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hierarchical temporal memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067330/differential-medial-temporal-lobe-morphometric-predictors-of-item-and-relational-encoded-memories-in-healthy-individuals-and-in-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Jesus J Gomar, J Daniel Ragland, Aziz M Uluğ, Amber Sousa, Edward D Huey, Concepcion Conejero-Goldberg, Peter Davies, Terry E Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Episodic memory processes are supported by different subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). In contrast to a unitary model of memory recognition supported solely by the hippocampus, a current model suggests that item encoding engages perirhinal cortex, whereas relational encoding engages parahippocampal cortex and the hippocampus. However, this model has not been examined in the context of aging, neurodegeneration, and MTL morphometrics. METHODS: Forty-four healthy subjects (HSs) and 18 cognitively impaired subjects (nine mild cognitive impairment [MCI] and nine Alzheimer's disease [AD] patients) were assessed with the relational and item-specific encoding task (RISE) and underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981593/a-new-modular-brain-organization-of-the-bold-signal-during-natural-vision
#2
DoHyun Kim, Kendrick Kay, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The resting blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal is synchronized in large-scale brain networks (resting-state networks, RSNs) defined by interregional temporal correlations (functional connectivity, FC). RSNs are thought to place strong constraints on task-evoked processing since they largely match the networks observed during task performance. However, this result may simply reflect the presence of spontaneous activity during both rest and task. Here, we examined the BOLD network structure of natural vision, as simulated by viewing of movies, using procedures that minimized the contribution of spontaneous activity...
July 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899757/segmentation-of-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-in-the-human-brain-a-white-matter-dissection-and-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#3
Francesco Latini, Johanna Mårtensson, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Fredrik Åhs, Mats Hjortberg, Håkan Aldskogius, Mats Ryttlefors
The inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) is one of the major occipital-temporal association pathways. Several studies have mapped its hierarchical segmentation to specific functions. There is, however, no consensus regarding a detailed description of ILF fibre organisation. The aim of this study was to establish whether the ILF has a constant number of subcomponents. A secondary aim was to determine the quantitative diffusion proprieties of each subcomponent and assess their anatomical trajectories and connectivity patterns...
November 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832599/temporal-and-spatial-correlation-patterns-of-air-pollutants-in-chinese-cities
#4
Yue-Hua Dai, Wei-Xing Zhou
As a huge threat to the public health, China's air pollution has attracted extensive attention and continues to grow in tandem with the economy. Although the real-time air quality report can be utilized to update our knowledge on air quality, questions about how pollutants evolve across time and how pollutants are spatially correlated still remain a puzzle. In view of this point, we adopt the PMFG network method to analyze the six pollutants' hourly data in 350 Chinese cities in an attempt to find out how these pollutants are correlated temporally and spatially...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774647/discrimination-of-a-medial-functional-module-within-the-temporal-lobe-using-an-effective-connectivity-model-a-ccep-study
#5
Julien Krieg, Laurent Koessler, Jacques Jonas, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Christian G Bénar, Louis G Maillard
The temporal lobe is classically divided in two functional systems: the ventral visual pathway and the medial temporal memory system. However, their functional separation has been challenged by studies suggesting that the medial temporal lobe could be best understood as an extension of the hierarchically organized ventral visual pathway. Our purpose was to investigate (i) whether cerebral regions within the temporal lobe could be grouped into distinct functional assemblies, and (ii) which regions were central within these functional assemblies...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767373/mixed-neural-network-approach-for-temporal-sleep-stage-classification
#6
Hao Dong, Akara Supratak, Wei Pan, Chao Wu, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
This paper proposes a practical approach to addressing limitations posed by using of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) for sleep stage classification. EEG-based characterizations of sleep stage progression contribute the diagnosis and monitoring of the many pathologies of sleep. Several prior reports explored ways of automating the analysis of sleep EEG and of reducing the complexity of the data needed for reliable discrimination of sleep stages at lower cost in the home. However, these reports have involved recordings from electrodes placed on the cranial vertex or occiput, which are both uncomfortable and difficult to position...
July 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728021/memory-takes-time
#7
REVIEW
Nikolay Vadimovich Kukushkin, Thomas James Carew
Memory is an adaptation to particular temporal properties of past events, such as the frequency of occurrence of a stimulus or the coincidence of multiple stimuli. In neurons, this adaptation can be understood in terms of a hierarchical system of molecular and cellular time windows, which collectively retain information from the past. We propose that this system makes various timescales of past experience simultaneously available for future adjustment of behavior. More generally, we propose that the ability to detect and respond to temporally structured information underlies the nervous system's capacity to encode and store a memory at molecular, cellular, synaptic, and circuit levels...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641120/the-cognitive-bases-of-the-development-of-past-and-future-episodic-cognition-in-preschoolers
#8
Gülten Ünal, Annette Hohenberger
The aim of this study was to use a minimalist framework to examine the joint development of past and future episodic cognition and their underlying cognitive abilities in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish preschoolers. Participants engaged in two main tasks, a what-where-when (www) task to measure episodic memory and a future prediction task to measure episodic future thinking. Three additional tasks were used for predicting children's performance in the two main tasks: a temporal language task, an executive function task, and a spatial working memory task...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602963/brain-activity-related-to-working-memory-for-temporal-order-and-object-information
#9
Brooke M Roberts, Laura A Libby, Marika C Inhoff, Charan Ranganath
Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505471/a-prospective-examination-of-risk-factors-in-the-development-of-intrusions-following-a-trauma-analog
#10
Adam J Ripley, Joshua D Clapp, J Gayle Beck
Several factors have been linked to the severity of posttraumatic distress, although retrospective designs in much of the literature limit conclusions regarding the temporal relation between risk factors and corresponding symptoms. To address these concerns, the current project employed an analog trauma paradigm to assess the impact of background characteristics, stress response, and post-stressor affect regulation on subjective distress and intrusive memories experienced during the subsequent processing of emotional stimuli...
July 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397076/neural-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-auditory-cortex-during-speech-production
#11
Kayoko Okada, William Matchin, Gregory Hickok
Recent models of speech production suggest that motor commands generate forward predictions of the auditory consequences of those commands, that these forward predications can be used to monitor and correct speech output, and that this system is hierarchically organized (Hickok, Houde, & Rong, Neuron, 69(3), 407--422, 2011; Pickering & Garrod, Behavior and Brain Sciences, 36(4), 329--347, 2013). Recent psycholinguistic research has shown that internally generated speech (i.e., imagined speech) produces different types of errors than does overt speech (Oppenheim & Dell, Cognition, 106(1), 528--537, 2008; Oppenheim & Dell, Memory & Cognition, 38(8), 1147-1160, 2010)...
April 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362614/htm-spatial-pooler-with-memristor-crossbar-circuits-for-sparse-biometric-recognition
#12
Alex Pappachen James, Irina Fedorova, Timur Ibrayev, Dhireesha Kudithipudi
Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) is an online machine learning algorithm that emulates the neo-cortex. The development of a scalable on-chip HTM architecture is an open research area. The two core substructures of HTM are spatial pooler and temporal memory. In this work, we propose a new Spatial Pooler circuit design with parallel memristive crossbar arrays for the 2D columns. The proposed design was validated on two different benchmark datasets, face recognition, and speech recognition. The circuits are simulated and analyzed using a practical memristor device model and 0...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195521/a-computational-model-of-perceptual-and-mnemonic-deficits-in-medial-temporal-lobe-amnesia
#13
Patrick S Sadil, Rosemary A Cowell
Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been known to impair declarative memory, and recent evidence suggests that it also impairs visual perception. A theory termed the representational-hierarchical account explains such impairments by assuming that MTL stores conjunctive representations of items and events, and that individuals with MTL damage must rely upon representations of simple visual features in posterior visual cortex, which are inadequate to support memory and perception under certain circumstances...
June 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159686/frequency-specific-electrophysiologic-correlates-of-resting-state-fmri-networks
#14
Carl D Hacker, Abraham Z Snyder, Mrinal Pahwa, Maurizio Corbetta, Eric C Leuthardt
Resting state functional MRI (R-fMRI) studies have shown that slow (<0.1Hz), intrinsic fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal are temporally correlated within hierarchically organized functional systems known as resting state networks (RSNs) (Doucet et al., 2011). Most broadly, this hierarchy exhibits a dichotomy between two opposed systems (Fox et al., 2005). One system engages with the environment and includes the visual, auditory, and sensorimotor (SMN) networks as well as the dorsal attention network (DAN), which controls spatial attention...
April 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088041/the-role-of-the-ifg-and-psts-in-syntactic-prediction-evidence-from-a-parametric-study-of-hierarchical-structure-in-fmri
#15
William Matchin, Christopher Hammerly, Ellen Lau
Sentences encode hierarchical structural relations among words. Several neuroimaging experiments aiming to localize combinatory operations responsible for creating this structure during sentence comprehension have contrasted short, simple phrases and sentences to unstructured controls. Some of these experiments have revealed activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), associating these regions with basic syntactic combination. However, the wide variability of these effects across studies raises questions about this interpretation...
March 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994564/the-temporal-order-of-word-presentation-modulates-the-amplitudes-of-p2-and-n400-during-recognition-of-causal-relations
#16
Xiuling Liang, Feng Xiao, Lijun Wu, Qingfei Chen, Yi Lei, Hong Li
The processing of causal relations has been constantly found to be asymmetrical once the roles of cause and effect are assigned to objects in interactions. We used a relationship recognition paradigm and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to explore the neural mechanism underlying the asymmetrical representations of causal relations in semantic memory. The results revealed that the verification of causal relations is faster if two words appear in "cause-effect" order (e.g., virus-epidemic) than if they appear in "effect-cause" order (e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940303/neural-representation-of-a-melodic-motif-effects-of-polyphonic-contexts
#17
Madeline Huberth, Takako Fujioka
In music, a melodic motif is often played repeatedly in different pitch ranges and at different times. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects memory trace processing that encodes two separate melodic lines ("voices") with different motifs. Here we investigated whether a single motif presented in two voices is encoded as a single entity or two separate entities, and whether motifs overlapping in time impede or enhance encoding strength. Electroencephalogram (EEG) from 11 musically-trained participants was recorded while they passively listened to sequences of 5-note motifs where the 5th note either descended (standard) or ascended (deviant) relative to the previous note (20% deviant rate)...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930903/brain-mechanisms-underlying-the-brief-maintenance-of-seen-and-unseen-sensory-information
#18
Jean-Rémi King, Niccolo Pescetelli, Stanislas Dehaene
Recent evidence of unconscious working memory challenges the notion that only visible stimuli can be actively maintained over time. In the present study, we investigated the neural dynamics underlying the maintenance of variably visible stimuli using magnetoencephalography. Subjects had to detect and mentally maintain the orientation of a masked grating. We show that the stimulus is fully encoded in early brain activity independently of visibility reports. However, the presence and orientation of the target are actively maintained throughout the brief retention period, even when the stimulus is reported as unseen...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891101/spatio-temporal-structure-path-characteristics-and-perceptual-grouping-in-immediate-serial-spatial-recall
#19
Carlo De Lillo, Melissa Kirby, Daniel Poole
Immediate serial spatial recall measures the ability to retain sequences of locations in short-term memory and is considered the spatial equivalent of digit span. It is tested by requiring participants to reproduce sequences of movements performed by an experimenter or displayed on a monitor. Different organizational factors dramatically affect serial spatial recall but they are often confounded or underspecified. Untangling them is crucial for the characterization of working-memory models and for establishing the contribution of structure and memory capacity to spatial span...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713712/vowels-and-consonants-in-the-brain-evidence-from-magnetoencephalographic-studies-on-the-n1m-in-normal-hearing-listeners
#20
REVIEW
Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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