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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666890/manipulating-the-expression-of-sarp-family-regulator-bulz-and-its-target-gene-product-to-increase-tacrolimus-production
#2
Dongxu Ma, Cheng Wang, Hong Chen, Jianping Wen
Tacrolimus (FK506), an effective immunosuppressant, is widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified that BulZ, a Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family regulator, acted as a positive regulator for spore differentiation and tacrolimus production. A knockout of bulZ resulted in a 47.5% decrease of tacrolimus production and a delay of spore differentiation. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), it was found that BulZ directly activated the transcriptions of bulZ and bulS2, a putative γ-butyrolactone (GBL) synthetase, and bulS2 was shown to play a positive role in tacrolimus biosynthesis...
April 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666860/fluorescence-imaging-of-antibiotic-clofazimine-encapsulated-within-mesoporous-silica-particle-carriers-relevance-to-drug-delivery-and-the-effect-on-its-release-kinetics
#3
Lorenzo Angiolini, Sabrina Valetti, Boiko Cohen, Adam Feiler, Abderrazzak Douhal
We report on the encapsulation of the antibiotic clofazimine (CLZ) within the pores of mesoporous silica particles having hydrophilic (CBET value of 137) and more hydrophobic (CBET value of 94 after calcination at 600 °C) surfaces. We studied the effect of pH on the released amount of CLZ in aqueous solutions and observed a maximum at pH 4.1 in correlation with the solubility of the drug. Less release of the drug was observed from the more hydrophobic particles which was attributed to a difference in the affinity of the drug to the carrier particles...
April 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666548/inhibitory-effect-of-soy-saponins-on-the-activity-of-%C3%AE-lactamases-including-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1
#4
Hitoshi Horie, Asuka Chiba, Shigeo Wada
β-Lactamase-producing bacteria encode enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring. Crude soy saponins were observed to have synergistic effects on the antimicrobial activity of β-lactam antibiotics against β-lactamase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Furthermore, the activities of β-lactamases derived from Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , and S. aureus were decreased significantly in the presence of crude soy saponins. This inhibitory effect was also observed against the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), an enzyme whose activity is not inhibited by the current β-lactamase inhibitors...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666383/effect-of-antibiotic-use-for-acute-bronchiolitis-on-new-onset-asthma-in-children
#5
I-Lun Chen, Hsin-Chun Huang, Yu-Han Chang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Wei-Ju Yeh, Ting-Yi Wu, Jau-Ling Suen, San-Nan Yang, Chih-Hsing Hung
Early-life use of antibiotics is associated with asthma. We examined the effect of antibiotic use for early-life bronchiolitis on the development of new-onset asthma in children from Taiwan between 2005 and 2010. Data were from the National Health Insurance Research Database 2010, and diseases were coded using the International Classification of Disease (ICD). We classified the patients, all of whom had bronchiolitis, as having asthma or not having asthma. Asthma was diagnosed using ICD criteria and by use of an inhaled bronchodilator and/or corticosteroid twice in one year...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666092/a-rare-cause-of-oligoarthritis-with-septic-presentation
#6
Patrick Hoversten, Joel Beachey, Michael Pham, Anjali Bhagra
A 33-year-old man presented with new-onset, asymmetric, migratory oligoarthritis in the setting of several weeks of nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, fevers and dysuria. He was initially treated in the inpatient setting with broad-spectrum antibiotics due to concern for an evolving sepsis presentation. Arthrocentesis of a large right knee effusion revealed inflammatory synovial fluid without findings suggestive of septic arthritis. Human leucocyte antigen B27 was positive and, taken together with the antecedent history of gastroenteritis, dysuria and inflammatory oligoarthritis, the clinical diagnosis was most consistent with reactive arthritis...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665886/antimicrobial-resistance-from-basic-science-to-translational-innovation
#7
Jun Lin
The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to animal agriculture and human health. To summarize and update current and emerging AMR issues that are significant for animal health and food safety, this issue presents a virtual AMR symposium consisting of seven review papers. These reviews cover a newly described AMR mechanism in Campylobacter, effects of AMR and microbiome on Campylobacter infection, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in food-producing animals, the impact of point source or antibiotic residues on the environmental resistome, and potential factors influencing horizontal gene transfer in the intestines of food animals...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665208/periodical-2d-photonic-plasmonic-au-tio-x-nanocavity-resonators-for-photoelectrochemical-applications
#8
Baihe Fu, Zhonghai Zhang
Effective light trapping at the nanoscale is vital for efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications. Photonic and plasmonic resonators are the two most promising approaches for this purpose, and the synergetic combination of these two resonators will tail the propagation lengths of incident light along with field enhancements, and thus presents further enhanced light-trapping activity. Herein, a new hybrid photonic-plasmonic resonator is proposed through sputtering plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs) into the 2D photonic TiOx nanocavity...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665007/protective-effect-of-mir378-on-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyocyte-injury-via-calumenin
#9
Yu Wang, Xiaoxue Cui, Yilin Wang, Yao Fu, Xin Guo, Jie Long, Chengxi Wei, Ming Zhao
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a highly effective antitumor antibiotic, however myocardial toxicity severely limits its use clinically. The pathogenesis of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy is unclear. In Dox cardiomyopathy mice, there is a decline in cardiac function, a change in myocardial pathology and a reduction in miR378* expression. Expression changes in calumenin, an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) chaperone protein and pathway factor, as well as apoptosis, were observed in cardiomyocytes after doxorubicin-induced injury...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664634/directed-c-h-bond-oxidation-of-pleuromutilin
#10
Xiaoshen Ma, Roman Kucera, Olivia F Goethe, Stephen K Murphy, Seth B Herzon
Antibiotics derived from the diterpene fungal metabolite (+)-pleuromutilin (1) are useful agents for the treatment Gram-positive infections in humans and farm animals. Pleuromutilins elicit slow rates of resistance development and minimal cross-resistance with existing antibiotics. Despite efforts aimed at producing new derivatives by semisynthesis, modification of the tricyclic core is underexplored, in part due to a limited number of functional group handles. Herein, we report methods to selectively functionalize the methyl groups of (+)-pleuromutilin (1) by hydroxyl-directed iridium-catalyzed C-H silylation, followed by Tamao-Fleming oxidation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663934/fructose-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-of-silver-nanoparticle-embedded-polymersome-nanocarriers
#11
Ilia Gelfat, Benjamin M Geilich, Thomas J Webster
In recent years, an increasing body of research has indicated that the antimicrobial activity of certain antibiotic drugs can be enhanced by the addition of specific metabolites. This study aimed to incorporate these findings into polymersomes (novel polymer-based nanoscale drug delivery vehicles) which can be loaded with various therapeutic molecules and nanoparticles. Polymersome technology has shown promising results in treating antibiotic-resistant infections by co-encapsulating the antibiotic methicillin with silver nanoparticles...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663932/studies-on-the-antibacterial-activity-and-mechanism-of-antimicrobial-peptides-against-drug-resistant-bacteria
#12
Xiaofang Luo, Yanjun Liu, Zuodong Qin, Zhiyuan Jin, Liting Xu, Yang Liu, Linyan Cao, Fulin He, Xiaohong Gu, Xiaoping Ouyang
Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to human health. More than anything else, multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria pose the biggest challenge to healthcare, which is predominantly due to the lack of effective therapeutic options. In the present study, we investigated the activities of peptides HX-12A, HX-12B and HX-12C against MDRAB and MDRKP isolates in vitro. Those three peptides displayed high antibacterial activities and rapid bactericidal effects against MDRAB and MDRKP isolates. Additionally, the peptides retained their activity even being present in pH 6...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663798/avoiding-antibiotic-inactivation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-rv3406-through-strategic-nucleoside-modification
#13
Matthew R Bockman, Curtis A Engelhart, Surendra Dawadi, Peter Larson, Divya Tiwari, David M Ferguson, Dirk Schnappinger, Courtney C Aldrich
5'-[ N-(d-biotinoyl)sulfamoyl]amino-5'-deoxyadenosine (Bio-AMS, 1) possesses selective activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) and arrests fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis through inhibition of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis biotin protein ligase ( MtBPL). Mtb develops spontaneous resistance to 1 with a frequency of at least 1 × 10-7 by overexpression of Rv3406, a type II sulfatase that enzymatically inactivates 1. In an effort to circumvent this resistance mechanism, we describe herein strategic modification of the nucleoside at the 5'-position to prevent enzymatic inactivation...
April 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663019/-retrieval-of-a-migrated-plastic-stent-in-a-51-year-old-man
#14
A Poszler, P Klare, A Weber, M Abdelhafez, K Holzapfel, R M Schmid, S von Delius
BACKGROUND: Endosonographically guided transgastric drainage is the first-line interventional therapy of walled-off necrosis and symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts in necrotizing pancreatitis. Plastic stents or lumen apposing metal stents are commonly used. A possible complication of endoscopic therapy is stent migration. CASE REPORT: We report upon a 51-year-old man who presented with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Transgastric necrosectomy was performed and 5 transmural double-pigtail stents (DPS) were left in situ to drain the residual retroperitoneal cavity...
April 16, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661930/the-critical-role-of-zinc-in-a-new-murine-model-of-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-etec-diarrhea
#15
D T Bolick, P H Q S Medeiros, S E Ledwaba, A A M Lima, J P Nataro, E M Barry, R L Guerrant
Enterotoxigenic E. coli are major causes of traveler's diarrhea as well as endemic diarrhea and stunting in children in developing areas. However a small mammal model has been badly needed to better understand and assess mechanisms, vaccines and interventions. We report a murine model of ETEC diarrhea, weight loss and enteropathy, and investigate the role of zinc on the outcomes. LT+ST producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) given to weaned C57BL/6 mice after antibiotic disruption of normal microbiota cause growth impairment, watery diarrhea, heavy stool shedding and mild to moderate intestinal inflammation, the latter worse with zinc deficiency...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660471/efficient-production-of-human-goose-type-lysozyme-2-in-the-methylotrophic-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#16
Peng Huang, Qingwen Sun, Weijun Shi, Wangchun Du, Xue Li, Ning Zhang
Infectious diseases caused by antibiotic multidrug-resistant microorganisms are major causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Hence, there is an urgent need to search for new antimicrobial agents. Initially known as a defensive effector in the innate immunity of certain organs of the human body, human goose-type lysozyme 2 (hLysG2) has been shown to possess therapeutically useful potential against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Developing a novel strategy for large-scale production that provides high yields of this protein with high purity, quality, and potency is critical for pharmaceutical applications...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660287/a-trimethoprim-conjugate-of-thiomaltose-has-enhanced-antibacterial-efficacy-in-vivo
#17
Xiaojian Wang, Clarissa A Borges, Xinghai Ning, Mohammad Rafi, Jingtuo Zhang, Bora Park, Kiyoko Takemiya, Carlo Lo Sterzo, W Robert Taylor, Lee W Riley, Niren Murthy
Trimethoprim is one of the most widely used antibiotics in the world. However its efficacy is frequently limited by its poor water solubility and dose limiting toxicity. Prodrug strategies based on conjugation of oligosaccharides to trimethoprim have great potential for increasing the solubility of trimethoprim and lowering its toxicity, but they have been challenging to develop due to the sensitivity of trimethoprim to chemical modifications, and the rapid degradation of oligosaccharides in serum. In this report, we present a trimethoprim conjugate of maltodextrin termed TM-TMP, which increased the water solubility of trimethoprim by over 100 times, was stable to serum enzymes, and was active against urinary tract infections in mice...
April 16, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659873/two-new-salmonella-genomic-islands-1-from-proteus-mirabilis-and-description-of-blactx-m-15-on-a-variant-sgi1-k7
#18
Claire de Curraize, Catherine Neuwirth, Julien Bador, Angélique Chapuis, Lucie Amoureux, Eliane Siebor
Objectives: To characterize the structure of Salmonella genomic islands 1 (SGI1s) from two clinical Proteus mirabilis isolates: one producing an ESBL and the other a penicillinase. Methods: WGS completed by PCR and Sanger sequencing was performed to determine sequences of SGI1s from Pm2CHAMA and Pm37THOMI strains. Results: Two new variants of SGI1 named SGI1-Pm2CHAMA (53.6 kb) and SGI1-K7 (55.1 kb) were identified. The backbone of SGI1-Pm2CHAMA shared 99...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659749/a-brief-history-of-evolving-diagnostics-and-therapy-for-gonorrhea-lessons-learned
#19
Edward W Hook, Robert D Kirkcaldy
Background: Progressively decreasing susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the antibiotics recommended for treatment has raised concerns about the public health threat of antibiotic resistant gonorrhea. This is not a new process and the organism has reliably developed resistance to all modern antibiotics used for treatment since the dawn of the antibiotic era. The history of changing recommendations for gonorrhea therapy however is complex and has been influenced by diagnostic test methods and surveillance...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659507/customized-peptide-biomaterial-synthesis-via-an-environment-reliant-auto-programmer-stigmergic-approach
#20
Ravindra V Badhe, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Thashree Marimuthu, Lisa C du Toit, Divya Bijukumar, Dharmesh R Chejara, Mostafa Mabrouk, Viness Pillay
Stigmergy, a form of self-organization, was employed here to engineer a self-organizing peptide capable of forming a nano- or micro-structure and that can potentially be used in various drug delivery and biomedical applications. These self-assembling peptides exhibit several desirable qualities for drug delivery, tissue engineering, cosmetics, antibiotics, food science, and biomedical surface engineering. In this study, peptide biomaterial synthesis was carried out using an environment-reliant auto-programmer stigmergic approach...
April 16, 2018: Materials
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