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Small brain infarct

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720658/ticagrelor-versus-aspirin-in-acute-embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source
#1
Pierre Amarenco, Gregory W Albers, Hans Denison, J Donald Easton, Scott R Evans, Peter Held, Michael D Hill, Jenny Jonasson, Scott E Kasner, Per Ladenvall, Kazuo Minematsu, Carlos A Molina, Yongjun Wang, K S Lawrence Wong, S Claiborne Johnston
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy among patients with atherosclerotic disease and, therefore, could be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events among patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS), which includes patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% and aortic arch atherosclerosis. METHODS: We randomized 13 199 patients with a noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90) within 24 hours of symptom onset...
July 18, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716371/detection-risk-factors-and-functional-consequences-of-cerebral-microinfarcts
#2
REVIEW
Susanne J van Veluw, Andy Y Shih, Eric E Smith, Christopher Chen, Julie A Schneider, Joanna M Wardlaw, Steven M Greenberg, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral microinfarcts are small lesions that are presumed to be ischaemic. Despite the small size of these lesions, affected individuals can have hundreds to thousands of cerebral microinfarcts, which cause measurable disruption to structural brain connections, and are associated with dementia that is independent of Alzheimer's disease pathology or larger infarcts (ie, lacunar infarcts, and large cortical and non-lacunar subcortical infarcts). Substantial progress has been made with regard to understanding risk factors and functional consequences of cerebral microinfarcts, partly driven by new in-vivo detection methods and the development of animal models that closely mimic multiple aspects of cerebral microinfarcts in human beings...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716287/kidney-dysfunction-and-silent-brain-infarction-in-generally-healthy-adults
#3
Sang Hyuck Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Jae Moon Yun, Ji Eun Lee, Jae-Sung Lim, Be Long Cho, Hyung-Min Kwon, Jin-Ho Park
BACKGROUND: The association between silent brain infarction (SBI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based kidney dysfunction has not yet been definitively confirmed. This study aimed to investigate the association in generally healthy adults without a previous history of stroke or overt kidney disease. METHODS: The data from the screening health check-up program in the Seoul National University Hospital Health Promotion Center from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 were used...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#4
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702194/elevation-of-brain-enriched-mirnas-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#5
Sofie Sølvsten Sørensen, Ann-Britt Nygaard, Anting Liu Carlsen, Niels H H Heegaard, Mads Bak, Thomas Christensen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of cerebrospinal fluid miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers of acute ischemic stroke using three different profiling techniques in order to identify and bypass any influence from technical variation. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 21) and controls (n = 21) was collected by lumbar puncture. miRNA analysis was performed with three different methods: 1) Trizol RNA extraction followed by Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) on all small RNAs, 2) Exiqon RNA extraction protocol and miRNA qPCR assays, and 3) validation of 24 selected miRNAs with Norgen Biotek RNA extraction protocol and Applied Biosystems qPCR assays...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688715/multiple-silent-brain-infarcts-are-associated-with-severer-stroke-in-patients-with-first-ever-ischemic-stroke-without-advanced-leukoaraiosis
#6
Da-Wei Chen, Yu-Xi Wang, Jin Shi, Wei-Qing Zhang, Fen Yang, Yan-Wei Yin, Lu-Na Ma
BACKGROUND: Silent brain infarct (SBI) is associated with symptomatic stroke, but the association between SBI and acute ischemic stroke severity is uncertain. We aimed at investigating the association between SBI number and stroke severity in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke without advanced leukoaraiosis. METHODS: This study included 115 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke without advanced leukoaraiosis. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were measured...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666854/small-interfering-rna-mediated-knockdown-of-irisin-suppresses-food-intake-and-modulates-appetite-regulatory-peptides-in-zebrafish
#7
Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Suraj Unniappan
Irisin is a myokine encoded in fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). FNDC5 forms an integral part of the muscle post-exercise, and causes an increase in energy expenditure in mammals. Irisin is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles and is secreted upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). Irisin regulates feeding behaviour and cardiovascular function in mammals. More recently, irisin has gained importance as a potential biomarker for myocardial infarction due to its abundance in cardiac muscle...
June 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617385/-differential-diagnosis-of-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy
#8
A A Moroz, N Yu Abramycheva, M S Stepanova, R N Konovalov, S L Timerbaeva, S N Illarioshkin
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarctions and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited CNS disease, which is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Selective disorders of small vessels underlie the disease pathogenesis. Clinically CADASIL is characterized by headaches, multiple stroke-like disorders (in most cases transient ischemic attacks and lacunar strokes), and different focal neurological symptoms and dementia. There are specific MRI signs of the disease: multiple lacunar infarctions located in the basal ganglia, brain steam and cerebellum, focal lesions of temporal poles, capsula externa, periventricular and subcortical areas; diffuse white matter changes and leukoaraiosis can be observed as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608454/accelerated-atherosclerosis-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#9
I González-Suárez, J J Ríos-Blanco, J Arpa
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke, is a major cause of mortality in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Although AAV affects small vessels, an accelerated atherosclerosis not explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) has been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the association of atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cerebral small vessel disease in AAV-patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-three AAV-patients in complete remission were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585670/association-of-two-primitive-carotid-basilar-anastomoses-and-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-on-the-brain-base-a-case-report
#10
Milena TRANDAFİLOVİć, Ljiljana VASOVİć, Slobodan VLAJKOVİć, Marija DAKOVİć-BJELAKOVİć
Simultaneous presence of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery and so-called intermediate communicating artery in a 77-years-old cadaver autopsied due to the myocardial infarction was discovered. Many vascular variants and abnormalities such as an aplasia of the right vertebral artery (VA), a presence of two right posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), partial duplication of the right superior cerebellar artery, hypoplasia of the pre-communicating part (A1) of the right anterior cerebral artery and the right PCA of basilar origin, a special configuration of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), and a small aneurysm at the right A1-ACoA junction were associated...
April 27, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579891/protective-effect-of-chlorogenic-acid-on-the-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rat-models
#11
Mingsan Miao, Lihua Cao, Ruiqi Li, Xiaoyan Fang, Yanyan Miao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the protective characteristic of chlorogenic acid, a natural glucosyl xanthone found in Lonicera Japonica on the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was built by blocking the left middle cerebral artery in rats by using the suture-occluded method. Before operation, the corresponding drugs were given for each group once a day for 7 days...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549915/isolated-hypoglossal-paralysis-caused-by-ischemic-infarction-in-the-centrum-semiovale
#12
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Naotoshi Tamura, Nobuo Araki, Toshimasa Yamamoto
In the present report, we discuss the case of a 66-year-old woman with isolated unilateral hypoglossal paralysis due to cerebral infarction in the centrum semiovale. To date, it has hardly been discussed where the corticolingual tract passes through in the centrum semiovale. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small ischemic infarction in the contralateral centrum semiovale. We could demonstrate a route of the corticolingual tract.
May 23, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548298/total-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-score-and-cognitive-performance-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-results-from-the-atahualpa-project
#13
Victor J Del Brutto, Jorge G Ortiz, Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Mauricio Zambrano, José Biller
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is inversely associated with cognitive performance. However, whether the total SVD score is a better predictor of poor cognitive performance than individual signatures of SVD is inconclusive. We aimed to estimate the combined and independent predictive power of these MRI findings. METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years underwent brain MRI. Cognitive performance was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547726/stroke-induces-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-to-infarcted-brain-areas-via-cxcr4-and-c-met-signaling
#14
Oh Young Bang, Gyeong Joon Moon, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Sooyoon Kim, Jeong Pyo Son, Yeon Hee Cho, Won Hyuk Chang, Yun-Hee Kim
Mesenchymal stem cells circulate between organs to repair and maintain tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum have therapeutic effects when intravenously administered after stroke. However, only a small number of mesenchymal stem cells reach the brain. We hypothesized that the serum from stroke patients increases mesenchymal stem cells trophism toward the infarcted brain area. Mesenchymal stem cells were grown in fetal bovine serum, normal serum from normal rats, or stroke serum from ischemic stroke rats...
May 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543314/subclinical-hypothyroidism-and-risk-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-a-hospital-based-observational-study
#15
Xiaohao Zhang, Yi Xie, Caixia Ding, Jing Xiao, Yinyan Tang, Xuemei Jiang, Hua Shan, Yuankai Lin, Yujia Zhu, Chuanyou Li, Dan Hu, Zhixiang Ling, Gelin Xu, Lei Sheng
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with atherosclerosis and increased risk of ischaemic stroke. However, whether SCH is associated with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between SCH and total cSVD burden, a composite measurement detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with minor ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). DESIGN: This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541157/isolated-medial-longitudinal-fasciculus-syndrome-review-of-imaging-anatomy-pathophysiology-and-differential-diagnosis
#16
Puneet S Kochar, Yogesh Kumar, Pranav Sharma, Vikash Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Pradeep Goyal
Isolated medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome due to infarction limited only to the midbrain is a rare occurrence. The MLF are a group of fiber tracts located in the paramedian area of the midbrain and pons. They control horizontal eye movements by interconnecting oculomotor and abducens nuclei in the brain stem. Such small infarcts can easily be overlooked by young neuroradiologists and trainees. In this review, we discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics, comprehensive review of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and differential diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537536/-7-tesla-mri-for-visualisation-of-small-cerebral-vessels
#17
R P Kloppenborg
Due to its higher resolution, MRI in which a magnet with a field strength of 7 Tesla (7T MRI) is used, is able to image smaller abnormalities. 7T MRI is a promising tool for research into the causes of cerebral small vessel disease. Originally this technique was aimed at imaging the small perforating brain vessels and in particular at the micro-thrombi present there. Although 7T MRI has not proved effective in showing thrombi in small blood vessels, it has proved itself to be effective on other fronts. Functional measurements of the small brain vessels can be reliably determined and abnormalities of the vessel wall can be imaged...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527815/neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-characteristics-of-cerebellar-injury-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#18
Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Hisashi Tsuru, Sachio Takashima
OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphological characteristics and pathogenic factors of cerebellar injury in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging examination was performed on 17 eligible surviving ELBWI. Their MR images were assessed and classified its pattern of cerebellar injuries. Brain pathology was examined on 15 patients, who isolated this neuroimaging subjects. The trend of brain pathologies was revealed. RESULTS: Four types of morphological pattern were recognized: (i) the absence of major portions in the cerebellum (6/17 cases); (ii) focal cerebellar tissue loss (2/17); (iii) unilateral cerebellar atrophy/hypoplasia (3/17); (iv) small cerebellum with entrapped fourth ventricle (6/17)...
May 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515342/clinical-presentations-and-epidemiology-of-vascular-dementia
#19
REVIEW
Eric E Smith
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases cause vascular brain injury that can lead to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). VCI is the second most common neuropathology of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), accounting for up to one-third of the population risk. It is frequently present along with other age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple etiology dementia with both VCI and AD is the single most common cause of later life dementia. There are two main clinical syndromes of VCI: post-stroke VCI in which cognitive impairment is the immediate consequence of a recent stroke and VCI without recent stroke in which cognitive impairment is the result of covert vascular brain injury detected only on neuroimaging or neuropathology...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512508/lhermitte-duclos-disease-and-cerebellar-gangliocytoma-an-incidental-finding-in-a-patient-with-gradual-vision-loss
#20
Akshay Badakere, Pratik Chaugule, Soveeta Souravee Rath
A 50-year-old male patient presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with chief complaints of gradual decrease in vision in both eyes, more in the left eye, for 6 years. On general examination, the patient had a hemiplegic gait. His presenting acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/320 in the left eye, not improving further. He had dense posterior subcapsular cataracts in both eyes, and fundus examination revealed pale discs. Humphrey visual field tests 30-2 revealed a vertical nasal midline defect in the right eye and grossly depressed fields in the left eye...
June 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
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