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Small brain infarct

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818149/cerebellar-infarction-presenting-with-acute-vestibular-syndrome-in-two-u-s-air-force-pilots
#1
Roger R Hesselbrock
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar infarction is an uncommon but serious cause of isolated acute vestibular symptoms, particularly in young, healthy individuals, and can easily be overlooked. We present two cases of cerebellar infarction in U.S. Air Force pilots, one of which occurred during flight. CASE REPORTS: A 41-yr-old man developed acute vertigo, disequilibrium, nausea, and headache, with progressive slow symptomatic improvement, and presented to medical attention 4 d after symptom onset...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816772/a-case-of-lenticulostriate-stroke-due-to-minor-closed-head-injury-in-a-2-year-old-child-role-of-mineralizing-angiopathy
#2
Emin Fidan, Dana D Cummings, Mioara D Manole
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral infarction due to minor head injury is rare. Mineralizing angiopathy is considered a predisposing factor for lenticulostriate stroke after minor closed head injury. This entity is characterized by infarction of the basal ganglia and most often occurs in young children, from infancy to 2 years of age. Symptoms usually occur immediately after the injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present the case of a previously healthy 2-year-old female child presenting with right facial hemiparesis and aphasia, along with right arm and leg weakness that occurred immediately after a fall from the couch onto a carpeted floor...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783808/recrudescence-of-deficits-after-stroke-clinical-and-imaging-phenotype-triggers-and-risk-factors
#3
Mehmet A Topcuoglu, Esen Saka, Scott B Silverman, Lee H Schwamm, Aneesh B Singhal
Importance: Reemergence of previous stroke-related deficits (or poststroke recrudescence [PSR]) is an underrecognized and inadequately characterized phenomenon. Objective: To investigate the clinical features, triggers, and risk factors for PSR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective study incorporated a crossover cohort study to identify triggers and a case-control study to identify risk factors. The study used the Massachusetts General Hospital Research Patient Data Repository to identify patients for the period January 1, 2000, to November 30, 2015, who had a primary or secondary diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at least once, and whose inpatient or outpatient clinician note or discharge summary stated the term recrudescence...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782182/heterozygous-mutations-of-htra1-gene-in-patients-with-familial-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#4
Ilaria Di Donato, Silvia Bianchi, Gian Nicola Gallus, Alfonso Cerase, Ilaria Taglia, Francesca Pescini, Serena Nannucci, Carla Battisti, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni, Andrea Zini, Antonio Federico, Maria Teresa Dotti
AIMS: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the leading cause of vascular dementia. Although the most of cases are sporadic, familial monogenic causes have been identified in a growing minority of patients. CADASIL, due to mutations of NOTCH3 gene, is the most common genetic SVD, and CARASIL, linked to HTRA1 gene mutations, is a rare but well known autosomal recessive SVD. Recently, also heterozygous HTRA1 mutations have been described in patients with familial SVD. To detect a genetic cause of familial SVD, we performed mutational analysis of HTRA1 gene in a large cohort of Italian NOTCH3-negative patients...
August 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770339/evaluating-vertebral-artery-dominancy-before-t4-lung-cancer-surgery-requiring-subclavian-artery-reconstruction
#5
Yasuo Sekine, Yukio Saitoh, Mitsuru Yoshino, Eitetsu Koh, Atsushi Hata, Terunaga Inage, Hidemi Suzuki, Ichiro Yoshino
PURPOSES: To evaluate vertebral artery (VA) dominancy and the risk of brain infarction in T4 lung cancer patients with tumor invasion into the subclavian artery. METHODS: We reconstructed the subclavian artery in 10 patients with T4 non-small cell lung cancer. The histological stages were IIIA in eight patients and IIIB in two patients. We evaluated the VA dominancy by performing a four-vessel study preoperatively and investigated the relationship between the methods of VA treatment and postoperative brain complications, retrospectively...
August 2, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765285/incidence-of-brain-infarcts-cognitive-change-and-risk-of-dementia-in-the-general-population-the-ages-reykjavik-study-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#6
Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Olafur Kjartansson, Elias F Gudmundsson, Maria K Jonsdottir, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Palmi V Jonsson, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Gudnason, Lenore J Launer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The differentiation of brain infarcts by region is important because their cause and clinical implications may differ. Information on the incidence of these lesions and association with cognition and dementia from longitudinal population studies is scarce. We investigated the incidence of infarcts in cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and overall brain regions and how prevalent and incident infarcts associate with cognitive change and incident dementia. METHODS: Participants (n=2612, 41% men, mean age 74...
August 1, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760409/development-and-reliability-of-a-user-friendly-multicenter-phenotyping-application-for-hemorrhagic-and-ischemic-stroke
#7
Mayowa Owolabi, Godwin Ogbole, Rufus Akinyemi, Kehinde Salaam, Onoja Akpa, Pattanasak Mongkolwat, Adeleye Omisore, Atinuke Agunloye, Richard Efidi, Joseph Odo, Akintomiwa Makanjuola, Albert Akpalu, Fred Sarfo, Lukman Owolabi, Reginald Obiako, Kolawole Wahab, Emmanuel Sanya, Philip Adebayo, Morenikeji Komolafe, Abiodun Moshood Adeoye, Joshua Akinyemi, Godwin Osaigbovo, Taofiki Sunmonu, Paul Olowoyo, Innocent Chukwuonye, Yahaya Obiabo, Philip Ibinaiye, Abdul Dambatta, Yaw Mensah, Salaam Abdul, Eunice Olabinri, Joyce Ikubor, Olalekan Oyinloye, Femi Odunlami, Ezinne Melikam, Raelle Saulson, Philip Kolo, Adesola Ogunniyi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Annotation and Image Markup on ClearCanvas Enriched Stroke-phenotyping Software (ACCESS) is a novel stand-alone computer software application that allows the creation of simple standardized annotations for reporting brain images of all stroke types. We developed the ACCESS application and determined its inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study to assess its suitability for multicenter studies. METHODS: One hundred randomly selected stroke imaging reports from 5 SIREN sites were re-evaluated by 4 trained independent raters to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ACCESS (version 12...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754833/dolichoectasia-and-small-vessel-disease-in-young-patients-with-transient-ischemic-attack-and-stroke
#8
Vincent Thijs, Ulrike Grittner, Franz Fazekas, Dominick J H McCabe, Anne-Katrin Giese, Christof Kessler, Peter Martus, Bo Norrving, Erich Bernd Ringelstein, Reinhold Schmidt, Christian Tanislav, Jukka Putaala, Turgut Tatlisumak, Bettina von Sarnowski, Arndt Rolfs, Christian Enzinger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated whether basilar dolichoectasia is associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease in younger transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We used data from the SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients), a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young (<55 years) transient ischemic attack/stroke patients in whom detailed clinical data and brain MRI were obtained, and stroke subtyping with TOAST classification (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) was performed...
July 28, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720658/ticagrelor-versus-aspirin-in-acute-embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source
#9
Pierre Amarenco, Gregory W Albers, Hans Denison, J Donald Easton, Scott R Evans, Peter Held, Michael D Hill, Jenny Jonasson, Scott E Kasner, Per Ladenvall, Kazuo Minematsu, Carlos A Molina, Yongjun Wang, K S Lawrence Wong, S Claiborne Johnston
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy among patients with atherosclerotic disease and, therefore, could be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events among patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS), which includes patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% and aortic arch atherosclerosis. METHODS: We randomized 13 199 patients with a noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90) within 24 hours of symptom onset...
July 18, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716371/detection-risk-factors-and-functional-consequences-of-cerebral-microinfarcts
#10
REVIEW
Susanne J van Veluw, Andy Y Shih, Eric E Smith, Christopher Chen, Julie A Schneider, Joanna M Wardlaw, Steven M Greenberg, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral microinfarcts are small lesions that are presumed to be ischaemic. Despite the small size of these lesions, affected individuals can have hundreds to thousands of cerebral microinfarcts, which cause measurable disruption to structural brain connections, and are associated with dementia that is independent of Alzheimer's disease pathology or larger infarcts (ie, lacunar infarcts, and large cortical and non-lacunar subcortical infarcts). Substantial progress has been made with regard to understanding risk factors and functional consequences of cerebral microinfarcts, partly driven by new in-vivo detection methods and the development of animal models that closely mimic multiple aspects of cerebral microinfarcts in human beings...
September 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716287/kidney-dysfunction-and-silent-brain-infarction-in-generally-healthy-adults
#11
Sang Hyuck Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Jae Moon Yun, Ji Eun Lee, Jae-Sung Lim, Be Long Cho, Hyung-Min Kwon, Jin-Ho Park
BACKGROUND: The association between silent brain infarction (SBI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based kidney dysfunction has not yet been definitively confirmed. This study aimed to investigate the association in generally healthy adults without a previous history of stroke or overt kidney disease. METHODS: The data from the screening health check-up program in the Seoul National University Hospital Health Promotion Center from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 were used...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#12
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702194/elevation-of-brain-enriched-mirnas-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Sofie Sølvsten Sørensen, Ann-Britt Nygaard, Anting Liu Carlsen, Niels H H Heegaard, Mads Bak, Thomas Christensen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of cerebrospinal fluid miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers of acute ischemic stroke using three different profiling techniques in order to identify and bypass any influence from technical variation. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 21) and controls (n = 21) was collected by lumbar puncture. miRNA analysis was performed with three different methods: 1) Trizol RNA extraction followed by Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) on all small RNAs, 2) Exiqon RNA extraction protocol and miRNA qPCR assays, and 3) validation of 24 selected miRNAs with Norgen Biotek RNA extraction protocol and Applied Biosystems qPCR assays...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688715/multiple-silent-brain-infarcts-are-associated-with-severer-stroke-in-patients-with-first-ever-ischemic-stroke-without-advanced-leukoaraiosis
#14
Da-Wei Chen, Yu-Xi Wang, Jin Shi, Wei-Qing Zhang, Fen Yang, Yan-Wei Yin, Lu-Na Ma
BACKGROUND: Silent brain infarct (SBI) is associated with symptomatic stroke, but the association between SBI and acute ischemic stroke severity is uncertain. We aimed at investigating the association between SBI number and stroke severity in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke without advanced leukoaraiosis. METHODS: This study included 115 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke without advanced leukoaraiosis. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were measured...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666854/small-interfering-rna-mediated-knockdown-of-irisin-suppresses-food-intake-and-modulates-appetite-regulatory-peptides-in-zebrafish
#15
Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Suraj Unniappan
Irisin is a myokine encoded in fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). FNDC5 forms an integral part of the muscle post-exercise, and causes an increase in energy expenditure in mammals. Irisin is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles and is secreted upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). Irisin regulates feeding behaviour and cardiovascular function in mammals. More recently, irisin has gained importance as a potential biomarker for myocardial infarction due to its abundance in cardiac muscle...
June 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617385/-differential-diagnosis-of-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy
#16
A A Moroz, N Yu Abramycheva, M S Stepanova, R N Konovalov, S L Timerbaeva, S N Illarioshkin
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarctions and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited CNS disease, which is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Selective disorders of small vessels underlie the disease pathogenesis. Clinically CADASIL is characterized by headaches, multiple stroke-like disorders (in most cases transient ischemic attacks and lacunar strokes), and different focal neurological symptoms and dementia. There are specific MRI signs of the disease: multiple lacunar infarctions located in the basal ganglia, brain steam and cerebellum, focal lesions of temporal poles, capsula externa, periventricular and subcortical areas; diffuse white matter changes and leukoaraiosis can be observed as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608454/accelerated-atherosclerosis-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#17
I González-Suárez, J J Ríos-Blanco, J Arpa
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke, is a major cause of mortality in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Although AAV affects small vessels, an accelerated atherosclerosis not explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) has been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the association of atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cerebral small vessel disease in AAV-patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-three AAV-patients in complete remission were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585670/association-of-two-primitive-carotid-basilar-anastomoses-and-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-on-the-brain-base-a-case-report
#18
Milena TRANDAFİLOVİć, Ljiljana VASOVİć, Slobodan VLAJKOVİć, Marija DAKOVİć-BJELAKOVİć
Simultaneous presence of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery and so-called intermediate communicating artery in a 77-years-old cadaver autopsied due to the myocardial infarction was discovered. Many vascular variants and abnormalities such as an aplasia of the right vertebral artery (VA), a presence of two right posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), partial duplication of the right superior cerebellar artery, hypoplasia of the pre-communicating part (A1) of the right anterior cerebral artery and the right PCA of basilar origin, a special configuration of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), and a small aneurysm at the right A1-ACoA junction were associated...
April 27, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579891/protective-effect-of-chlorogenic-acid-on-the-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rat-models
#19
Mingsan Miao, Lihua Cao, Ruiqi Li, Xiaoyan Fang, Yanyan Miao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the protective characteristic of chlorogenic acid, a natural glucosyl xanthone found in Lonicera Japonica on the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was built by blocking the left middle cerebral artery in rats by using the suture-occluded method. Before operation, the corresponding drugs were given for each group once a day for 7 days...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549915/isolated-hypoglossal-paralysis-caused-by-ischemic-infarction-in-the-centrum-semiovale
#20
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Naotoshi Tamura, Nobuo Araki, Toshimasa Yamamoto
In the present report, we discuss the case of a 66-year-old woman with isolated unilateral hypoglossal paralysis due to cerebral infarction in the centrum semiovale. To date, it has hardly been discussed where the corticolingual tract passes through in the centrum semiovale. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small ischemic infarction in the contralateral centrum semiovale. We could demonstrate a route of the corticolingual tract.
May 23, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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