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Small brain infarct

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220869/non-obese-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-lacunar-infarct
#1
Min-Sun Kwak, Kyung Won Kim, Hyobin Seo, Goh-Eun Chung, Jeong Yoon Yim, Donghee Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lacunar infarct, a small subcortical ischemic lesion, is a known risk factor for future cognitive impairment, dementia, and stroke. We evaluated the relationship between fatty liver disease(FLD) and lacunar infarct in a healthy general population. METHODS: Subjects who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and abdominal ultrasonography(US) during health check-ups from 2007-2009 were included. FLD was diagnosed by US. Subjects with a history of cerebrovascular disease, radiological findings consistent with cerebrovascular stenosis, or cerebral small vessel disease were excluded...
December 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219753/resection-of-primary-motor-cortex-tumors-feasibility-and-surgical-outcomes
#2
Stephen T Magill, Seunggu J Han, Jing Li, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE Brain tumors involving the primary motor cortex are often deemed unresectable due to the potential neurological consequences that result from injury to this region. Nevertheless, we have challenged this dogma for many years and used asleep, as well as awake, intraoperative stimulation mapping to maximize extent of resection. It remains unclear whether these tumors can be resected with acceptable morbidity, whether performing the surgery with the patient awake or asleep impacts extent of resection, and how stimulation mapping influences outcomes...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#3
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203409/nanoelectronics-enabled-chronic-multimodal-neural-platform-in-a-mouse-ischemic-model
#4
Lan Luan, Colin T Sullender, Xue Li, Zhengtuo Zhao, Hanlin Zhu, Xiaoling Wei, Chong Xie, Andrew K Dunn
BACKGROUND: Despite significant advancements of optical imaging techniques for mapping hemodynamics in small animal models, it remains challenging to combine imaging with spatially resolved electrical recording of individual neurons especially for longitudinal studies. This is largely due to the strong invasiveness to the living brain from the penetrating electrodes and their limited compatibility with longitudinal imaging. NEW METHOD: We implant arrays of ultraflexible nanoelectronic threads (NETs) in mice for neural recording both at the brain surface and intracortically, which maintain great tissue compatibility chronically...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177697/neuroprotective-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-dodecamer-peptide-harboring-ninjurin-1-cell-adhesion-motif-in-the-postischemic-brain
#5
Hye-Kyung Lee, Il-Doo Kim, Hahnbie Lee, Lidan Luo, Seung-Woo Kim, Ja-Kyeong Lee
It has been reported that the innate immune response plays important roles in brain ischemia and that the infiltration of blood-derived immune cells is a key initiator of this response. Nerve injury-induced protein 1 (Ninjurin 1, Ninj1) is a cell adhesion molecule responsible for cell-to-cell interactions between immune cells and endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the proinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of Ninj1 and a dodecamer peptide harboring Ninj1 N-terminal adhesion motif (N-NAM, Pro26~Asn37) in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165327/effects-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-on-cerebral-ischemia-infarction-in-rat-model-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#6
Run-Zhe Liu, Chao-Xin Fan, Zhi-Lin Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yi Sun, Hui-Hui Liu, Zong-Xiu Nie, Xiao-Ping Pu
Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a drug that is used in the treatment of ischaemic stroke. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no systematic studies investigating the effects of dl-3-n-butylphtalide on the brain metabolism of small molecules. In this study, we first investigated the effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide on the spatial distribution of small molecules in the brains of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) imaging...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162363/sex-differences-in-associations-between-blood-lipids-and-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#7
Z-G Yin, Q-S Wang, K Yu, W-W Wang, H Lin, Z-H Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia predicts higher risk of coronary events and stroke and might be associated with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Previous studies linking blood lipids and SVD have yielded inconsistent results, which may be attributable to sex differences in lipids metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between blood lipids and SVD in neurologically healthy men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive 817 people aged 50 years or more were enrolled and underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans to evaluate the periventricular white matter lesions (PVWMLs), deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and silent brain infarction (SBI)...
October 10, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160736/gat3-selective-substrate-l-isoserine-upregulates-gat3-expression-and-increases-functional-recovery-after-a-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#8
Maria Ek Lie, Emma K Gowing, Nina B Johansen, Nils Ole Dalby, Louise Thiesen, Petrine Wellendorph, Andrew N Clarkson
Ischemic stroke triggers an elevation in tonic GABA inhibition that impairs the ability of the brain to form new structural and functional cortical circuits required for recovery. This stroke-induced increase in tonic inhibition is caused by impaired GABA uptake via the glial GABA transporter GAT3, highlighting GAT3 as a novel target in stroke recovery. Using a photothrombotic stroke mouse model, we show that GAT3 protein levels are decreased in peri-infarct tissue from 6 h to 42 days post-stroke. Prior studies have shown that GAT substrates can increase GAT surface expression...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145881/multiple-small-hemorrhagic-infarcts-in-cerebral-air-embolism-a-case-report
#9
Masaya Togo, Taku Hoshi, Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yukihiro Imai, Nobuo Kohara
BACKGROUND: Cerebral air embolism is a rare cause of cerebral infarction. In cerebral air embolism, T2 star-weighted imaging shows numerous spotty hypointense signals. Previous reports have suggested that these signals represent air in the brain and are gradually diminished and absorbed. We experienced two cases of cerebral air embolism, and in one of them, we conducted an autopsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 76-year-old Japanese man with lung cancer and emphysema...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115993/adjudin-preconditioned-neural-stem-cells-enhance-neuroprotection-after-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#10
Tingting Zhang, Xiao Yang, Tengyuan Liu, Jiaxiang Shao, Ningzhen Fu, Aijuan Yan, Keyi Geng, Weiliang Xia
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury. However, existing evidence has also challenged this therapy on its limitations, such as the difficulty for stem cells to survive after transplantation due to the unfavorable microenvironment in the ischemic brain. Herein, we have investigated whether preconditioning of NSCs with adjudin, a small molecule compound, could enhance their survivability and further improve the therapeutic effect for NSC-based stroke therapy...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101255/midlife-systemic-inflammation-late-life-white-matter-integrity-and-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#11
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Ron C Hoogeveen, Aaron R Folsom, Christie M Ballantyne, David S Knopman, B Gwen Windham, Elizabeth Selvin, Clifford R Jack, Rebecca F Gottesman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is currently unclear whether midlife systemic inflammation promotes the development of white matter (WM) abnormalities and small vessel disease in the elderly. We examined the association of midlife systemic inflammation with late-life WM hyperintensity volume, deep and periventricular WM microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity [MD]), cerebral infarcts, and microbleeds in a biracial prospective cohort study. METHODS: Linear and logistic regression examined the relation between midlife high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP)-a nonspecific marker of inflammation-and brain magnetic resonance imaging markers assessed 21 years later in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study...
November 3, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100059/enlarged-perivascular-spaces-in-the-basal-ganglia-are-independently-associated-with-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-the-elderly
#12
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Enlarged basal ganglia perivascular spaces (BG-PVS) are a marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The association between enlarged BG-PVS and atherosclerosis has been explored, but knowledge is limited to extracranial vessels. We aimed to assess whether enlarged BG-PVS correlate with carotid siphon calcifications (CSC), used as a surrogate of intracranial atherosclerosis. METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years underwent head computed tomography (CT) for assessment of CSC, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of BG-PVS and other imaging markers of SVD...
October 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083274/executive-dysfunction-and-blockage-of-brain-microvessels-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Kristopher D Langdon, Chris A Cordova, Shirley Granter-Button, Jamie D Boyd, James Peeling, Timothy H Murphy, Dale Corbett
Most research focuses on overt stroke caused by blockage of major blood vessels. Less attention has been paid to small vessel disease which gives rise to covert stroke that often leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). One reason for this may be the relative lack of relevant animal models. Herein, we describe, a model of VCI induced in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a diet high in saturated fats, salt and refined sugar (HFSS). In Experiment 1, rats were fed HFSS and subjected to a small mediodorsal (MD) thalamic stroke with or without concomitant permanent bilateral carotid artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070665/blood-brain-barrier-leakage-increases-with-small-vessel-disease-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Francesco Arba, Richard Leigh, Domenico Inzitari, Steven J Warach, Marie Luby, Kennedy R Lees
OBJECTIVE: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, we aimed to investigate the relation between preexisting small vessel disease (SVD) and the amount of blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in ischemic and nonischemic area before IV thrombolysis. METHODS: We retrospectively accessed anonymous patient-level data from the Stroke Imaging Repository and the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive resources and included patients treated with IV thrombolysis with pretreatment MRI...
November 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063957/significance-of-h3k27m-mutation-with-specific-histomorphological-features-and-associated-molecular-alterations-in-pediatric-high-grade-glial-tumors
#15
Süheyla Uyar Bozkurt, A Dagcinar, B Tanrikulu, N Comunoglu, B C Meydan, M Ozek, B Oz
PURPOSE: Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) constitute almost 15% of all childhood brain tumors. Recurrent mutations such as H3K27M mutation in H3F3A and HIST1H3B genes encoding histone H3 and its variants were identified in approximately 30% of pediatric glioblastomas. This study aimed to ascertain the morphological and molecular characteristics of pHGGs with H3K27M mutation. METHODS: In total, 61 cases of pHGGs (anaplastic astrocytoma, 12; glioblastomas, 49) from four university hospitals were studied...
October 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046363/serum-neurofilament-light-is-sensitive-to-active-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#16
Thomas Gattringer, Daniela Pinter, Christian Enzinger, Thomas Seifert-Held, Markus Kneihsl, Simon Fandler, Alexander Pichler, Christian Barro, Svenya Gröbke, Margarete Voortman, Lukas Pirpamer, Edith Hofer, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Jens Kuhle, Franz Fazekas, Michael Khalil
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether serum neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) levels are increased in patients with MRI-confirmed recent small subcortical infarcts (RSSI) compared to healthy controls and to determine the subsequent course and determinants of NfL levels in a longitudinal manner. METHODS: In a prospectively collected group of symptomatic patients with an RSSI (n = 79, mean age 61 ± 11 years, 67% male), we analyzed brain MRI and serum NfL using a Single Molecule Array (Simoa) assay at baseline and at 3 and 15 months after stroke...
October 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036822/cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts-on-3-tesla-mri-in-patients-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#17
Doeschka A Ferro, Susanne J van Veluw, Huiberdina L Koek, Lieza G Exalto, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are small ischemic lesions that are a common neuropathological finding in patients with stroke or dementia. CMIs in the cortex can now be detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of CMIs and associated clinical features in patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). METHOD: 182 memory-clinic patients (mean age 71.4±10.6, 55% male) with vascular injury on brain MRI (i...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031496/ischemic-stroke-in-a-patient-with-parry-romberg-syndrome
#18
Victoria Ebiana, Sandeep Singh, Shaweta Khosa, Negar Moheb, Bhavesh Trikamji, Neal M Rao, Shri K Mishra
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to discuss a case of a patient with a known diagnosis of Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) presenting with ischemic stroke, the second such reported case. BACKGROUND: PRS is a rare genetic disorder with progressive hemifacial atrophy, which usually presents within the first 2 decades of life. Neurologic manifestations include trigeminal neuralgia with associated deafness, hemifacial pain with associated migraine headaches, seizures, movement disorders, and neuropsychiatric symptoms...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030420/new-biomarker-for-acute-ischaemic-stroke-plasma-glycogen-phosphorylase-isoenzyme-bb
#19
Kwang-Yeol Park, Ilknur Ay, Ross Avery, Juan Alfredo Caceres, Matthew S Siket, Octavio M Pontes-Neto, Hui Zheng, Natalia S Rost, Karen L Furie, Alma Gregory Sorensen, Walter J Koroshetz, Hakan Ay
BACKGROUND: Glycogen phosphorylase is the key enzyme that breaks down glycogen to yield glucose-1-phosphate in order to restore depleted energy stores during cerebral ischaemia. We sought to determine whether plasma levels of glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) isoform increased in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We studied plasma GPBB levels within 12 hours and again at 48±24 hours of symptom onset in 172 patients with imaging-confirmed AIS and 133 stroke-free individuals...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019942/nadph-oxidase-related-pathophysiology-in-experimental-models-of-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yao, Tetsuro Ago, Takanari Kitazono, Toru Nabika
Several experimental studies have indicated that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox) exert detrimental effects on ischemic brain tissue; Nox-knockout mice generally exhibit resistance to damage due to experimental stroke following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Furthermore, our previous MCAO study indicated that infarct size and blood-brain barrier breakdown are enhanced in mice with pericyte-specific overexpression of Nox4, relative to levels observed in controls. However, it remains unclear whether Nox affects the stroke outcome directly by increasing oxidative stress at the site of ischemia, or indirectly by modifying physiological variables such as blood pressure or cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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