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Small brain infarct

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677415/acute-ischemic-stroke-in-a-young-woman-with-no-known-risk-factors
#1
Noureldin Abdelhamid, Salman Farooq, Amrou Sarraj
INTRODUCTION: We aim to highlight a potentially morbid consequence of foam-sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicose veins. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with no significant medical history who presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of focal neurologic deficits. She had undergone varicose vein treatment with foam sclerotherapy 2 days prior. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute cerebellar infarct. Computed tomography angiography was unremarkable...
March 2018: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670826/characteristics-of-paramedian-pontine-arteries-disease-and-its-association-with-hemoglobina1c
#2
Haiyan Li, Yaqing Shu, Biao Hu, Yongqiang Dai, Yinyao Lin, Yilong Shan, Yuge Wang, Wei Cai, Zhengqi Lu
Objectives: The association of branch atherosclerotic disease (BAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the territory of posterior circulation is rarely discussed. Intracranial BAD was divided into two different types: paramedian pontine arteries (PPA) disease (PPD) and lenticulostriate arteries (LSA) disease. The goal of the study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of PPD and its association with hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c) in China. Materials and Methods: Radiologically confirmed PPD was defined as an isolated unilateral infarction extending to the ventral surface of the pons...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665789/idiopathic-basal-ganglia-calcification-associated-with-cerebral-micro-infarcts-a-case-report
#3
Takuma Nishimoto, Fumiaki Oka, Hideyuki Ishihara, Mizuya Shinoyama, Michiyasu Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetric intracranial calcium deposition. We report a patient with IBGC associated with cerebral infarction due to impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity based on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with acetazolamide challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old male presented with right conjugate deviation, right hemiparesis and total aphasia due to a convulsive seizure...
April 17, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588240/superficial-temporal-artery-superior-cerebellar-artery-bypass-with-anterior-petrosectomy-technical-case-report
#4
Masaaki Hokari, Katsuyuki Asaoka, Daisuke Shimbo, Kazuki Uchida, Koji Itamoto
BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery (STA) -to- superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypass is associated with a relatively high risk of surgical complications, such as hematoma and/or edema caused by temporal lobe retraction. Therefore, the right side is typically used to avoid retraction of the left temporal lobe. In this report, we present a case of left STA-SCA bypass with anterior petrosectomy to avoid retraction of dominant side temporal lobe and describe the surgical technique in detail...
March 24, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562536/update-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease
#5
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560949/-actual-problems-of-brain-pathology-in-cerebral-microangiopathy
#6
L A Kalashnikova, T S Gulevskaya, L A Dobrynina
Cerebral microangiopathy (small vessels disease) is a cause of diffuse changes of brain tissue (encephalopathy) denoted in Russian literature by the term dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DE). The main cause of microangiopathy leading to encephalopathy is arterial hypertension, less frequently - cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in patients with microangiopathy is based on the combination of clinical manifestations (mainly, cognitive impairment of varying severity and disorders of gait) with the neuroimaging changes (white matter hyperintensity, multiple lacunar infarcts on MRI)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555872/can-diffusion-and-perfusion-weighted-imaging-alone-accurately-triage-anterior-circulation-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients-to-endovascular-therapy
#7
Dylan N Wolman, Michael Iv, Max Wintermark, Gregory Zaharchuk, Michael P Marks, Huy M Do, Robert L Dodd, Gregory W Albers, Maarten G Lansberg, Jeremy J Heit
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who benefit from endovascular treatment have a large vessel occlusion (LVO), small core infarction, and salvageable brain. We determined if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) alone can correctly identify and localize anterior circulation LVO and accurately triage patients to endovascular thrombectomy (ET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients undergoing MRI for the evaluation of AIS symptoms...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543130/effects-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-on-the-outcome-of-patients-with-ischemic-stroke-caused-by-large-artery-atherosclerosis
#8
Hui Zhu, Zhixing Li, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) describes a syndrome of neuroimaging, pathological, and associated clinical features caused by small intracranial vascular lesions, which commonly coexists with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and has been identified as a major cause of motor impairment over time. In this review, we aim to summarize the relationship between CSVD and LAA, and discuss the effects of CSVD on the clinical outcome of patients with ischemic stroke caused by LAA...
March 15, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534259/sonographic-diagnosis-of-meningoencephalitis-in-newborns-and-infants
#9
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527496/white-matter-hyperintensity-and-stroke-lesion-segmentation-and-differentiation-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#10
R Guerrero, C Qin, O Oktay, C Bowles, L Chen, R Joules, R Wolz, M C Valdés-Hernández, D A Dickie, J Wardlaw, D Rueckert
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a feature of sporadic small vessel disease also frequently observed in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of healthy elderly subjects. The accurate assessment of WMH burden is of crucial importance for epidemiological studies to determine association between WMHs, cognitive and clinical data; their causes, and the effects of new treatments in randomized trials. The manual delineation of WMHs is a very tedious, costly and time consuming process, that needs to be carried out by an expert annotator (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519969/-an-autopsy-case-of-meningoencephalitis-and-cerebral-infarction-that-developed-with-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-and-disseminated-herpes-zoster
#11
Nobuo Yamashiro, Takamura Nagasaka, Naoki Ooishi, Mai Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Takaki, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama
We report here the clinical presentation and subsequent autopsy of a 90-year-old man who developed small papules with pain and swelling in his right ear. On admission, he exhibited right facial nerve paralysis, neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. The cell count was elevated and the varicella-zoster virus-PCR was positive in the CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the left pons and left temporal lobe, in FLAIR images. We diagnosed the patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and meningoencephalitis due to varicella-zoster virus...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516113/treatment-of-unruptured-saccular-anterior-choroidal-artery-aneurysms-with-flow-diversion-a-single-centre-experience
#12
P Bhogal, O Ganslandt, H Bäzner, H Henkes, M Aguilar Perez
BACKGROUND: The region of the brain supplied by the anterior choroidal artery (AChoA) is exquisitely eloquent. Aneurysms arising at or close to the origin of the vessel are not uncommon and damage or occlusion to the vessel can result in devastating consequences. The optimal treatment strategy is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy of flow diversion for the treatment of unruptured AChoA aneurysms. METHOD: A retrospective review of our prospectively maintained database was performed to identify all patients with unruptured aneurysms of the AChoA between March 2009 and May 2017...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511372/clinical-importance-of-the-anterior-choroidal-artery-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Jing Yu, Ning Xu, Ying Zhao, Jinlu Yu
The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) is a critical artery in brain physiology and function. The AChA is involved in many diseases, including aneurysm, brain infarct, Moyamoya disease (MMD), brain tumor, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), etc. The AChA is vulnerable to damage during the treatment of these diseases and is thus a very important vessel. However, a comprehensive systematic review of the importance of the AChA is currently lacking. In this study, we used the PUBMED database to perform a literature review of the AChA to increase our understanding of its role in neurophysiology...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503412/evaluation-of-lenticulostriate-arteries-changes-by-7-t-magnetic-resonance-angiography-in-type-2-diabetes
#14
Satoshi Yashiro, Hiroyuki Kameda, Ai Chida, Yusuke Todate, Yutaka Hasegawa, Kan Nagasawa, Ikuko Uwano, Makoto Sasaki, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yasushi Ishigaki
AIM: Progress in neuroimaging techniques allows us to investigate the microvasculature characteristics including lenticulostriate arteries (LSA), which are closely associated with lacunar infarction. Because ischemic stroke is a more critical health problem in East Asian than in other populations, in order to clarify pathological changes underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), we projected an imaging analysis of LSA using high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in middle-aged Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487100/the-man-that-lost-part-of-his-mind
#15
Finlay Brown, Djamil Vahidassr
An 84-year-old man presented to the emergency department following recurrent falls over several weeks and onset of new left-sided weakness. CT of the brain revealed a large air cavity (pneumatocoele) in the right frontal lobe thought to be secondary to an ethmoidal osteoma communicating through the cribriform plate allowing air to be forced into the skull under pressure. Subsequent MRI confirmed these findings and also revealed a small focal area of acute infarction in the adjacent corpus callosum. The patient had a prolonged hospital stay, declined neurosurgical intervention and was discharged home on secondary stroke prevention...
February 27, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484397/adenoviruses-mediated-rna-interference-targeting-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-attenuates-focal-ischemic-brain-damage-in-mice
#16
Huijun Wu, Hui Liu, Fengtong Zuo, Lihua Zhang
Cerebral ischemia injury is a clinical, frequently occurring disease, which causes a heavy burden on society and families. It has been demonstrated that cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is significant in neurological injury caused by ischemic brain injury, and inhibition of cPLA2α may reduce stroke injury. In the present study, the role of cPLA2α was investigated in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and/or reperfusion (MCAO/R) using an effective cPLA2α inhibitor and adenoviruses‑mediated RNA interference...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483399/hypertension-induced-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-leading-to-cognitive-impairment
#17
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Yan-Hong Dong, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Wei-Hong Chen, Rui Li
Objective: Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are responsible for more than 80% of dementia cases. These two conditions share common risk factors including hypertension. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is strongly associated with both hypertension and cognitive impairment. In this review, we identify the pathophysiological changes in CSVD that are caused by hypertension and further explore the relationship between CSVD and cognitive impairment. Data Sources: We searched and scanned the PubMed database for recently published literatures up to December 2017...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476452/neuroimaging-signatures-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-at-blood-pressure-cutoff-levels-of-130-80-and-140-90-mmhg-a-population-based-study-in-community-dwellers-aged-%C3%A2-60-years
#18
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
INTRODUCTION: Recent guidelines suggest that a blood pressure cutoff of 130/80 mmHg should be used to define arterial hypertension. This contrasts with the previously accepted cutoff of 140/90 mmHg. AIM: Using the Atahualpa Project cohort, we aimed to assess the cutoff that better correlates with signatures of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which are related to arterial hypertension. METHODS: Of 437 Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 60 years, 363 (83%) underwent brain MRI and blood pressure determinations...
February 23, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468176/inhibition-of-the-potassium-channel-kv1-3-reduces-infarction-and-inflammation-in-ischemic-stroke
#19
Yi-Je Chen, Hai M Nguyen, Izumi Maezawa, Lee-Way Jin, Heike Wulff
Objective: Inhibitors of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3 are currently in development as immunomodulators for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. As Kv1.3 is also expressed on microglia and has been shown to be specifically up-regulated on "M1-like" microglia, we here tested the therapeutic hypothesis that the brain-penetrant small-molecule Kv1.3-inhibitor PAP-1 reduces secondary inflammatory damage after ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: We studied microglial Kv1...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460889/-cerebral-infarctions-in-vertebrobasilar-artery-atherosclerosis
#20
P L Anufriev, A N Evdokimenko, T S Gulevskaya
AIM: to obtain more specific information on the morphology and pathogenesis of cerebral infarctions occurring in vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) atherosclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Macro- and microscopic investigations of the brain, its arterial system, and heart were conducted in 69 autopsy cases with infarctions located in the vertebrobasilar system (VBS) in atherosclerosis. RESULTS: 69 cases were found to have 206 VBA infarctions of various extent and locations...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
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