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White matter hyperdensities

Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ivo M Wagensveld, Britt M Blokker, Piotr A Wielopolski, Nomdo S Renken, Gabriel P Krestin, Myriam G Hunink, J Wolter Oosterhuis, Annick C Weustink
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of total-body CT and MR features of postmortem change in in-hospital deaths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective blinded cross-sectional study, in-hospital deceased adult patients underwent total-body postmortem CT and MR followed by image-guided biopsies. The presence of PMCT and PMMR features related to postmortem change was scored retrospectively and correlated with postmortem time interval, post-resuscitation status and intensive care unit (ICU) admittance...
2017: PloS One
Michaela Cellina, Vincenza Fetoni, Pierluigi Baron, Marcello Orsi, Giancarlo Oliva
A previously healthy 65-year-old man presented with a two-week history of weight loss, headaches, blurred vision, asthenia and quickly worsening walking impairment. He denied photophobia, neck stiffness, fever, nausea or vomiting.Neurological examination showed global motor slowing, tendency to fall asleep during the clinical examination, generalized weakness against resistance to head and limbs, and osteotendon reflexes present in the upper limbs, but not evoked in the lower limbs. No sensitive deficit or focal neurologic sign was recognizable...
April 2015: Neuroradiology Journal
Deepak Agrawal, Vikas Naik
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cerebral venous infarction (POCVI) is not an uncommon complication in cranial surgeries. However, literature is sparse on the epidemiology and management of postoperative venous infarcts. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study the incidence and clinico-radiological course of POCVI in patients in a tertiary level neurosurgical unit and compare the outcome between pediatric and adult patients following POCVI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study carried out over an 8 month period, consecutive patients undergoing elective major cranial surgeries were monitored neurologically and with serial computed tomography (CT) of the head for POCVI in the postoperative period...
January 2015: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
M Breckwoldt, M Bendszus
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions...
February 2015: Der Radiologe
Chad J Cooper, Sarmad Said, Maryna Popp, Haider Alkhateeb, Carlos Rodriguez, Mateo Porres Aguilar, Ogechika Alozie
Nocardia species are aerobic, gram positive filamentous branching bacteria that have the potential to cause localized or disseminated infection. Nocardiosis is a rare disease that usually affects immunocompromised patients and presents as either pulmonary, cutaneous or disseminated nocardiosis. Forty-two year-old hispanic male presented to our care with bilateral lower extremity weakness, frontal headache, subjective fever, nausea, and vomiting. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hyperdense lesions with vasogenic edema in the frontal, parietal and left temporal lobes...
February 18, 2014: Infectious Disease Reports
Souheil Gebeily, Youssef Fares, Manal Kordahi, Pierre Khodeir, Ghattas Labaki, Franz Fazekas
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperdensities (WMH) are frequently reported on brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of elderly people; its significance is still under debate. METHODS: WMH subtypes may correlate with vascular risk factors, such as aging, hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The suggested hypothesis was to find if any of the periventricular WMH (PVWMH) or the deep WMH (DWMH) would be significantly more correlated with the above vascular risk factors...
November 2014: International Journal of Neuroscience
Matt Rheinboldt, John Blase
We report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented to the ER with a 1-week history of progressively worsening, throbbing, left retro-orbital headache, ptosis, and subjective worsening of short-term memory function. Initial review of systems and laboratory data were noncontributory. Non-contrasted CT demonstrated a large hyperdense mass centered in the suprasellar cistern without evidence of dissecting extra-axial hemorrhage. Though the initial appearance mimicked a basilar tip aneurysm or another primary extra-axial suprasellar pathology such as a hemorrhagic or proteinaceous craniopharyngioma, germinoma, or optic glioma, a second smaller, clearly intra-axial, hyperdense lesion was observed in the left periventricular forceps major white matter...
August 2011: Emergency Radiology
D D Altraide, I O George, B Otike-Odibe
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic multisystem disorder that is typically apparent shortly after birth. Dermatologic manifestations may be the only clues to the diagnosis of the disorder, which is also marked by childhood seizures and mental retardation. The aim of this report is to present a twelve year old boy with tuberous sclerosis. METHODS: A review of the case records of a child with angiofibromas of the face and neck and the relevant literature...
July 2010: Nigerian Journal of Medicine: Journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
Yu-Wei Lin, Chin-Yin Yu
A 36-year-old man with staphylococcal meningitis had similar symptoms and MRI characteristics as reversible splenium lesion syndrome described in the literature-hyperdensity on DWI and T2WI/FLAIR, hypodensity on ADC, iso-intensity on T1WI, and no contrast enhancement on midline splenium. The splenium lesion on MRI disappeared as the symptoms improved. The etiology of staphylococcal meningitis was different from other reported cases, and the MRS study showed relatively elevated lactate and myo-inositol of splenium as compared to other selective regions in the brain (both white matter and gray matter), which implies increased anaerobic glycolysis and hyperosmolar state on the splenium...
September 2009: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Joon-Tae Kim, Suk-Hee Heo, Seong-Min Choi, Seung-Han Lee, Man-Seok Park, Byeong-Chae Kim, Yosik Kim, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Ki-Hyun Cho
Cerebral lipiodol embolism is a rare complication of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Its pathological mechanism remains ambiguous despite several investigations. In Case 1, a 67-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) experienced neurological deficits soon after undergoing a fourth session of TACE. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple hyperdense lesions along the gyrus of frontal lobes and in the subcortical white matter. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transesophageal echocardiogram performed during the intravenous injection of agitated saline documented the presence of a right-to-left shunt (RLS) by demonstrating microbubbles in the left middle cerebral artery and left atrium...
October 2009: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Cheng-Ta Hsieh, Cheng-Yu Chen, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Chin-Hong Chang, Cheng-Fu Chang
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging is a newly developed technique used to visualize the white matter fibers in the human brain. In previous reports, DTI has been applied in patients with neoplasms, lacunar infarction, ischemic stroke, degenerative motor disease, and diffuse axonal injury, and has become a powerful tool in predicting clinical outcome. However, the implementation of DTI in patients with spontaneous ICH treated by stereotactic evaluation of hematoma has never been reported...
July 2008: Surgical Neurology
Fausto J Rodriguez, Bernd W Scheithauer, John D Port
Malignant glioneuronal tumors of the brain are rare and poorly characterized. Herein, we report the clinicopathologic features of three examples with unusual morphologies including both glial and neuronal differentiation. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed in all cases. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) was performed on both formalin-fixed (n=1) and paraffin embedded tissue (n=2). The immunogold technique for localization of GFAP was also performed...
December 2006: Acta Neuropathologica
C Evliyaoğlu, K Ilbay, C Ercin, S Ceylan
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The authors present a rare case of a primary cranial vault lymphoma, mimicking a subacute subdural hematoma after head trauma. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with progressive left hemiparesis, headache and a gradually increasing soft lump over the right parietal region 1 week after head trauma due to falling from a high place. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a hyperdense parieto-occipital subdural and subgaleal lesion together with marked midline shift and white matter edema...
February 2006: Zentralblatt Für Neurochirurgie
Nan-yun Li, Xiao-jun Zhou, Xing-zao Jin, Kui Meng, Heng-hui Ma, Xiao-gang Zheng, Shao-jun Jiang, Gui-qin Sun
UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE To study the clinicopathologic features, radiologic findings, treatment modalities and prognosis of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). METHODS: The clinical features, histopathologic findings, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy of 18 cases of DNT were analyzed. Results Among the 18 cases studied, 14 were males and 4 females. The age of these patients ranged from 3 to 46 (mean age = 22. 8 years). Partial seizure was the main presenting symptom in all patients...
September 2005: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
M Gallucci, M Caulo, A Splendiani, R Russo, A Ricci, R Galzio
Neuroradiological findings in two cases of isolated cerebral amyloidoma are reported. Case 1: A 15-year-old male admitted because of left jacksonian seizure. Case 2: A 31-year-old man admitted because of temporal seizures. In both patients, CT scans showed spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing nodules. On MRI, lesions displayed signals isointense with surrounding edema on T1-weighted sequences and mildly hypointense on T2-weighted sequences if compared with edema; peripheral contrast enhancement after gadolinium administration was present...
April 2002: Neuroradiology
M Abdalla, R Bogusławska, R Poniatowska
The aim of our study is to determine how early and reliably ischemic brain infarcts can be detected on CT scanning. We report two cases of an early CT finding of acute ischemic infarcts where CT examination was obtained within the first 3 hours of onset of neurological symptoms. CT examination showed blurred outlines and decreased attenuation of the left lentiform nucleus, loss of the white-gray matter interface in the left insular cortex and left cortical global hypoattenuation with obliteration of left cortical sulci in one patient...
September 2000: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
W Reiche, M Deinzer
The incidence of primary cerebral lymphomas has risen continuously during the past years. The neuroradiological signs, which are decisive for the differential diagnosis of cerebral lymphomas, are worked up and discussed in this study. Thirty CT and 27 MR investigations of a total of 32 patients (14 males, 18 females, age 60 +/- 15 years) with histopathologically proven cerebral lymphomas were analysed retrospectively. Multiple cerebral lymphomas were detected in 10/32 patients (31%). The cerebral lymphomas appeared on CT scans as hyperdense masses in 28/30 cases (93%)...
November 1998: Der Radiologe
K Lövblad, P Kelkar, C Ozdoba, G Ramelli, L Remonda, G Schroth
With the advent of chemotherapy, mortality rates in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have decreased, but complications in the central nervous system have appeared. These include direct involvement of the brain itself and the development of chemotherapy-related encephalopathy as a delayed reaction. In most reported cases, this encephalopathy is believed to be due to necrotising angiitis arising from the combination of chemotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy. We report the cases of four children with ALL who had been treated with high-dose intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy but no radiation therapy, and who were admitted to hospital because of seizures...
February 1998: Pediatric Radiology
J E Cohen, M Garrote
This is the first report of the occurrence of a central neurocytoma and a symptomatic paraventricular cyst; this entity may have particular surgical implications. A 37-year-old male was admitted with a four month history of dizziness and gait instability. He subsequently developed increasing weakness of his left arm and leg. An unenhanced computed tomography scan revealed a hyperdense mass in the right lateral ventricle with a paraventricular cystic lesion in the frontoparietal white matter. MR images showed the origin and extent of the lesion more completely...
January 1998: Neurological Research
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