context of the organisation's origins as a main institution of the inter-war mental hygiene movement...
October 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894084/tbx3-dependent-amplifying-stem-cell-progeny-drives-interfollicular-epidermal-expansion-during-pregnancy-and-regeneration
#10
Ryo Ichijo, Hiroki Kobayashi, Saori Yoneda, Yui Iizuka, Hirokazu Kubo, Shigeru Matsumura, Satsuki Kitano, Hitoshi Miyachi, Tetsuya Honda, Fumiko Toyoshima
The skin surface area varies flexibly in response to body shape changes. Skin homeostasis is maintained by stem cells residing in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. However, how the interfollicular epidermal stem cells response to physiological body shape changes remains elusive. Here, we identify a highly proliferative interfollicular epidermal basal cell population in the rapidly expanding abdominal skin of pregnant mice. These cells express Tbx3 that is necessary for their propagation to drive skin expansion...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891960/alterations-in-pharmacokinetics-of-gemcitabine-and-erlotinib-by-concurrent-administration-of-hyangsayukgunja-tang-a-gastroprotective-herbal-medicine
#11
Tae Hwan Kim, Soyoung Shin, Sarah Kim, Jürgen B Bulitta, Kwon-Yeon Weon, Sang Hoon Joo, Eunsook Ma, Sun Dong Yoo, Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Seok Won Jeong, Da Young Lee, Beom Soo Shin
Gemcitabine and erlotinib are the chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of various cancers and their combination is being accepted as a first-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Hyangsayukgunja-tang (HYT) is a traditional oriental medicine used in various digestive disorders and potentially helpful to treat gastrointestinal adverse effects related to chemotherapy. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of HYT on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and erlotinib given simultaneously in rats...
September 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890922/concept-and-benefits-of-the-inverted-classroom-method-for-a-competency-based-biochemistry-course-in-the-pre-clinical-stage-of-a-human-medicine-course-of-studies
#12
Susanne J Kühl, Matthias Toberer, Oliver Keis, Daniel Tolks, Martin R Fischer, Michael Kühl
Background: Medical students often have a problem recognising the relevance of basic science subjects for their later professional work in the pre-clinical stage of their studies. This can lead to a lower motivation to learn biochemical content and dissatisfaction in the courses amongst the students. Alternative teaching methods such as the Inverted Classroom (IC) method can address this deficiency. The goal of this study was: to analyse the motivation and satisfaction of the students in a biochemistry seminar through the use of the e-learning-based IC method, to investigate the acceptance against the IC teaching method in biochemistry, and to compare the learning success achieved using the IC approach with that of a traditional course...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881361/-practicals-in-a-psychiatric-clinic-for-occupational-orientation-in-pupils
#13
Annette Schaub, Kim Mueser, Ann-Kathrin Schmidt, Gabriele Koller, Peter Falkai
This pilot study investigates the implementation of a practical program for pupils including psychoeducation aimed to educate them about professions in psychiatry. 29 persons aged between 16-21 years were included in the program for vocational orientation at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Munich, from 2013-2016. The 1-2-week program provides information about job descriptions of psychologists and physicians. On average the pupils performed at M=2.75, SD=0.64 and they were motivated...
September 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880240/effect-of-sipjeondaebo-tang-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-s-1-an-anticancer-agent-in-rats-evaluated-by-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling
#14
Tae Hwan Kim, Soyoung Shin, Jeong Cheol Shin, Jürgen B Bulitta, Kwon-Yeon Weon, Sun Dong Yoo, Gi-Young Park, Seok Won Jeong, Dong Rak Kwon, Byung Sun Min, Mi Hee Woo, Beom Soo Shin
S-1 (TS-1(®)) is an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent containing tegafur, oteracil, and gimeracil. Sipjeondaebo-tang (SDT) is a traditional oriental herbal medicine that has potential to alleviate chemotherapy-related adverse effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SDT on the pharmacokinetics of S-1. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with a single dose or repeated doses of SDT for seven consecutive days (1200 mg/kg/day). After the completion of pretreatment with SDT, S-1 was orally administered and plasma concentrations of tegafur, its active metabolite 5-FU, and gimeracil were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)...
September 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877123/care-autonomy-and-gender-in-nursing-practice-a-historical-study-of-nurses-experiences
#15
Paola Galbany-Estragués, Dolors Comas-d'Argemir
BACKGROUND: Care is the essence of the nursing role and is closely related to the concept of professional autonomy. Autonomy is implicated in power relations between doctors and nurses and between men and women. These relationships are closely linked to care practices and the inequality of nursing and medicine. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze nursing discourse regarding the concept of care and its relationship to the concept of autonomy and gender...
October 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866067/fostering-student-interest-in-neurological-surgery-the-university-of-pittsburgh-experience
#16
Ahmed Kashkoush, Rafey Feroze, Stephanie Myal, Arpan V Prabhu, Alexandra Sansosti, Daniel Tonetti, Nitin Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Early involvement and research in neurosurgery can increase chances for medical students to successfully matriculate into residency. This study reports the creation of a Neurological Surgery Interest Group (NSIG) at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and shares its activities over two academic years. METHODS: In October 2014, the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's NSIG was created to augment medical student interest in neurosurgery...
August 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863163/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-aconitum-coreanum-and-aconitum-carmichaelii-and-comparative-analysis-with-other-aconitum-species
#17
Inkyu Park, Wook-Jin Kim, Sungyu Yang, Sang-Min Yeo, Hulin Li, Byeong Cheol Moon
Aconitum species (belonging to the Ranunculaceae) are well known herbaceous medicinal ingredients and have great economic value in Asian countries. However, there are still limited genomic resources available for Aconitum species. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast (cp) genomes of two Aconitum species, A. coreanum and A. carmichaelii, using the MiSeq platform. The two Aconitum chloroplast genomes were 155,880 and 157,040 bp in length, respectively, and exhibited LSC and SSC regions separated by a pair of inverted repeat regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859829/multi-model-based-interactive-authoring-environment-for-creating-shareable-medical-knowledge
#18
Taqdir Ali, Maqbool Hussain, Wajahat Ali Khan, Muhammad Afzal, Jamil Hussain, Rahman Ali, Waseem Hassan, Arif Jamshed, Byeong Ho Kang, Sungyoung Lee
OBJECTIVE: Technologically integrated healthcare environments can be realized if physicians are encouraged to use smart systems for the creation and sharing of knowledge used in clinical decision support systems (CDSS). While CDSSs are heading toward smart environments, they lack support for abstraction of technology-oriented knowledge from physicians. Therefore, abstraction in the form of a user-friendly and flexible authoring environment is required in order for physicians to create shareable and interoperable knowledge for CDSS workflows...
October 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856712/susceptibility-tensor-imaging-and-tractography-of-collagen-fibrils-in-the-articular-cartilage
#19
Hongjiang Wei, Eric Gibbs, Peida Zhao, Nian Wang, Gary P Cofer, Yuyao Zhang, G Allan Johnson, Chunlei Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the B0 orientation-dependent magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage and to determine whether susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) can detect the 3D collagen network within cartilage. METHODS: Multiecho gradient echo datasets (100-μm isotropic resolution) were acquired from fixed porcine articular cartilage specimens at 9.4 T. The susceptibility tensor was calculated using phase images acquired at 12 or 15 different orientations relative to B0 ...
August 30, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855044/sexual-behavior-in-germany
#20
Julia Haversath, Kathrin M Gärttner, Sören Kliem, Ilka Vasterling, Bernhard Strauss, Christoph Kröger
BACKGROUND: There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. METHODS: Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception...
August 21, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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