Read by QxMD icon Read

new antibiotics

Baoya Wang, Zhi Lv, Pingping Zhang, Jianrong Su
Because the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is region-specific, the present study was undertaken to examine the epidemiology of C difficile outbreaks in Beijing, China.Eighty nonduplicate isolates were collected from March, 2016 to December, 2016. The molecular type and phylogenetic analysis were evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 11 antibiotics and the resistance mechanisms were investigated.Sixty-five toxigenic strains (81...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bas Lamoree, Roderick E Hubbard
Fragment-based lead discovery has emerged over the past two decades as a successful approach to generate novel lead candidates in drug discovery programs. The two main advantages over conventional high-throughput screening (HTS) are more efficient sampling of chemical space and tighter control over the physicochemical properties of the lead candidates. Antibiotics are a class of drugs with particularly strict property requirements for efficacy and safety. The development of novel antibiotics has slowed down so much that resistance has now evolved against every available antibiotic drug...
July 2018: SLAS Discovery
Hongbo Liu, Binghua Zhu, Beibei Liang, Xuebin Xu, Shaofu Qiu, Leili Jia, Peng Li, Lang Yang, Yongrui Li, Ying Xiang, Jing Xie, Ligui Wang, Chaojie Yang, Yansong Sun, Hongbin Song
In this study, we discovered a novel mobilized colistin resistance ( mcr-1 ) gene variant, named mcr-1.9 , which was identified in a colistin-resistant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain from a clinical diarrhea case. The mcr-1.9 gene differs from mcr-1 at position 1036 due to a single nucleotide polymorphism (G→A), which results in an aspartic acid residue being replaced by an asparagine residue (Asp346→Asn) in the MCR-1 protein sequence. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the mcr-1...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jeffrey I Cohen
In the version of this News and Views originally published, the author made an incorrect reference to 'mice deficient in Mx1'. This has now been corrected so that the text instead refers to 'mice congenic for Mx1'. The full corrected sentence reads as "Pretreatment of mice congenic for Mx1, an ISG that is critical for protection of animals from influenza, with intranasal neomycin significantly improved survival; however, about 50% of the mice died."
June 19, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Montserrat Lopez-Carrizales, Karla Itzel Velasco, Claudia Castillo, Andrés Flores, Martín Magaña, Gabriel Alejandro Martinez-Castanon, Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez
The increase in the prevalence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become one of the main health problems worldwide, thus threatening the era of antibiotics most frequently used in the treatment of infections. The need to develop new therapeutic strategies against multidrug resistant microorganisms, such as the combination of selected antimicrobials, can be considered as a suitable alternative. The in vitro activities of two groups of conventional antimicrobial agents alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated against a set of ten multidrug resistant clinical isolate and two references strains by MIC assays and checkerboard testing, as well as their cytotoxicity, which was evaluated on human fibroblasts by MTT assay at the same concentration of the antimicrobial agents alone and in combination...
June 19, 2018: Antibiotics
S M Ashiqul Islam, Christopher Michel Kearney, Erich Baker
Cystine-stabilized peptides represent a large family of peptides characterized by high structural stability and bactericidal, fungicidal, or insecticidal properties. Found throughout a wide range of taxa, this broad and functionally important family can be subclassified into distinct groups dependent upon their number and type of cystine bonding patters, tertiary structures, and/or their species of origin. Furthermore, the annotation of proteins related to the cystine-stabilized family are under-represented in the literature due to their difficulty of isolation and identification...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
Alline R Pacheco, Jacob E Lazarus, Brandon Sit, Stefanie Schmieder, Wayne I Lencer, Carlos J Blondel, John G Doench, Brigid M Davis, Matthew K Waldor
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) has two critical virulence factors-a type III secretion system (T3SS) and Shiga toxins (Stxs)-that are required for the pathogen to colonize the intestine and cause diarrheal disease. Here, we carried out a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with Cas9) loss-of-function screen to identify host loci that facilitate EHEC infection of intestinal epithelial cells. Many of the guide RNAs identified targeted loci known to be associated with sphingolipid biosynthesis, particularly for production of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the Stx receptor...
June 19, 2018: MBio
J Fayard, S Collardeau, Y Bertrand, M-P Cordier, C Malcus, R Dubois, P-Y Mure, G de Saint Basile, T Louazon, B Rohmer, A Lachaux, R Duclaux, N Peretti
TTC7A mutations cause multiple neonatal intestinal atresias with early inflammatory bowel disease and severe combined immunodeficiency. There are no treatment protocols for this rare disease. Two new cases are described for which radical early treatment measures - total enterectomy, home parenteral nutrition, immunoglobulin therapy and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis - have allowed both patients to develop optimally.
June 16, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
D Etugov, V Mateeva, G Mateev
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are chronic difficult-to-treat wounds which affect around 1-2% of the world population. Conventional methods for treatment such as mechanical debridement, occlusive dressings and local antibiotics in case of infection, often lack effectiveness. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an alternative method in the treatment of chronic wounds. PRP contains inflammatory mediators, growth factors, and cytokines that modulate the wound microenvironment to create a better chance for healing...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Nirmal K Chaudhary, John I Pitt, Ernest Lacey, Andrew Crombie, Daniel Vuong, Andrew M Piggott, Peter Karuso
Chemical investigation of an Australian fungus, Aspergillus banksianus, led to the isolation of the major metabolite banksialactone A (1), eight new isochromanones, banksialactones B-I (2-9), two new isocoumarins, banksiamarins A and B (10 and 11), and the reported compounds, clearanol I (12), dothideomynone A (13), questin (14), and endocrocin (15). The structures of 1-11 were established by NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations were determined from optical rotations and ECD spectra in conjunction with TD-DFT calculations...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Jing Hou, Heping Zheng, Wen-Shyong Tzou, David R Cooper, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Mahendra D Chordia, Keehwan Kwon, Marek Grabowski, Wladek Minor
Vibrio cholerae, the causative pathogen of the life-threatening infection cholera, encodes two copies of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (vcFabH1 and vcFabH2). vcFabH1 and vcFabH2 are pathogenic proteins associated with fatty acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and potential applications in biofuel production. Our biochemical assays characterize vcFabH1 as exhibiting specificity for acetyl-CoA and CoA thioesters with short acyl chains, similar to that observed for FabH homologs found in most Gram-negative bacteria...
June 19, 2018: FEBS Journal
Zubair Khan, Nauman Siddiqui, Muhammad Wasif Saif
Mostly Streptococcus bovis ( S. bovis ) bacteremia and endocarditis (60%) has been found to be associated with underlying colorectal cancer (CRC). Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) bacteremia and endocarditis has no identifiable source in most of the cases. E. faecalis is part of normal gut flora that can translocate through the intestine and cause the systemic infection. With any intestinal lesion or tumor, the barrier is breached and the gut flora like E. faecalis can translocate and cause infection. A 55-years-old male known to have non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with implantation of automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) and atrial fibrillation presented with weight loss, fever and back pain...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Inês N Silva, Filipa D Pessoa, Marcelo J Ramires, Mário R Santos, Jörg D Becker, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex grow in different natural and man-made environments and are feared opportunistic pathogens that cause chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Previous studies showed that Burkholderia mucoid clinical isolates grown under stress conditions give rise to nonmucoid variants devoid of the exopolysaccharide cepacian. Here, we have determined that a major cause of the nonmucoid morphotype involves nonsynonymous mutations and small indels in the ompR gene encoding a response regulator of a two-component regulatory system...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Anubrata Ghosal, Vignesh M P Babu, Graham C Walker
YbeY is a highly conserved, multifunctional endoribonuclease that plays a significant role in ribosome biogenesis and has several additional roles. Here, we show in Escherichia coli that overexpressing the conserved GTPase, Era, partially suppresses the growth defect of a ΔybeY strain while improving 16S rRNA processing and 70S ribosome assembly. This suppression requires both Era's ability to hydrolyze GTP and the function of three exoribonucleases, RNase II, RNase R and RNase PH, suggesting a model for Era's action...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Live L Nesse, Roger Simm
Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant "superbugs" which may pose serious threats to public health. As bacteria commonly reside in biofilms, there has been an increased interest in studying these phenomena within biofilms in recent years...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Moritz Fritzenwanker, Can Imirzalioglu, Susanne Herold, Florian M Wagenlehner, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Trinad Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are on the rise, particularly in southeastern European countries, and this is increasingly true in Germany as well. The organisms in question include enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and non-fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. As the carbapenems have been the gold standard to date for the systemic treatment of serious infections with Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance presents new and difficult challenges in therapeutic decision-making, particularly because of the high frequency of coresistance...
May 21, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Claudia Balsamo, Carlotta Biagi, Margherita Mancini, Ilaria Corsini, Rosalba Bergamaschi, Marcello Lanari
BACKGROUND: Acute mastoiditis is the main suppurative complication of acute otitis media. Its incidence ranges from 1.2 to 4.2/100.000 children/year and a rise has been reported in the last years. There are controversial data regarding risk factors for mastoiditis and its complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: to evaluate demographics and clinical characteristics of children with acute mastoiditis and to identify possible risk factors for complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all the children aged 1 month-14 years admitted to our Paediatric Emergency Department from January 2002 to December 2016...
June 18, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Tingting Yao, Zengzhi Liu, Tong Li, Hui Zhang, Jing Liu, Huayue Li, Qian Che, Tianjiao Zhu, Dehai Li, Wenli Li
BACKGROUND: Polyene antibiotics are important as antifungal medicines albeit with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Reedsmycin (RDM) A (1), produced by marine-derived Streptomyces youssoufiensis OUC6819, is a non-glycosylated polyene macrolide antibiotic with antifungal activity comparable to that of clinically used nystatin. To elucidate its biosynthetic machinery, herein, the rdm biosynthetic gene cluster was cloned and characterized. RESULTS: The rdm cluster is located within a 104 kb DNA region harboring 21 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 15 ORFs were designated as rdm genes...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Erika M Zettner, Malcolm A Gleser
Objective Hearing loss is a significant and growing problem as patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) live longer and experience frequent courses of intravenous aminoglycoside antibiotics (hereafter, "IVs"). This study seeks to document that risk in a large adult population with CF, accounting for age and aminoglycoside exposure. Study Design Retrospective case review of patients with CF who had multiple audiograms over years. Setting Tertiary care cystic fibrosis setting. Subject and Methods The first and last audiograms recorded over a 10-year period were compared for 165 adult patients with CF...
June 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Beatriz Suay-García, María Teresa Pérez-Gracia
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics...
June 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"