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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453588/-diverticular-disease-myths-and-realities
#1
Daniela Fluxá, Rodrigo Quera
Diverticulosis and diverticular disease of the colon are common conditions in Western countries. The incidence and prevalence of these diseases are increasing and becoming significant for health systems. A growing body of knowledge is shifting the paradigm of the pathogenesis and treatment of diverticular disease. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors leading to diverticular disease. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than 10 to 25%...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453386/collateral-damage-during-antibiotic-treatment-of-c-difficile-infection-in-the-aged-host-insights-into-why-recurrent-disease-happens
#2
Jae Hyun Shin, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections but an even bigger problem for the aging population. Advanced age leads to higher incidence, higher mortality, and higher recurrences. In our study, recently published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, we investigated the effect of aging on CDI using a mouse model. We were able to demonstrate that aging leads to worse clinical outcomes, as well as lead to changes in microbiota composition and lower antibody production against C...
April 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453272/bacterial-iron-uptake-pathways-gates-for-the-import-of-bactericide-compounds
#3
Isabelle J Schalk, Gaëtan L A Mislin
Bacterial resistance to most antibiotics in clinical use has reached alarming proportions. A challenge for modern medicine will be to discover new antibiotics or strategies to combat multidrug resistant bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria for which the situation is particularly critical. Vectorization of bactericide compounds by siderophores (iron chelators produced by bacteria) is a promising strategy able to considerably increase the efficacy of drugs. Such a Trojan horse strategy can also extend activity of specific Gram-positive antibiotics to Gram-negative bacteria...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449019/the-clear-and-present-danger-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe-in-new-zealand-time-for-a-national-response-plan
#4
Matthew Blakiston, Helen Heffernan, Sally Roberts, Joshua Freeman
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in general poses a threat to the sustainability of modern healthcare, but a particularly urgent and serious threat is posed by a specific group of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). CPE are resistant to nearly all antibiotics and include common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In New Zealand, the incidence of CPE has increased from three isolates in 2012 to 45 in 2016. The current epidemiology of CPE in New Zealand has similarities with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) epidemic in the early 2000s (just before ESBL-PE underwent a non-linear increase in incidence)...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448616/abundance-profiling-of-specific-gene-groups-using-precomputed-gut-metagenomes-yields-novel-biological-hypotheses
#5
Konstantin Yarygin, Alexander Tyakht, Andrey Larin, Elena Kostryukova, Sergei Kolchenko, Vilgelm Bitner, Dmitry Alexeev
The gut microbiota is essentially a multifunctional bioreactor within a human being. The exploration of its enormous metabolic potential provides insights into the mechanisms underlying microbial ecology and interactions with the host. The data obtained using "shotgun" metagenomics capture information about the whole spectrum of microbial functions. However, each new study presenting new sequencing data tends to extract only a little of the information concerning the metabolic potential and often omits specific functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448203/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-evaluating-prophylactic-intra-operative-wound-irrigation-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections
#6
Stijn W de Jonge, Quirine J J Boldingh, Joseph S Solomkin, Benedetta Allegranzi, Matthias Egger, E Patchen Dellinger, Marja A Boermeester
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. To reduce SSIs, prophylactic intra-operative wound irrigation (pIOWI) has been advocated, although the results to date are equivocal. To develop recommendations for the new World Health Organization (WHO) SSI prevention guidelines, a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis were conducted on the effectiveness of pIOWI using different agents as a means of reducing SSI. METHODS: The PUBMED, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and WHO databases were searched...
April 27, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447700/evolution-inspired-engineering-of-antibiotic-biosynthesis-enzymes
#7
M Metsä-Ketelä
Streptomyces soil bacteria are competent chemists that are able to produce thousands of chemically complex natural products. Key to the development of this rich source of metabolites appears to be an evolutionary pressure that promotes chemical diversity; new biosynthetic pathways are continuously being formed in these bacteria, which may result in the appearance of a novel bioactive compound that provides significant competitive advantage to the producing organism. In recent years, our work has focused on understanding how minor changes in the biosynthetic enzymes has led to drastically altered catalytic properties...
April 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447299/vancomycin-loaded-hpmc-microparticles-embedded-within-injectable-thermosensitive-chitosan-hydrogels
#8
M Mahmoudian, F Ganji
Antibiotic use is an essential method for the treatment of bacterial infections. In certain cases, antibiotics are not effective because of the distribution problems caused by physiological barriers in the body. Such problems are thought to be minimized by development of sustained release systems which involve implantation of antibiotic loaded polymeric systems directly to the site of infection. In this work, a new composite vancomycin hydrochloride release system based on HPMC microparticles and chitosan/glycerophosphate (Ch/Gp) thermosensitive hydrogel was designed for the aim of local treatment of osteomyelitis...
April 26, 2017: Progress in biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446507/the-microbiota-a-new-variable-impacting-cancer-treatment-outcomes
#9
Jessica L Fessler, Thomas F Gajewski
Preclinical evidence has established that the host commensal microbiota can contribute to therapeutic response in cancer models, a finding supported by early clinical data.  This connection between the microbiome and clinical outcome in oncology is cause for new consideration in the administration of antibiotics and microbiota-modulating interventions to improve outcomes.
April 26, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446177/the-susceptibility-to-fosfomycin-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-czech-republic-data-from-a-unicentric-study
#10
Miroslav Fajfr, Miroslav Louda, Pavla Paterová, Lenka Ryšková, Jaroslav Pacovský, Josef Košina, Helena Žemličková, Miloš Broďák
BACKGROUND: Against a background of rapid increase of β-lactamase-producing or multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria and the resulting lack of effective antibiotic treatment, some older antibiotics have been tested for new therapeutic uses. One of these is fosfomycin, to which according to studies these resistant bacteria are very sensitive. Our study was designed because there is no data on the fosfomycin susceptibility rate in the Czech Republic. METHOD: In this study from January 2013 to June 2014 3295 unique isolates of Gram-negative bacteria which had caused urinary tract infections were examined...
April 26, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445757/action-of-antimicrobial-peptides-on-bacterial-and-lipid-membranes-a-direct-comparison
#11
Joseph E Faust, Pei-Yin Yang, Huey W Huang
The bacterial membrane represents an attractive target for the design of new antibiotics to combat widespread bacterial resistance. Understanding how antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other membrane-active agents attack membranes could facilitate the design of new, effective antimicrobials. Despite intense study of AMPs on model membranes, we do not know how well the mechanism of attack translates to real biological membranes. To that end, we have characterized the attack of AMPs on Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membranes and directly compared this action to model membranes...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444587/solid-state-fermentation-ssf-diversity-of-applications-to-valorize-waste-and-biomass
#12
REVIEW
M A Lizardi-Jiménez, R Hernández-Martínez
Solid state fermentation is currently used in a range of applications including classical applications, such as enzyme or antibiotic production, recently developed products, such as bioactive compounds and organic acids, new trends regarding bioethanol and biodiesel as sources of alternative energy, and biosurfactant molecules with environmental purposes of valorising unexploited biomass. This work summarizes the diversity of applications of solid state fermentation to valorize biomass regarding alternative energy and environmental purposes...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444354/easy-assessment-of-levofloxacin-and-minocycline-in-relevant-biomimetic-media-by-hplc-uv-analysis
#13
Ana C Matos, Rosana V Pinto, Ana F Bettencourt
Simple, economic and environmental friendly high-performance liquid chromatography methods for levofloxacin and minocycline quantification in biomimetic media were developed and validate including their stability at body temperature, an often neglected evaluation parameter. Both methods are similar only differing in the wavelength setting, i.e., for levofloxacin and minocycline quantification the UV detection was set at 284 and at 273 nm, respectively. The separation of both antibiotics was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (15:85) with 0...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443586/salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-liver-abscess-after-blunt-abdominal-trauma
#14
Agata Ladic, Igor Petrovic, Ante Gojevic, Emil Kinda, Ivo Coza
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is among the most reported serotypes of Salmonella species worldwide, but rarely reported as the causative agent of a liver abscess. CASE REPORT: We present a patient with an abdominal blunt trauma. An initial abdominal CT scan revealed rupture of the right kidney and of the liver. Two days later, his physical state deteriorated and a new CT scan was obtained. An eight-centimetre large liver abscess was verified...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443279/analogs-of-the-frog-skin-antimicrobial-peptide-temporin-1tb-exhibit-a-wider-spectrum-of-activity-and-a-stronger-antibiofilm-potential-as-compared-to-the-parental-peptide
#15
Lucia Grassi, Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Giuseppe Maccari, Semih Esin, Giovanna Batoni
The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogs against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogs, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analog designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443249/francisella-tularensis-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-data-obtained-in-vitro-and-in-animal-models
#16
REVIEW
Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
The antibiotic classes that are recommended for tularaemia treatment are the aminoglycosides, the fluoroquinolones and the tetracyclines. However, cure rates vary between 60 and 100% depending on the antibiotic used, the time to appropriate antibiotic therapy setup and its duration, and the presence of complications, such as lymph node suppuration. Thus, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of F. tularensis strains remains of primary importance for detection of the emergence of antibiotic resistances to first-line drugs, and to test new therapeutic alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442758/an-amidase_3-domain-containing-n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine-amidase-is-required-for-mycobacterial-cell-division
#17
Sibusiso Senzani, Dong Li, Ashima Bhaskar, Christopher Ealand, James Chang, Binayak Rimal, Chengyin Liu, Sung Joon Kim, Neeraj Dhar, Bavesh Kana
Mycobacteria possess a multi-layered cell wall that requires extensive remodelling during cell division. We investigated the role of an amidase_3 domain-containing N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, a peptidoglycan remodelling enzyme implicated in cell division. We demonstrated that deletion of MSMEG_6281 (Ami1) in Mycobacterium smegmatis resulted in the formation of cellular chains, illustrative of cells that were unable to complete division. Suprisingly, viability in the Δami1 mutant was maintained through atypical lateral branching, the products of which proceeded to form viable daughter cells...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442708/the-complete-12%C3%A2-mb-genome-and-transcriptome-of-nonomuraea-gerenzanensis-with-new-insights-into-its-duplicated-magic-rna-polymerase
#18
Valeria D'Argenio, Mauro Petrillo, Daniela Pasanisi, Caterina Pagliarulo, Roberta Colicchio, Adelfia Talà, Maria Stella de Biase, Mario Zanfardino, Emanuela Scolamiero, Chiara Pagliuca, Antonio Gaballo, Annunziata Gaetana Cicatiello, Piergiuseppe Cantiello, Irene Postiglione, Barbara Naso, Angelo Boccia, Miriana Durante, Luca Cozzuto, Paola Salvatore, Giovanni Paolella, Francesco Salvatore, Pietro Alifano
In contrast to the widely accepted consensus of the existence of a single RNA polymerase in bacteria, several actinomycetes have been recently shown to possess two forms of RNA polymerases due the to co-existence of two rpoB paralogs in their genome. However, the biological significance of the rpoB duplication is obscure. In this study we have determined the genome sequence of the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic A40926 producer Nonomuraea gerenzanensis ATCC 39727, an actinomycete with a large genome and two rpoB genes, i...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442606/the-exit-strategy-an-approach-for-identifying-bacterial-proteins-exported-during-host-infection
#19
E F Perkowski, K E Zulauf, D Weerakoon, J D Hayden, T R Ioerger, D Oreper, S M Gomez, J C Sacchettini, M Braunstein
Exported proteins of bacterial pathogens function both in essential physiological processes and in virulence. Past efforts to identify exported proteins were limited by the use of bacteria growing under laboratory (in vitro) conditions. Thus, exported proteins that are exported only or preferentially in the context of infection may be overlooked. To solve this problem, we developed a genome-wide method, named EXIT (exported in vivotechnology), to identify proteins that are exported by bacteria during infection and applied it to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during murine infection...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441360/erythromycin-modification-that-improves-its-acidic-stability-while-optimizing-it-for-local-drug-delivery
#20
Erika L Cyphert, Jaqueline D Wallat, Jonathan K Pokorski, Horst A von Recum
The antibiotic erythromycin has limited efficacy and bioavailability due to its instability and conversion under acidic conditions via an intramolecular dehydration reaction. To improve the stability of erythromycin, several analogs have been developed-such as azithromycin and clarithromycin-which decrease the rate of intramolecular dehydration. We set out to build upon this prior work by developing a conjugate of erythromycin with improved pH stability, bioavailability, and preferential release from a drug delivery system directly at the low pH of an infection site...
April 25, 2017: Antibiotics
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