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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914058/osprey-predicts-resistance-mutations-using-positive-and-negative-computational-protein-design
#2
Adegoke Ojewole, Anna Lowegard, Pablo Gainza, Stephanie M Reeve, Ivelin Georgiev, Amy C Anderson, Bruce R Donald
Drug resistance in protein targets is an increasingly common phenomenon that reduces the efficacy of both existing and new antibiotics. However, knowledge of future resistance mutations during pre-clinical phases of drug development would enable the design of novel antibiotics that are robust against not only known resistant mutants, but also against those that have not yet been clinically observed. Computational structure-based protein design (CSPD) is a transformative field that enables the prediction of protein sequences with desired biochemical properties such as binding affinity and specificity to a target...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911822/urban-park-soil-microbiomes-are-a-rich-reservoir-of-natural-product-biosynthetic-diversity
#3
Zachary Charlop-Powers, Clara C Pregitzer, Christophe Lemetre, Melinda A Ternei, Jeffrey Maniko, Bradley M Hover, Paula Y Calle, Krista L McGuire, Jeanne Garbarino, Helen M Forgione, Sarah Charlop-Powers, Sean F Brady
Numerous therapeutically relevant small molecules have been identified from the screening of natural products (NPs) produced by environmental bacteria. These discovery efforts have principally focused on culturing bacteria from natural environments rich in biodiversity. We sought to assess the biosynthetic capacity of urban soil environments using a phylogenetic analysis of conserved NP biosynthetic genes amplified directly from DNA isolated from New York City park soils. By sequencing genes involved in the biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides and polyketides, we found that urban park soil microbiomes are both rich in biosynthetic diversity and distinct from nonurban samples in their biosynthetic gene composition...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910758/antimicrobial-coumarins-from-the-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus-agaricomycetes-from-kenya
#4
Lilechi D Baraza, Wekesa Neser, Korir Cheruiyot Jackson, Juma B Fredrick, Ochieno Dennis, Kamau R Wairimu, Aggrey Osogo Keya, Matthias Heydenreich
Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely used as food because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. These have been attributed to the presence of macronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, among other secondary metabolites. There are, however, few reports on the antimicrobial activities of different classes of purified compounds from P. ostreatus. This led to the current study, the objective of which was to chemically characterize the antibiotic activities of P. ostreatus against selected human pathogenic bacteria and endophytic fungi...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909820/genomic-analysis-reveals-the-presence-of-a-class-d-beta-lactamase-with-broad-substrate-specificity-in-animal-bite-associated-capnocytophaga-species
#5
S Zangenah, A F Andersson, V Özenci, P Bergman
Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. stomatis, mainly associated with wound infections. The first-line treatment of animal bite related infections is penicillin, and in case of allergy, doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, there is a lack of antibiotic susceptibility patterns for animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909484/lyme-arrhythmia-in-an-avid-golfer-a-diagnostic-challenge-and-a-therapeutic-dilemma
#6
Ujjwal Rastogi, Dr Nidhi Kumars
Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder affecting dermatologic, cardiac, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Cardiac manifestations occur in about 5% of Lyme infections and stem from the involvement of the cardiac conduction system, resulting in varying degrees of sino-atrioventricular block. Occasionally, Lyme infection may also present with myopericarditis. Unlike isolated conduction node disease, myocardial involvement presents a great diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for the physician. We report the case of a 68 year-old male cardiologist who presented with new onset exertional dyspnea and palpitations...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909433/sponge-microbiota-are-a-reservoir-of-functional-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#7
Dennis Versluis, Mari Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Morten O A Sommer, Detmer Sipkema, Hauke Smidt, Mark W J van Passel
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#8
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908328/the-new-usual-care
#9
REVIEW
Jared Radbel, Daniel Boutsikaris
Recent literature continues to refine which components of the early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) algorithm are necessary. Given it utilizes central venous pressure, continuous central venous oxygen saturation, routine blood transfusions, and inotropic medications, this algorithm can be timely, invasive, costly, and potentially harmful. New trials highlight early recognition, early fluid resuscitation, appropriate antibiotic treatment, source control, and the application of a multidisciplinary evidence-based approach as essential components of current sepsis management...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908240/new-fluorescent-macrolide-derivatives-for-studying-interactions-of-antibiotics-and-their-analogs-with-the-ribosomal-exit-tunnel
#10
A G Tereshchenkov, A V Shishkina, V V Karpenko, V A Chertkov, A L Konevega, P S Kasatsky, A A Bogdanov, N V Sumbatyan
Novel fluorescent derivatives of macrolide antibiotics related to tylosin bearing rhodamine, fluorescein, Alexa Fluor 488, BODIPY FL, and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) residues were synthesized. The formation of complexes of these compounds with 70S E. coli ribosomes was studied by measuring the fluorescence polarization depending on the ribosome amount at constant concentration of the fluorescent substance. With the synthesized fluorescent tylosin derivatives, the dissociation constants for ribosome complexes with several known antibiotics and macrolide analogs previously obtained were determined...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907154/pheromone-recognition-and-selectivity-by-comr-proteins-among-streptococcus-species
#11
Erin Shanker, Donald A Morrison, Antoine Talagas, Sylvie Nessler, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna
Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS) mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS) that is processed (XIP), secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907030/sensitive-and-simplified-detection-of-antibiotic-influence-on-the-dynamic-and-versatile-changes-of-fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids
#12
Xiaoya Zhao, Zhenzuo Jiang, Fan Yang, Yan Wang, Xiumei Gao, Yuefei Wang, Xin Chai, Guixiang Pan, Yan Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907029/long-term-stable-and-tightly-controlled-expression-of-recombinant-proteins-in-antibiotics-free-conditions
#13
Soo-Jin Yeom, Dae-Hee Lee, Yu Jung Kim, Jeongmin Lee, Kil Koang Kwon, Gui Hwan Han, Haseong Kim, Hak-Sung Kim, Seung-Goo Lee
Plasmid-based gene expression is a fundamental tool in the field of biotechnology. However, overexpression of genes of interest with multi-copy plasmids often causes detrimental effects on host cells. To overcome this problem, chromosomal integration of target genes has been used for decades; however, insufficient protein expression occurred with this method. In this study, we developed a novel cloning and expression system named the chromosomal vector (ChroV) system, that has features of stable and high expression of target genes on the F' plasmid in the Escherichia coli JM109(DE3) strain...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906436/iliac-crest-bone-graft-a-23-years-hystory-of-infection-at-donor-site-in-vertebral-arthrodesis-and-a-review-of-current-bone-substitutes
#14
L Babbi, G Barbanti-Brodano, A Gasbarrini, S Boriani
OBJECTIVE: This is an exemplary case report underlining a relevant morbidity which could be associated to the use of autologous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) for spine fusion. CASE REPORT: Starting from 1990, a 25-years-old woman underwent two subsequent surgical treatments for non-Hodgkin lymphoma vertebral localizations. In the second surgery, arthrodesis was obtained with autograft through right posterior iliac crest osteotomy. During the chemotherapy treatment following the surgery, the patient suffered from infection at posterior iliac crest scar, the site of previous graft, caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906145/nitrobacter-sp-extract-mediated-biosynthesis-of-ag2o-nps-with-excellent-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-potential-for-biomedical-application
#15
Gopalu Karunakaran, Matheswaran Jagathambal, Alexander Gusev, Nguyen Van Minh, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Arup Ratan Mandal, Denis Kuznetsov
In this study, extracellular extract of plant growth promoting bacterium, Nitrobacter sp. is used for the bioconversion of AgNO3 (silver nitrate) into Ag2O (silver oxide nanoparticles). It is an easy, ecofriendly and single step method for Ag2O NPs synthesis. The bio-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using different techniques. UV-Vis results showed the maximum absorbance around 450 nm. XRD result shows the particles to have faced centered cubic (fcc) crystalline nature. FTIR analysis reveals the functional groups that are involved in bioconversion such as C-N, N-H and C=O...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906139/myxobacteria-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-impregnation-in-wrapping-paper-used-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-apples
#16
Swati Bhople, Swapnil Gaikwad, Swapna Deshmukh, Shital Bonde, Aniket Gade, Sanjib Sen, Anna Brezinska, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
The authors report Myxobacteria virescens (M. virescens) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-33591), Salmonella typhi (ATCC-51812), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC-14948), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-4030) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-4673). The organism exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics showed remarkable sensitivity, when used in combination of antibiotics and AgNPs. Antimicrobial property of AgNPs is playing a significant role in medicine and food storage...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905486/biochemical-and-structural-analysis-of-a-novel-esterase-from-caulobacter-crescentus-related-to-penicillin-binding-protein-pbp
#17
Bum Han Ryu, Tri Duc Ngo, Wanki Yoo, Sojeong Lee, Boo-Young Kim, Euijoo Lee, Kyeong Kyu Kim, T Doohun Kim
Considering that the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria is largely increasing, a thorough understanding of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) is of great importance and crucial significance because this enzyme family is a main target of β-lactam-based antibiotics. In this work, combining biochemical and structural analysis, we present new findings that provide novel insights into PBPs. Here, a novel PBP homologue (CcEstA) from Caulobacter crescentus CB15 was characterized using native-PAGE, mass spectrometry, gel filtration, CD spectroscopy, fluorescence, reaction kinetics, and enzyme assays toward various substrates including nitrocefin...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904885/a-novel-protective-vaccine-antigen-from-the-core-escherichia-coli-genome
#18
Danilo G Moriel, Lendl Tan, Kelvin G K Goh, Minh-Duy Phan, Deepak S Ipe, Alvin W Lo, Kate M Peters, Glen C Ulett, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Escherichia coli is a versatile pathogen capable of causing intestinal and extraintestinal infections that result in a huge burden of global human disease. The diversity of E. coli is reflected by its multiple different pathotypes and mosaic genome composition. E. coli strains are also a major driver of antibiotic resistance, emphasizing the urgent need for new treatment and prevention measures. Here, we used a large data set comprising 1,700 draft and complete genomes to define the core and accessory genome of E...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904526/new-agents-approved-for-treatment-of-acute-staphylococcal-skin-infections
#19
Jan Tatarkiewicz, Anna Staniszewska, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903912/the-complex-evolutionary-history-of-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases
#20
Anargyros Chaliotis, Panayotis Vlastaridis, Dimitris Mossialos, Michael Ibba, Hubert D Becker, Constantinos Stathopoulos, Grigorios D Amoutzias
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) are a superfamily of enzymes responsible for the faithful translation of the genetic code and have lately become a prominent target for synthetic biologists. Our large-scale analysis of >2500 prokaryotic genomes reveals the complex evolutionary history of these enzymes and their paralogs, in which horizontal gene transfer played an important role. These results show that a widespread belief in the evolutionary stability of this superfamily is misconceived. Although AlaRS, GlyRS, LeuRS, IleRS, ValRS are the most stable members of the family, GluRS, LysRS and CysRS often have paralogs, whereas AsnRS, GlnRS, PylRS and SepRS are often absent from many genomes...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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