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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735311/erythromycin-or-clindamycin-is-it-still-an-empirical-therapy-against-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-patients-allergic-to-penicillin
#1
Piotr Leszczyński, Beata Sokół-Leszczyńska, Bronisława Pietrzak, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Mirosław Wielgoś
Retrospective analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae antibiotic susceptibility isolated in 2010-2013 was performed. Penicillin was still the first-line antibiotic. Due to the high percentage of strains resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin empirical treatment with these antibiotics may not be effective. Lower resistance rate to erythromycin and clindamycin among strains isolated from infected pregnant women and newborns were observed than among strains isolated from samples from patients hospitalized in other departments (29% and 47% v...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735135/endoscope-assisted-abscess-drainage-secondary-to-endoscope-assisted-tlif-1-year-follow-up
#2
Karthik Madhavan, Steven Shelby Burks, Lee Onn Chieng, Anand Veeravagu, Michael Y Wang
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic discectomy and fusions have been gaining popularity in the recent past and are noted to be safe for its application in elderly population. It involves ultra-small incision for discectomy followed by placement of percutaneous screws in awake patients. Treatment of advanced spinal pathology using endoscope-assisted techniques are challenging. Although not common with endoscopic approach, post-operative infection can be problematic as there are no established guidelines on its management...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735049/in-vitro-activity-of-daptomycin-combinations-with-rifampicin-gentamicin-fosfomycin-and-fusidic-acid-against-mrsa-strains
#3
Gulseren Aktas, Sengul Derbentli
OBJECTIVES: Although new antimicrobial agents designed to treat infections with limited therapeutic options have been introduced in the past few years, resistant Gram positive cocci have continued to emerge and spread. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that has rapid bactericidal activity against broad spectrum of Gram positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antibiotics are sometimes used in combination in an attempt to prevent or delay the in vivo emergence of drug-resistant subpopulations of pathogenic organisms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734784/drug-delivery-innovations-to-address-global-health-challenges-for-pediatric-and-geriatric-populations-through-improvements-in-patient-compliance
#4
Joshua Boateng
Despite significant advances in pharmaceutical and biotechnological drug discovery, the global population is plagued with many challenging diseases. These are further compounded by anticipated explosion in an ageing population, which presents several problems such as polypharmacy, dysphagia and neurological conditions, resulting in non-compliance and disease complications. For antibiotics, poor compliance, can result in development of drug resistant infections which can be fatal. Further, children, especially, in developing countries die unnecessarily from easily treatable diseases (e...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732194/principles-of-chemical-biology-apex-cell-free-enzyme-systems-new-antibiotics-epigenetic-membrane-relationship-and-metastable-transcription
#5
(no author information available yet)
This month: GPCR signaling and networks in APEX, making terpenes via biocatalysis in a cell-free system, antibiotics for Gram-negative bugs, the role of membranes in epigenetics, and the role of metastability in transcription.
July 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731725/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2013-2016
#6
Shauna Stahlman, Valerie F Williams, Gi-Taik Oh, Eugene V Millar, Jason W Bennett
During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 282,571 incident cases of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) among active component U.S. military members diagnosed in inpatient or outpatient settings, corresponding to an overall incidence of 558.2 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). An additional 10,904 cases occurred in theater of operations (460.0 per 10,000 p-yrs). Approximately half (49.4%) were classified as "other SSTI" (e.g., folliculitis, impetigo); 45.9% were cellulitis/abscess; 4.6% were carbuncles/furuncles; and 0...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731688/the-%C3%AF-configuration-of-the-www-motif-of-a-short-trp-rich-peptide-is-critical-for-targeting-bacterial-membranes-disrupting-preformed-biofilms-and-killing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
D Zarena, Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Fangyu Wang, Guangshun Wang
Tryptophan-rich peptides, being short and suitable for large-scale chemical synthesis, are attractive candidates for developing a new generation of antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria (superbugs). Although there are numerous pictures for membrane-bound structure of a single tryptophan (W), how multiple Trp amino acids assemble themselves and interact with bacterial membranes are poorly understood. This communication presents the three-dimensional structure for an eight-residue Trp-rich peptide (WWWLRKIW-NH2 with 50% W) determined by the improved 2D NMR method, which includes the measurements of 13C and 15N chemical shifts at natural abundance...
July 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731269/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-urinary-strains
#8
Claudia Vuotto, Francesca Longo, Chiara Pascolini, Gianfranco Donelli, Maria Pia Balice, Maria Francesca Libori, Valentina Tiracchia, Antonino Salvia, Pietro Emanuele Varaldo
AIMS: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a relevant healthcare-associated pathogen. Capsule, type 1 and 3 fimbriae (mrkA gene), type 2 quorum-sensing system (luxS), synthesis of D-galactan I (wbbM), LPS transport (wzm) and poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (pgaA) seem involved in K. pneumoniae biofilm. Non-enzymatic antibiotic resistance is related to non-expression or mutation of porins (OmpK35 and OmpK36), and efflux pump (acrB) over-expression. The aim of this study was to analyse some virulence factors of K...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730677/discovery-and-total-synthesis-of-natural-cystobactamid-derivatives-with-superior-activity-against-gram-negative-pathogens
#9
Rolf Müller, Stephan Hüttel, Giambattista Testolin, Jennifer Herrmann, Therese Planke, Franziska Gille, Maria Moreno, Marc Stadler, Mark Brönstrup, Andreas Kirschning
Antibiotic discovery and development is challenging as chemical scaffolds of synthetic origin often lack the required pharmaceutical properties, and the discovery of novel ones from natural sources is tedious. Herein we report the discovery of new cystobactamids with a significantly improved antibacterial profile through detailed screening of myxobacterial producer strains. Some of these new derivatives display antibacterial activities in the sub µgmL-1 range against Gram-negative pathogens, including clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which were not observed for previously reported cystobactamids...
July 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730370/the-n-terminal-and-central-domain-of-colicin-a-enables-phage-lysin-to-lyse-escherichia-coli-extracellularly
#10
Guangmou Yan, Jianfang Liu, Qiang Ma, Rining Zhu, Zhimin Guo, Chencheng Gao, Shuang Wang, Ling Yu, Jingmin Gu, Dongliang Hu, Wenyu Han, Rui Du, Junling Yang, Liancheng Lei
Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli has seriously threatened antibiotic resources and international public health. Bacteriophage lysin preparations have been widely considered as valid agents for solving multidrug resistances. Many lysins have been derived to treat diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria, but only a few lysin preparations have been found that successively treat diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria effectively blocks the interactions between peptidoglycan in the periplasmic space and bacteriophage lysins, which therefore hampers the antimicrobial effects of bacteriophage lysins...
July 20, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728974/activation-of-cryptic-phthoxazolin-a-production-in-streptomyces-avermitilis-by-the-disruption-of-autoregulator-receptor-homologue-avar3
#11
Dian Anggraini Suroto, Shigeru Kitani, Kiyoko T Miyamoto, Yasuko Sakihama, Masayoshi Arai, Haruo Ikeda, Takuya Nihira
The genomes of actinomycetes encode many cryptic novel/useful bioactive compounds, but access to these cryptic secondary metabolites remains limited. Streptomyces avermitilis predominantly produces three polyketide antibiotics (avermectin, filipin, and oligomycin) but has the potential to produce more secondary metabolites based on the number of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters. Here, we extensively investigated the metabolite profiles of a gene disruptant of AvaR3 (an autoregulator receptor homologue), which is involved in the pleiotropic regulation of antibiotic production and cell morphology...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727774/inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-marinum-virulence-identified-in-a-dictyostelium-discoideum-host-model
#12
Hajer Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Sébastien Kicka, Gianpaolo Chiriano, Christopher F Harrison, Hubert Hilbi, Leonardo Scapozza, Thierry Soldati, Pierre Cosson
Tuberculosis remains one of the major threats to public health worldwide. Given the prevalence of multi drug resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, there is a strong need to develop new anti-mycobacterial drugs with modes of action distinct from classical antibiotics. Inhibitors of mycobacterial virulence might target new molecular processes and may represent a potential new therapeutic alternative. In this study, we used a Dictyostelium discoideum host model to assess virulence of Mycobacterium marinum and to identify compounds inhibiting mycobacterial virulence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727445/an-antibiotic-that-inhibits-the-atpase-activity-of-an-abc-transporter-by-binding-to-a-remote-extracellular-site
#13
Leigh Morgan Matano, Heidi Gabrielle Morris, Anthony R Hesser, Sara E S Martin, Wonsik Lee, Tristan W Owens, Emaline Laney, Hidemasa Nakaminami, David Hooper, Timothy C Meredith, Suzanne Walker
Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus pose a major threat to human health and there is an ongoing need for new antibiotics to treat resistant infections. In a high throughput screen (HTS) of 230,000 small molecules designed to identify bioactive wall teichoic acid (WTA) inhibitors, we identified one hit, which was expanded through chemical synthesis into a small panel of potent compounds. We showed that these compounds target TarG, the transmembrane component of the two-component ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TarGH, which exports WTA precursors to the cell surface for attachment to peptidoglycan...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727444/fosfomycin-biosynthesis-via-transient-cytidylylation-of-2-hydroxyethylphosphonate-by-the-bifunctional-fom1-enzyme
#14
Su-Hee Cho, Seung-Young Kim, Takeo Tomita, Taro Shiraishi, Jin-Soo Park, Shusuke Sato, Fumitaka Kudo, Tadashi Eguchi, Nobutaka Funa, Makoto Nishiyama, Tomohisa Kuzuyama
Fosfomycin is a wide-spectrum phosphonate antibiotic that is used clinically to treat cystitis, tympanitis, etc. Its biosynthesis starts with the formation of a carbon-phosphorus bond catalyzed by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphomutase Fom1. We identified an additional cytidylyltransferase (CyTase) domain at the Fom1 N-terminus in addition to the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphomutase domain at the Fom1 C-terminus. Here, we demonstrate that Fom1 is bifunctional and that the Fom1 CyTase domain catalyzes the cytidylylation of the 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (HEP) intermediate to produce cytidylyl-HEP...
July 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726668/formulation-and-technology-development-of-herbal-phenolic-biopolymer-containing-films-for-burn-treatment
#15
S Gokadze, V Barbakadze, K Mulkijanyan, A Bakuridze, L Bakuridze
Application of phytofilms based on biosolublepolymers is considered as a prospectivemethod for burn treatment . Herbal remedies contain biologically active substances, that are relatively less toxic, do not cause skin irritation or allergic reactions and, importantly, affectstrains of the microorganisms and viruses resistant to antibiotics and synthetic drugs. Nowadays, the advantages are given to such burn healing drugs, which along with high specific efficacy, have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and don't irritate the tissues...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725216/survey-of-antibiotic-producing-bacteria-associated-with-the-epidermal-mucus-layers-of-rays-and-skates
#16
Kim B Ritchie, Melbert Schwarz, Joseph Mueller, Valeri A Lapacek, Daniel Merselis, Catherine J Walsh, Carl A Luer
Elasmobranchs represent a distinct group of cartilaginous fishes that harbor a remarkable ability to heal wounds rapidly and without infection. To date very little work has addressed this phenomenon although it is suggested that antibiotic capabilities associated with epidermal surfaces may be a factor. The study of benefits derived from mutualistic interactions between unicellular and multicellular organisms is a rapidly growing area of research. Here we survey and identify bacterial associates of three ray and one skate species in order to assess the potential for antibiotic production from elasmobranch associated bacteria as a novel source for new antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724393/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-emerged-long-before-the-introduction-of-methicillin-into-clinical-practice
#17
Catriona P Harkins, Bruno Pichon, Michel Doumith, Julian Parkhill, Henrik Westh, Alexander Tomasz, Herminia de Lencastre, Stephen D Bentley, Angela M Kearns, Matthew T G Holden
BACKGROUND: The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens poses a major threat to global health. It is widely recognised that the widespread use of antibiotics has generated selective pressures that have driven the emergence of resistant strains. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first observed in 1960, less than one year after the introduction of this second generation beta-lactam antibiotic into clinical practice. Epidemiological evidence has always suggested that resistance arose around this period, when the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance carried on an SCCmec element, was horizontally transferred to an intrinsically sensitive strain of S...
July 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723967/epitope-determination-of-immunogenic-proteins-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#18
Daniel O Connor, Lena Danckert, Sebastian Hoppe, Frank F Bier, Markus von Nickisch-Rosenegk
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative organism of gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted disease that globally accounts for an estimated 80 to 100 million new infections per year. Increasing resistances to all common antibiotics used for N. gonorrhoeae treatment pose the risk of an untreatable disease. Further knowledge of ways of infection and host immune response are needed to understand the pathogen-host interaction and to discover new treatment alternatives against this disease. Therefore, detailed information about immunogenic proteins and their properties like epitope sites could advance further research in this area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723468/trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-in-urologic-practice
#19
REVIEW
Hala Kandil, Emma Cramp, Tejal Vaghela
CONTEXT: The significant global upsurge in antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Enterobacteriaceae, represents a serious threat to health care systems. The implications for urologic practice are of particular concern. OBJECTIVE: To review trends in antibiotic resistance in urologic practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We report current European trends of resistance in Gram-negative uropathogens. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In addition to β-lactam resistance, Gram-negative pathogens are often resistant to multiple drug classes, including aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems, commonly used to treat urologic infections...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723269/identification-of-antipneumococcal-molecules-effective-against-different-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-using-a-resazurin-based-high-throughput-screen
#20
Hyung Jun Kim, Namyoul Kim, David Shum, Srigouri Huddar, Chul Min Park, Soojin Jang
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen, causing around 1.6 million deaths worldwide each year. By optimizing a resazurin-based assay to detect S. pneumoniae growth in 384-well microplates, we developed a new high-throughput screening (HTS) system for the discovery of antipneumococcal molecules, which was unsuccessful using conventional absorbance measurements. Before applying our protocol to a large-scale screen, we validated the system through a pilot screen targeting about 7,800 bioactive molecules using three different S...
July 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
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