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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617385/-differential-diagnosis-of-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy
#1
A A Moroz, N Yu Abramycheva, M S Stepanova, R N Konovalov, S L Timerbaeva, S N Illarioshkin
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarctions and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited CNS disease, which is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Selective disorders of small vessels underlie the disease pathogenesis. Clinically CADASIL is characterized by headaches, multiple stroke-like disorders (in most cases transient ischemic attacks and lacunar strokes), and different focal neurological symptoms and dementia. There are specific MRI signs of the disease: multiple lacunar infarctions located in the basal ganglia, brain steam and cerebellum, focal lesions of temporal poles, capsula externa, periventricular and subcortical areas; diffuse white matter changes and leukoaraiosis can be observed as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608454/accelerated-atherosclerosis-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#2
I González-Suárez, J J Ríos-Blanco, J Arpa
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke, is a major cause of mortality in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Although AAV affects small vessels, an accelerated atherosclerosis not explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) has been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the association of atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cerebral small vessel disease in AAV-patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-three AAV-patients in complete remission were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585670/association-of-two-primitive-carotid-basilar-anastomoses-and-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-on-the-brain-base-a-case-report
#3
Milena TRANDAFİLOVİć, Ljiljana VASOVİć, Slobodan VLAJKOVİć, Marija DAKOVİć-BJELAKOVİć
Simultaneous presence of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery and so-called intermediate communicating artery in a 77-years-old cadaver autopsied due to the myocardial infarction was discovered. Many vascular variants and abnormalities such as an aplasia of the right vertebral artery (VA), a presence of two right posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), partial duplication of the right superior cerebellar artery, hypoplasia of the pre-communicating part (A1) of the right anterior cerebral artery and the right PCA of basilar origin, a special configuration of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), and a small aneurysm at the right A1-ACoA junction were associated...
April 27, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579891/protective-effect-of-chlorogenic-acid-on-the-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rat-models
#4
Mingsan Miao, Lihua Cao, Ruiqi Li, Xiaoyan Fang, Yanyan Miao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the protective characteristic of chlorogenic acid, a natural glucosyl xanthone found in Lonicera Japonica on the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was built by blocking the left middle cerebral artery in rats by using the suture-occluded method. Before operation, the corresponding drugs were given for each group once a day for 7 days...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549915/isolated-hypoglossal-paralysis-caused-by-ischemic-infarction-in-the-centrum-semiovale
#5
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Naotoshi Tamura, Nobuo Araki, Toshimasa Yamamoto
In the present report, we discuss the case of a 66-year-old woman with isolated unilateral hypoglossal paralysis due to cerebral infarction in the centrum semiovale. To date, it has hardly been discussed where the corticolingual tract passes through in the centrum semiovale. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small ischemic infarction in the contralateral centrum semiovale. We could demonstrate a route of the corticolingual tract.
May 23, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548298/total-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-score-and-cognitive-performance-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-results-from-the-atahualpa-project
#6
Victor J Del Brutto, Jorge G Ortiz, Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Mauricio Zambrano, José Biller
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is inversely associated with cognitive performance. However, whether the total SVD score is a better predictor of poor cognitive performance than individual signatures of SVD is inconclusive. We aimed to estimate the combined and independent predictive power of these MRI findings. METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years underwent brain MRI. Cognitive performance was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547726/stroke-induces-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-to-infarcted-brain-areas-via-cxcr4-and-c-met-signaling
#7
Oh Young Bang, Gyeong Joon Moon, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Sooyoon Kim, Jeong Pyo Son, Yeon Hee Cho, Won Hyuk Chang, Yun-Hee Kim
Mesenchymal stem cells circulate between organs to repair and maintain tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum have therapeutic effects when intravenously administered after stroke. However, only a small number of mesenchymal stem cells reach the brain. We hypothesized that the serum from stroke patients increases mesenchymal stem cells trophism toward the infarcted brain area. Mesenchymal stem cells were grown in fetal bovine serum, normal serum from normal rats, or stroke serum from ischemic stroke rats...
May 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543314/subclinical-hypothyroidism-and-risk-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-a-hospital-based-observational-study
#8
Xiaohao Zhang, Yi Xie, Caixia Ding, Jing Xiao, Yinyan Tang, Xuemei Jiang, Hua Shan, Yuankai Lin, Yujia Zhu, Chuanyou Li, Dan Hu, Zhixiang Ling, Gelin Xu, Lei Sheng
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with atherosclerosis and increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, whether SCH is associated with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between SCH and total cSVD burden, a composite measurement detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). DESIGN: This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541157/isolated-medial-longitudinal-fasciculus-syndrome-review-of-imaging-anatomy-pathophysiology-and-differential-diagnosis
#9
Puneet S Kochar, Yogesh Kumar, Pranav Sharma, Vikash Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Pradeep Goyal
Isolated medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome due to infarction limited only to the midbrain is a rare occurrence. The MLF are a group of fiber tracts located in the paramedian area of the midbrain and pons. They control horizontal eye movements by interconnecting oculomotor and abducens nuclei in the brain stem. Such small infarcts can easily be overlooked by young neuroradiologists and trainees. In this review, we discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics, comprehensive review of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and differential diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537536/-7-tesla-mri-for-visualisation-of-small-cerebral-vessels
#10
R P Kloppenborg
Due to its higher resolution, MRI in which a magnet with a field strength of 7 Tesla (7T MRI) is used, is able to image smaller abnormalities. 7T MRI is a promising tool for research into the causes of cerebral small vessel disease. Originally this technique was aimed at imaging the small perforating brain vessels and in particular at the micro-thrombi present there. Although 7T MRI has not proved effective in showing thrombi in small blood vessels, it has proved itself to be effective on other fronts. Functional measurements of the small brain vessels can be reliably determined and abnormalities of the vessel wall can be imaged...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527815/neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-characteristics-of-cerebellar-injury-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#11
Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Hisashi Tsuru, Sachio Takashima
OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphological characteristics and pathogenic factors of cerebellar injury in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging examination was performed on 17 eligible surviving ELBWI. Their MR images were assessed and classified its pattern of cerebellar injuries. Brain pathology was examined on 15 patients, who isolated this neuroimaging subjects. The trend of brain pathologies was revealed. RESULTS: Four types of morphological pattern were recognized: (i) the absence of major portions in the cerebellum (6/17 cases); (ii) focal cerebellar tissue loss (2/17); (iii) unilateral cerebellar atrophy/hypoplasia (3/17); (iv) small cerebellum with entrapped fourth ventricle (6/17)...
May 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515342/clinical-presentations-and-epidemiology-of-vascular-dementia
#12
REVIEW
Eric E Smith
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases cause vascular brain injury that can lead to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). VCI is the second most common neuropathology of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), accounting for up to one-third of the population risk. It is frequently present along with other age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple etiology dementia with both VCI and AD is the single most common cause of later life dementia. There are two main clinical syndromes of VCI: post-stroke VCI in which cognitive impairment is the immediate consequence of a recent stroke and VCI without recent stroke in which cognitive impairment is the result of covert vascular brain injury detected only on neuroimaging or neuropathology...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512508/lhermitte-duclos-disease-and-cerebellar-gangliocytoma-an-incidental-finding-in-a-patient-with-gradual-vision-loss
#13
Akshay Badakere, Pratik Chaugule, Soveeta Souravee Rath
A 50-year-old male patient presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with chief complaints of gradual decrease in vision in both eyes, more in the left eye, for 6 years. On general examination, the patient had a hemiplegic gait. His presenting acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/320 in the left eye, not improving further. He had dense posterior subcapsular cataracts in both eyes, and fundus examination revealed pale discs. Humphrey visual field tests 30-2 revealed a vertical nasal midline defect in the right eye and grossly depressed fields in the left eye...
June 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503301/is-there-a-role-for-ischaemic-conditioning-in-cardiac-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Luciano Candilio, Derek Hausenloy
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the revascularisation strategy of choice in patients with diabetes mellitus and complex CAD. Owing to a number of factors, including the ageing population, the increased complexity of CAD being treated, concomitant valve and aortic surgery, and multiple comorbidities, higher-risk patients are being operated on, the result of which is an increased risk of sustaining perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) and poorer clinical outcomes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487471/using-dti-to-assess-white-matter-microstructure-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-svd-in-multicentre-studies
#15
Iain D Croall, Valerie Lohner, Barry Moynihan, Usman Khan, Ahamad Hassan, John T O'Brien, Robin G Morris, Daniel J Tozer, Victoria C Cambridge, Kirsty Harkness, David J Werring, Andrew M Blamire, Gary A Ford, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) have been proposed as clinical trial markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) due to their associations with outcomes such as cognition. However, studies investigating this have been predominantly single-centre. As clinical trials are likely to be multisite, further studies are required to determine whether associations with cognition of similar strengths can be detected in a multicentre setting. One hundred and nine patients (mean age =68 years) with symptomatic lacunar infarction and confluent white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI was recruited across six sites as part of the PRESERVE DTI substudy...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482758/lesions-caused-by-virulent-aeromonas-hydrophila-in-farmed-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus-and-i-punctatus-%C3%A3-i-furcatus-in-mississippi
#16
Wes A Baumgartner, Lorelei Ford, Larry Hanson
In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila caused severe disease and high mortalities (motile aeromonad septicemia variant [MASv]) in farmed channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus) and hybrid catfish ( I. punctatus × I. furcatus) in eastern Mississippi and Alabama. As is common in MAS, there is severe hemorrhagic dermatitis with ulceration, as well as abdominal hyperemia, petechiation, and mild ascites. Additional findings in MASv cases include panophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis, leading to ocular rupture, and brains are often hyperemic with mild random acute hemorrhage...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470822/pericyte-derived-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-underlies-white-matter-damage-after-chronic-hypoperfusion
#17
Maiko T Uemura, Masafumi Ihara, Takakuni Maki, Takayuki Nakagomi, Seiji Kaji, Kengo Uemura, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Raj N Kalaria, Ayae Kinoshita, Ryosuke Takahashi
Subcortical small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by white matter damage resulting from arteriolosclerosis and chronic hypoperfusion. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) is dysregulated in the hereditary SVD, CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy). However, very little is known about the role of the largest group in the TGFB superfamily - the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) - in SVD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize signaling abnormalities of BMPs in sporadic SVD...
May 4, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469098/study-of-enhanced-depth-imaging-optical-coherence-tomography-in-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy
#18
Xiao-Jing Fang, Meng Yu, Yuan Wu, Zi-Hao Zhang, Wei-Wei Wang, Zhao-Xia Wang, Yun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary small artery disease caused by NOTCH3 gene mutation. We performed enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) to evaluate the retinal vessel changes in CADASIL patients and assessed their consonance with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. METHODS: Of 27 genetically confirmed patients and an equal number of controls were recruited at the Peking University First Hospital from January 2015 to August 2016...
May 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446216/the-effect-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-in-a-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-stroke-model-depends-on-their-engraftment-rate
#19
Saskia Grudzenski, Sebastian Baier, Anne Ebert, Pim Pullens, Andreas Lemke, Karen Bieback, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Lothar R Schad, Angelika Alonso, Michael G Hennerici, Marc Fatar
BACKGROUND: In the field of experimental stem cell therapy, intra-arterial (IA) delivery yields the best results concerning, for example, migrated cell number at the targeted site. However, IA application also appears to be associated with increased mortality rates and infarction. Since many rodent studies systemically apply 1 × 10(6) cells, this could also be a consequence of engrafted cell number. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of different doses of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on engraftment rates and stroke outcome measured in vivo using 9...
April 26, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436705/pharmacologically-increasing-collateral-perfusion-during-acute-stroke-using-a-carboxyhemoglobin-gas-transfer-agent-sanguinate%C3%A2-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#20
Marilyn J Cipolla, Italo Linfante, Abe Abuchowski, Ronald Jubin, Siu-Lung Chan
Similar to patients with chronic hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) develop fast core progression during middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) resulting in large final infarct volumes. We investigated the effect of Sanguinate™ (SG), a PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) gas transfer agent, on changes in collateral and reperfusion cerebral blood flow and brain injury in SHR during 2 h of MCAO. SG (8 mL/kg) or vehicle ( n = 6-8/group) was infused i.v. after 30 or 90 min of ischemia with 2 h reperfusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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