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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040278/pg-metrics-a-chemometric-based-approach-for-classifying-bacterial-peptidoglycan-data-sets-and-uncovering-their-subjacent-chemical-variability
#1
Keshav Kumar, Akbar Espaillat, Felipe Cava
Bacteria cells are protected from osmotic and environmental stresses by an exoskeleton-like polymeric structure called peptidoglycan (PG) or murein sacculus. This structure is fundamental for bacteria's viability and thus, the mechanisms underlying cell wall assembly and how it is modulated serve as targets for many of our most successful antibiotics. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to understand the genetics and structural chemistry of the bacterial cell walls in order to find new and effective methods of blocking it for the treatment of disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040263/tuberculosis-detection-and-the-challenges-of-integrated-care-in-rural-china-a-cross-sectional-standardized-patient-study
#2
Sean Sylvia, Hao Xue, Chengchao Zhou, Yaojiang Shi, Hongmei Yi, Huan Zhou, Scott Rozelle, Madhukar Pai, Jishnu Das
BACKGROUND: Despite recent reductions in prevalence, China still faces a substantial tuberculosis (TB) burden, with future progress dependent on the ability of rural providers to appropriately detect and refer TB patients for further care. This study (a) provides a baseline assessment of the ability of rural providers to correctly manage presumptive TB cases; (b) measures the gap between provider knowledge and practice and; (c) evaluates how ongoing reforms of China's health system-characterized by a movement toward "integrated care" and promotion of initial contact with grassroots providers-will affect the care of TB patients...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039929/mechanistic-basis-for-atp-dependent-inhibition-of-glutamine-synthetase-by-tabtoxinine-%C3%AE-lactam
#3
Garrett Patrick, Luting Fang, Jacob Schaefer, Sukrit Singh, Gregory Bowman, Timothy Adam Wencewicz
Tabtoxinine-β-lactam (TβL), also known as wildfire toxin, is a time- and ATP-dependent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase produced by plant pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Here we demonstrate that recombinant glutamine synthetase from E. coli phosphorylates the C3-hydroxyl group of the TβL 3-(R)-hydroxy-β-lactam (3-HβL) warhead. Phosphorylation of TβL generates a stable, non-covalent enzyme-ADP-inhibitor complex that resembles the glutamine synthetase tetrahedral transition state. The TβL β-lactam ring remains intact during enzyme inhibition making TβL mechanistically distinct from traditional β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036990/-drug-resistance-and-dissemination-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1-positive-bacteria-in-a-patient
#4
X F Zhao, M Yuan, X Chen, X F Liu, D S Yu, J Li
Objective: The aim of this work was to report the surveillance and dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in a patient and ward environment. Methods: In 2010, during the therapy for a 51 years old patient, clinical and environmental samples were collected for carbapenem resistant bacterial culture, according to the clinical microbiological examination. Strains identification and antibiotic susceptibility were tested by VITEK Compact 2 system and E-test. The bla(NDM-1) was detected by PCR and analyzed by sequencing...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034628/-screening-of-full-human-anthrax-lethal-factor-neutralizing-antibody-in-transgenic-mice
#5
Xiaolin Wang, Xiangyang Chi, Ju Liu, Weicen Liu, Shuling Liu, Shunfang Qiu, Zhonghua Wen, Pengfei Fan, Kun Liu, Xiaohong Song, Ling Fu, Jun Zhang, Changming Yu
Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The major virulence factor of B. anthracis consists of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). PA binds with LF to form lethal toxin (LT), and PA binds with EF to form edema toxin (ET). Antibiotics is hard to work in advanced anthrax infections, because injuries and deaths of the infected are mainly caused by lethal toxin (LT). Thus, the therapeutic neutralizing antibody is the most effective treatment of anthrax...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033841/pharmacodynamic-evaluation-and-pk-pd-based-dose-prediction-of-tulathromycin-a-potential-new-indication-for-streptococcus-suis-infection
#6
Yu-Feng Zhou, Hui-Min Peng, Ming-Xiao Bu, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun, Xiao-Ping Liao
Tulathromycin is the first member of the triamilide antimicrobial drugs that has been registered in more than 30 countries. The goal of this study is to provide a potential new indication of tulathromycin for Streptococcus suis infections. We investigated the pharmacokinetic and ex vivo pharmacodynamics of tulathromycin against experimental S. suis infection in piglets. Tulathromycin demonstrated a relatively long elimination half-life (74.1 h) and a mean residence time of 97.6 h after a single intramuscular administration...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033364/-recurrent-cystisis-no-medicine-preventive-means
#7
J Armelle
OBJECTIVE: To estimate from the literature review, the interest of hygienic and behavioural measures and the use of food supplements (herbal) to prevent female urinary tract infection. METHODS: Pubmed research was focused on the efficiency of prophylactic measures in recurrent cystisis management. RESULTS: Due to many predisposing factors such as anatomical charasteristics, hydration and lifestyle, cystisis is more common in female subjects than in male...
October 12, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033234/antibacterial-constituents-of-the-plant-family-amaryllidaceae
#8
REVIEW
Jerald J Nair, Anke Wilhelm, Susanna L Bonnet, Johannes van Staden
There is a pressing need in antibiotic drug discovery for new drugs to counterbalance the effects of multidrug resistance. Plants represent a viable platform for such endeavors owing to their traditional relevance in infectious disease therapies as well as their vast chemical resources. As many as fifty different species of the Amaryllidaceae are discernible with such functions in traditional medicine, thirty-nine of which have been subjected to pharmacological evaluations. Submicromolar antibacterial activities for several of these plants have been the driving force behind studies targeting their active constituents...
September 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032983/early-versus-late-surgical-management-of-complicated-appendicitis-in-children-a-statewide-database-analysis-with-one-year-follow-up
#9
Saurabh Saluja, Tianyi Sun, Jialin Mao, Shaun A Steigman, P Stephen Oh, Heather L Yeo, Art Sedrakian, Demetri J Merianos
BACKGROUND: Complicated appendicitis is common in children, yet the timing of surgical management remains controversial. Some support initial antibiotics with delayed operation whereas others support immediate operation. While a few randomized trials have evaluated this question, they have been small, single-center trials with limited follow-up. We present a database analysis of outcomes in early versus late surgical management of complicated appendicitis with one-year follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of children with complicated appendicitis presenting between 2000 and 2013, utilizing a New York State database...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032821/16s-ribosomal-rna-gene-sequencing-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-6-commonly-prescribed-antibiotics
#10
Kendall P Slaton, Michael D Huffer, Edward J Wikle, Jie Zhang, Casey D Morrow, S Craig Rhodes, Paul D Eleazer
INTRODUCTION: The rapid antibiotic sensitivity test (RAST) is a novel in-office culture and sensitivity system for endodontic infections. The purpose of this research was to validate the RAST system as a viable, in-office alternative to antibiotic sensitivity testing using turbidity to determine antibiotic sensitivities of endodontic infections. METHODS: Aspirates were taken from the root canals of 9 necrotic human teeth at the initiation of root canal therapy. These samples were cultured in the RAST medium, and antibiotic sensitivity to 6 antibiotics was tested...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032026/4-hydroxy-2-pyridones-discovery-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-class-of-antibacterial-agents-targeting-dna-synthesis
#11
Michael A Arnold, Aleksey I Gerasyuto, Jiashi Wang, Wu Du, Yi Jin Kim Gorske, Tamil Arasu, John Baird, Neil G Almstead, Jana Narasimhan, Srinivasa Peddi, Olya Ginzburg, Stanley W Lue, Jean Hedrick, Josephine Sheedy, Guy Lagaud, Arthur A Branstrom, Marla Weetall, J V N Vara Prasad, Gary M Karp
The continued emergence of bacteria resistant to current standard of care antibiotics presents a rapidly growing threat to public health. New chemical entities (NCEs) to treat these serious infections are desperately needed. Herein we report the discovery, synthesis, SAR and in vivo efficacy of a novel series of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones exhibiting activity against Gram-negative pathogens. Compound 1c, derived from the N-debenzylation of 1b, preferentially inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis as determined by standard macromolecular synthesis assays...
October 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030520/combined-antibiotic-and-nsaid-offers-new-brd-treatment
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030440/multiple-roles-of-two-efflux-pumps-in-a-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading-pseudomonas-putida-strain-b6-2-dsm-28064
#13
Xuemei Yao, Fei Tao, Kunzhi Zhang, Hongzhi Tang, Ping Xu
Microbial bioremediation is a promising approach for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants. Many degraders of PAHs possess efflux pump genes in their genomes; however, their specific roles in the degradation of PAHs have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, two efflux pumps, TtgABC and SrpABC, were systematically investigated to determine their functions in a PAH-degrading Pseudomonas putida strain B6-2 (DSM 28064). The disruption of genes ttgABC or srpABC resulted in a defect in organic solvent tolerance...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030439/conjugation-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-clostridium-perfringens-plasmids-in-the-chicken-gastrointestinal-tract-results-in-the-formation-of-new-virulent-strains
#14
Jake A Lacey, Anthony L Keyburn, Mark E Ford, Ricardo W Portela, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
Clostridium perfringens is a gastrointestinal pathogen capable of causing disease in a variety of hosts. Necrotic enteritis in chickens is caused by C. perfringens strains that produce the pore-forming toxin NetB, the major virulence factor for this disease. Like many other C. perfringens toxins and antibiotic resistance genes, NetB is encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Conjugative transfer of the netB-containing plasmid pJIR3535 has been demonstrated in vitro with a netB null mutant. This study has investigated the effect of plasmid transfer on disease pathogenesis, with two genetically distinct transconjugants constructed under in vitro conditions, within the intestinal tract of chickens...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030436/a-mutator-phenotype-promoting-the-emergence-of-spontaneous-oxidative-stress-resistant-mutants-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#15
Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OX(R)) in C...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030266/plasmid-mediated-doxycycline-resistance-in-a-yersinia-pestis-strain-isolated-from-a-rat
#16
Nicolas Cabanel, Christiane Bouchier, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Elisabeth Carniel
Emergence of antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains represents a public health concern. Two antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains isolated from Madagascar were previously identified and characterized. Both strains carried conjugative plasmids that conferred resistance to streptomycin or to multiple antibacterial drugs. Here we characterized a novel Y. pestis strain (IP2180H) that exhibited resistance to doxycycline. This strain was isolated from a rat in Antananarivo (Madagascar) in 1998. Resistance was carried by a conjugative plasmid (pIP2180H) homologous to pB71 from Salmonella enterica...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030025/emerge-of-blandm-1-and-blaoxa-48-like-harboring-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-hospitalized-patients-in-southwestern-iran
#17
Zahra Hosseinzadeh, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Jamal Sarvari, Jalal Mardaneh, Behzad Dehghani, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Rokni-Hosseini, Mohammad Motamedifar
BACKGROUND: One of the most important emerging carbapenem-resistant bacteria is Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The present study aimed to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of K. pneumoniae isolates and detection of carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae obtained from Iranian hospitalized patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 211 K. pneumoniae isolates which were recovered from different clinical specimens from 2014 to 2015...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029217/high-levels-of-susceptibility-to-new-and-older-antibiotics-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-saskatchewan-2003-15-time-to-consider-point-of-care-or-molecular-testing-for-precision-treatment
#18
Sidharath D Thakur, Paul N Levett, Gregory B Horsman, Jo-Anne R Dillon
Objectives: The antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Saskatchewan was determined retrospectively (2003-15) to ascertain temporal trends to both current and older antimicrobials used for treatment. Method: The agar dilution method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 685 isolates to seven antibiotics. Results: Over the period, only three (0.4%) gonococcal isolates had reduced susceptibility to cefixime and/or ceftriaxone...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029150/antibiotic-use-and-new-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-olmsted-county-minnesota-a-population-based-case-control-study
#19
Satimai Aniwan, William J Tremaine, Laura E Raffals, Sunanda V Kane, Edward V Loftus
Background and Aims: Several studies have suggested significant associations between environmental factors and the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data supporting the role of antibiotics are conflicting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and new-onset IBD. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study using the Rochester Epidemiology Project of Olmsted County, Minnesota. We identified 736 county residents diagnosed with IBD between 1980 and 2010 who were matched to 1472 controls, based on age, sex and date of IBD diagnosis...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029067/pharmacodynamics-of-fosfomycin-against-esbl-and-or-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#20
Fiona Fransen, Kelly Hermans, Maria J B Melchers, Claudia C M Lagarde, Joseph Meletiadis, Johan W Mouton
Background: The increase in antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and the limited therapeutic options due to the shortage of new antibiotics have increased the interest of the 'old' antibiotic fosfomycin in the treatment of infections. However, there are contradictory reports on the pharmacodynamics of and emergence of resistance to fosfomycin. Methods: Time-kill assays were performed with 11 ESBL-positive and 3 ESBL-negative strains, exposing the bacteria to 2-fold static concentrations from 0...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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