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Small brain infarct

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215260/moderate-to-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#1
Tae-Jin Song, Jung-Hyun Park, Kang Hyun Choi, Yoonkyung Chang, Jangsup Moon, Ju-Hee Kim, Yunseo Choi, Yong-Jae Kim, Hyang Woon Lee
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with increased risk of cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the association between cerebral SVD and severity of OSA. METHODS: A total of 170 patients were included from the patient registry at the present Sleep Center; these patients underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and polysomnography (PSG) for suspected OSA...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202707/cadasil-accelerated-by-acute-hypotension-arterial-and-venous-contribution-to-leukoaraiosis
#2
Jacqueline A Pettersen, Julia Keith, Fuqiang Gao, J David Spence, Sandra E Black
OBJECTIVE: To underline the importance of blood pressure regulation in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and to describe changes that occur in the veins in this condition, specifically venous collagenosis associated with leukoaraiosis. METHODS: Case report with neuroimaging and pathologic data. RESULTS: A 61-year-old man with genetically confirmed CADASIL was initially lucid following a motor vehicle accident but subsequently became hypotensive (60/40 mm Hg) due to an open femur fracture and required intubation...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190553/cervical-spine-imaging-for-young-children-with-inflicted-trauma-expanding-the-injury-pattern
#3
Joanne Baerg, Arul Thirumoorthi, Rosemary Vannix, Asma Taha, Amy Young, Alexander Zouros
AIM: The purpose of this study was to document the incidence and pattern of cervical spine (c-spine) injuries in children below 36months with inflicted trauma. METHODS: An IRB approved, prospective cohort study was performed between July 2011 and January 2016. Inclusion criteria were: age below 36months, loss of consciousness after inflicted trauma, and one initial head computed tomography finding: a subdural, intraventricular, intraparenchymal, subarachnoid hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury, hypoxic injury, or cerebral edema...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190474/salvianolic-acid-a-inhibits-calpain-activation-and-enos-uncoupling-during-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#4
Qaisar Mahmood, Guang-Fa Wang, Gang Wu, Huan Wang, Chang-Xin Zhou, Hong-Yu Yang, Zhi-Rong Liu, Feng Han, Kui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is obtained from Chinese herb Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge (Labiatae), has been reported to have the protective effects against cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases. HYPOTHESIS: The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the effectiveness of SAA against neurovascular injury and its effects on calpain activation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling. STUDY DESIGN: SAA or vehicle was given to C57BL/6 male mice for seven days before the occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60min...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187865/a-new-threshold-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-values-in-white-matter-after-successful-tissue-plasminogen-activator-treatment-for-acute-brain-ischemia
#5
Atsushi Sato, Yusaku Shimizu, Junichi Koyama, Kazuhiro Hongo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is effective for the treatment of acute brain ischemia, but may trigger fatal brain edema or hemorrhage if the brain ischemia results in a large infarct. Herein, we attempted to predict the extent of infarcts by determining the optimal threshold of ADC values on DWI that predictively distinguishes between infarct and reversible areas, and by reconstructing color-coded images based on this threshold. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 36 patients with acute brain ischemia in whom MRA had confirmed reopening of the occluded arteries in a short time (mean: 99min) after tPA treatment...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162056/tanshinone-%C3%A2-a-elicits-neuroprotective-effect-via-activating-the-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-dependent-antioxidant-response
#6
Min Cai, Yongxin Guo, Shiquan Wang, Haidong Wei, Guangchao Zhao, Sisi Sun, Hailong Dong
Tanshinone ⅡA (TSA), a principal component derived from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Danshen has been suggested to exert neuroprotective effect against experimental cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. But the associated underlying mechanisms still have not been understood. The current study characterized the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor induced antioxidant response in the neuroprotective efficacy of TSA treatment. The focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model was established by 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion...
February 4, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137897/blood-brain-and-binocular-vision
#7
Egle Rostron, Mary Polly Dickerson, Gregory Heath
A man aged 51 years presented with sudden onset, horizontal, binocular, double vision and right facial weakness. Ocular motility examination demonstrated a right horizontal gaze palsy pattern in keeping with a one-and-a-half syndrome. Since this was associated with a concomitant, ipsilateral, lower motor neuron (LMN) facial (VIIth) cranial nerve palsy, he had acquired an eight-and-a-half syndrome. Diffusion-weighted MRI confirmed a small infarcted area in the pons of the brainstem which correlated with anatomical location of the horizontal gaze centre and VIIth cranial nerve fasciculus...
January 30, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127514/interhemispheric-characterization-of-small-vessel-disease-imaging-markers-after-subcortical-infarct
#8
Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Xinyi Qiu, Xin Wang, Stewart Wiseman, Eleni Sakka, Lucy C Maconick, Fergus Doubal, Cathie L M Sudlow, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: In structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of patients with a recent small subcortical infarct (RSSI) and small vessel disease (SVD) imaging markers coexist. However, their spatial distribution and prevalence with respect to the hemisphere of the RSSI remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From brain MRI in 187 patients with an acute lacunar ischemic stroke clinical syndrome and a relevant diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)-positive lesion, we semiautomatically extracted the RSSI, microbleeds, lacunes, old cortical infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) using optimized thresholding in the relevant sequences, and rated the load of perivascular spaces...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123058/procalcitonin-and-midregional-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-as-biomarkers-of-subclinical-cerebrovascular-damage-the-northern-manhattan-study
#9
Mira Katan, Yeseon Moon, Arnold von Eckardstein, Kathartina Spanaus, Janet DeRosa, Jose Gutierrez, Charles DeCarli, Clinton Wright, Ralph Sacco, Mitchell Elkind
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic infections and cardiac dysfunction are risk factors for stroke. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin) and cardiac dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP]), previously associated with small vessel stroke and cardioembolic stroke are also associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage, including silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume. METHODS: The NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) was designed to assess risk factors for incident vascular disease in a multiethnic cohort...
January 25, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104915/visceral-obesity-is-associated-with-white-matter-hyperintensity-and-lacunar-infarct
#10
K W Kim, H Seo, M-S Kwak, D Kim
BACKGROUND: The presences of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and lacunar infarct are recognized as risk factors of dementia, stroke, and mortality. It is undetermined whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area is associated with an increased risk of cerebral small vessel disease. We explored whether VAT area was responsible for cerebral small vessel disease through the identification of WMH and lacunar infarct. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 subjects free of cerebrovascular disease who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) during a general health check-up were enrolled...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104728/early-and-long-term-cognitive-outcome-after-conventional-cardiac-valve-surgery
#11
Stephan C Knipp, Christian Weimar, Marc Schlamann, Sebastian Schweter, Daniel Wendt, Matthias Thielmann, Jaroslav Benedik, Heinz Jakob
OBJECTIVES: Adverse cognitive outcome is well recognized after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) while little is known about the extent and duration of decline after cardiac valve surgery. We investigated changes in cognitive function following conventional cardiac valve surgery over up to 4 years. METHODS: Among 36 patients (65.2 ± 9.2 years, 36% women) who received valve surgery, we assessed serial cognitive function with a battery of 11 standardized tests across 3-4 years...
January 18, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095387/mri-of-cerebellar-infarction
#12
Laurens J L De Cocker, Karl-Olof Lövblad, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND: MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing brain infarction. Because of few or atypical clinical symptoms and a relatively low sensitivity of CT scans, many cerebellar infarctions may be detected only with MRI. With adequate recognition of cerebellar infarction on MRI and prompt initiation or optimisation of preventive therapeutic measures, more dramatic strokes may be avoided in selected cases. SUMMARY: We first briefly review the clinical presentation of cerebellar infarctions, followed by a short refresher on cerebellar anatomy and pathophysiological mechanisms of cerebellar infarcts...
January 18, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093478/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-regulates-cerebrovascular-pathologies-in-ischemic-stroke
#13
Xuejing Zhang, Xuelian Tang, Kai Liu, Milton H Hamblin, Ke-Jie Yin
: The study is designed to determine the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1), in ischemic stroke outcome. Primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were cultured and treated with Malat1 GapmeR prior to 16h oxygen and glucose depravation (OGD). Cell death was assayed by LDH and MTT methods. Malat1 knockout and wildtype mice were subjected to 1h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 24-72h of reperfusion...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089760/enhanced-long-term-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evaluation-of-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#14
Nancy S Green, Monica Bhatia, Erica Y Griffith, Mahvish Qureshi, Courtney Briamonte, Mirko Savone, Stephen Sands, Margaret T Lee, Angela Lignelli, Adam M Brickman
Progressive neurovasculopathy in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) results in decreased cognitive function and quality of life (QoL). Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is believed to halt progression of neurovasculopathy. Quantitative analysis of T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden provides a meaningful estimate of small vessel cerebrovascular disease. We asked if quantitative analysis of WMH could complement standardized clinical assessment of MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for assessing SCD central nervous system vasculopathy before and after HCT...
January 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044308/expression-of-monomeric-c-reactive-protein-in-infarcted-brain-tissue-from-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Mark Slevin, Donghui Liu, Glenn Ferris, Malik Al-Hsinawi, Raid Al-Baradie, Jerzy Krupinski
OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that monomeric-C-reactive protein is deposited in significant quantities within the brain parenchyma after stroke. Since we have recently identified a possible role of this protein in supporting neurodegeneration and aberrant vascular development we identified a small group of post-mortem brain samples from individuals who had Alzheimer's disease and evidence of tissue infarction/ micro-infarction on histological examination. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We used immunohistochemistry staining to identify the monomeric-C-reactive protein expressed in the infarcted brain tissues...
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026027/the-contemporary-value-of-peak-creatine-kinase-mb-after-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-above-other-clinical-and-angiographic-characteristics-in-predicting-infarct-size-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-and-mortality
#16
Minke H T Hartman, Ruben N Eppinga, Pieter J J Vlaar, Chris P H Lexis, Erik Lipsic, Joost D E Haeck, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Iwan C C van der Horst, Pim van der Harst
BACKGROUND: Complex multimarker approaches to predict outcome after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have only considered a single baseline sample, while neglecting easily obtainable peak creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) values during hospitalization. METHODS: We studied 476 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) at 4-6 months after STEMI. We determined the association with cardiac biomarkers (peak CK-MB, peak troponin T, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), clinical and angiographic characteristics with infarct size, and LVEF, followed by association with mortality in 1120 STEMI patients...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956564/n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-subclinical-brain-small-vessel-disease
#17
Andrea Vilar-Bergua, Iolanda Riba-Llena, Anna Penalba, Luz María Cruz, Joan Jiménez-Balado, Joan Montaner, Pilar Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with several brain MRI markers of brain vascular disease in a sample of participants free of stroke and dementia. METHODS: NT-proBNP plasma level was determined by means of a sandwich immunoassay method in a cohort study comprising 278 hypertensive patients. The presence of silent brain infarcts, brain microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, and white matter hyperintensity volumes was assessed by brain MRI...
December 13, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933697/total-magnetic-resonance-imaging-burden-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-is-associated-with-post-stroke-depression-in-patients-with-acute-lacunar-stroke
#18
X Zhang, Y Tang, Y Xie, C Ding, J Xiao, X Jiang, H Shan, Y Lin, C Li, D Hu, T Li, L Sheng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite extensive studies on post-stroke depression (PSD), the role of the total burden of cerebral small-vessel disease (cSVD) in its pathogenesis remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cohort study to investigate the relationship between total MRI burden of cSVD and PSD among patients with first-ever lacunar stroke. From June 2013 to January 2016, 374 patients were consecutively recruited. PSD was identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909472/a-patient-with-asymptomatic-cerebral-lesions-during-af-ablation-how-much-should-we-worry
#19
REVIEW
Giovanni B Forleo Md PhD, Domenico G Della Rocca Md, Carlo Lavalle Md, Massimo Mantica Md, Lida P Papavasileiou Md, Valentina Ribatti Md, Germana Panattoni Md, Luca Santini Md PhD, Andrea Natale Md PhD, Luigi Di Biase Md PhD
Silent brain lesions due to thrombogenicity of the procedure represent recognized side effects of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation. Embolic risk is higher if anticoagulation is inadequate and recent studies suggest that uninterrupted anticoagulation, ACT levels above 300 seconds and administration of a pre-transeptal bolus of heparin might significantly reduce the incidence of silent cerebral ischemia (SCI) to 2%. Asymptomatic new lesions during AF ablation should suggest worse neuropsychological outcome as a result of the association between silent cerebral infarcts and increased long-term risk of dementia in non-ablated AF patients...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893680/the-value-of-ezis-analysis-of-tc-99m-ecd-spect-on-identifying-cerebellar-hypoperfusion-in-a-patient-with-superficial-siderosis-a-case-report
#20
Cheng-Yu Wei, Tai-Yi Chen, Ian Shih, Pai-Yi Chiu, Guang-Uei Hung, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Brain perfusion single photon computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional imaging modality and has been widely utilized in evaluation of various kinds of neurological disorders. Easy z-score imaging system (eZIS) is a computer-assisted statistical analysis, based on the comparison with age-classified ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) normal database, which provides objectively interpretation of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT.Here we presented a 64-year-old male with dizziness, spin sensation, nausea, and vomiting in the emergency room, and brain computed tomography scan showed only small hypodensity lesion in cerebellum...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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