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adverse effect of immunization

Vivek Murthy, Janna Minehart, Daniel H Sterman
Modern cancer immunotherapies represent a major shift in paradigm with respect to how we understand innate and adaptive responses to malignancy. Successful tumors co-opt normal immunosurveillance mechanisms by potent interactions between the tumor and local draining lymph nodes. Tumor cells mediate a complex and dynamic immunoediting procedure that results in increased vascular efflux into the draining lymphatics, an immunosuppressive microenvironment rich in regulatory T-lymphocytes, dysfunctional antigen presentation, and downregulation of normal effector lymphocyte responses...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Tatsuo Kanda, Shin Yasui, Masato Nakamura, Shingo Nakamoto, Koji Takahashi, Shuang Wu, Reina Sasaki, Yuki Haga, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Tomoko Saito, Kazufumi Kobayashi, Soichiro Kiyono, Yoshihiko Ooka, Eiichiro Suzuki, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Hitoshi Maruyama, Fumio Imazeki, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Naoya Kato
Background: Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. Results: All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Junya Kitadani, Toshiyasu Ojima, Hiromitsu Iwamoto, Hirotaka Tabata, Mikihito Nakamori, Masaki Nakamura, Keiji Hayata, Masahiro Katsuda, Masayasu Miyajima, Hiroki Yamaue
Clinical application of dendritic cell (DC) vaccine therapy is hindered by the need for a large quantity of DCs generated from peripheral blood monocytes of the patient. We investigated whether genetically modified human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dendritic cells (hiPSDCs) expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) could induce CEA-specific cytotoxic T cells in a human model and whether genetically modified mouse iPSDCs (miPSDCs) expressing CEA showed an actual antitumor effect using a CEA transgenic mouse model...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marina Chiara Garassino, Byoung-Chul Cho, Joo-Hang Kim, Julien Mazières, Johan Vansteenkiste, Hervé Lena, Jesus Corral Jaime, Jhanelle E Gray, John Powderly, Christos Chouaid, Paolo Bidoli, Paul Wheatley-Price, Keunchil Park, Ross A Soo, Yifan Huang, Catherine Wadsworth, Phillip A Dennis, Naiyer A Rizvi
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new standard of care for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without EGFR tyrosine kinase or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genetic aberrations (EGFR-/ALK-), but clinical benefit in patients with EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements (EGFR+/ALK+) has not been shown. We assessed the effect of durvalumab (anti-PD-L1) treatment in three cohorts of patients with NSCLC defined by EGFR/ALK status and tumour expression of PD-L1...
March 12, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Iwona Sembratowicz, Katarzyna Ognik
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most examined nanomaterials, but information about their immunogenic potential is still insufficient. Understanding interaction of AuNPs with immune system is essential in designing their safety and possibilities of biomedical applications. An experiment was conducted to determine immunotropic activity of gold nanocolloid (AuNPs) administered orally to chickens depending on dose and duration time. 162 birds were assigned to 9 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group (C) did not receive AuNPs...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jiajia Xi, Qian Huang, Lei Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Qipan Deng, Munish Kumar, Zhiyuan Zhou, Ling Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Ken H Young, Mingzhi Zhang, Yong Li
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one of the most abundant microRNAs in mammalian cells. It has been intensively studied for its role in regulating apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. However, the impact of miR-21 on host anti-tumor immunity remains unknown. Tumor-associated macrophages are a major leukocyte type that infiltrates tumors and predominantly develops into immunosuppressive, tumor-promoting M2-like macrophages. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages have tumoricidal activity. In this study, we show that genetic deficiency of miR-21 promotes the polarization of macrophages toward an M1-like phenotype in vivo and in vitro in the presence of tumor cells; thus it confers host mice with enhanced anti-tumor immunity...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
Partha Basu, Ajay Mehta, Minish Jain, Sudeep Gupta, Rajnish V Nagarkar, Subhashini John, Robert Petit
OBJECTIVES: A global unmet medical need exists for effective treatments for persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer, as patients have a short life expectancy. Recently, immunotherapies have shown promising survival benefits for patients with advanced forms of cancer. Axalimogene filolisbac (ADXS11-001), a Listeria monocytogenes immunotherapy with a broad effect on the immune system, is under investigation for treatment of human papillomavirus-associated cancers including cervical cancer...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Clive M Michelo, Bram van Cranenbroek, Peran Touw, Frans H J Claas, Arnold van der Meer, Irma Joosten
Background: Antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplantation is an important immunological barrier to successful long-term graft survival. Next to complement activation, natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in the process. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), independently associated with decreased graft survival, has a strong imprint on the immune response. Here, we assessed the effect of CMV status on alloreactive NK cell reactivity. Methods: We compared antibody-mediated NK cell cytolytic activity (CD107a expression) and IFNγ production between healthy CMV-seropositive (n = 8) and CMV-seronegative (n = 11) individuals, in cocultures of NK cells with anti-HLA class I or rituximab (control) antibody-coated Raji cells...
December 2017: Transplantation Direct
Yan Xu, Tshepiso Selerio-Poely, Xingru Ye
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of the local use of egg yolk immunoglobulin against Porphyromonas gingivalis (anti- P.g. IgY) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. Methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial involving 60 systematically healthy patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. Subjects (n=20/group) were randomly assigned to receive SRP combined with subgingival irrigation of anti- P...
February 2018: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
Andreas H Laustsen, José María Gutiérrez, Cecilie Knudsen, Kristoffer H Johansen, Erick Bermúdez Méndez, Felipe A Cerni, Jonas A Jürgensen, Mia Øhlenschlæger, Line Ledsgaard, Andrea Martos Esteban, Urska Pus, Mikael R Andersen, Bruno Lomonte, Mikael Engmark, Manuela B Pucca
Antibody technologies are being increasingly applied in the field of toxinology. Fuelled by the many advances in immunology, synthetic biology, and antibody research, different approaches and antibody formats are being investigated for the ability to neutralize animal toxins. These different molecular formats each have their own therapeutic characteristics. In this review, we provide an overview of the advances made in the development of toxin-targeting antibodies, and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different antibody formats in relation to their ability to neutralize toxins, pharmacokinetic features, propensity to cause adverse reactions, formulation, and expression for research and development (R&D) purposes and large-scale manufacturing...
March 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Kyoung A Jhang, Jin-Sun Park, Hee-Sun Kim, Young Hae Chong
BACKGROUND: Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) activity necessary for amyloid-stimulated phagocytosis strongly implicates that MerTK dysregulation might contribute to chronic inflammation implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of MerTK expression by amyloid-β (Aβ) in proinflammatory environment has not yet been ascertained. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanism involved in Aβ-mediated decrease in MerTK expression through Aβ-mediated regulation of MerTK expression and its modulation by sulforaphane in human THP-1 macrophages challenged with Aβ1-42...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Paulus S Rommer, Uwe K Zettl
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated and neurodegenerative disease with an unpredictable outcome. Immune-modulatory treatment aims at decreasing long-term disability. With the increasing number of treatment options, it is essential to fully digest the possible side effects of the available therapeutics and to monitor patients is essential. Areas covered: All approved disease-modifying drugs (DMD) for MS are discussed in this review. Mode of action, adverse effects, reported risks for infections and malignancies, and pregnancy related issues are discussed in the review...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Khadija Sellami, Meriem Amouri, Sana Kmiha, Emna Bahloul, Hajer Aloulou, Lamia Sfaihi, R Guirat, Madiha Mseddi, T Kamoun, Mongia Hachicha, Hamida Turki
Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a widely used vaccine. Management of local BCG complications differs between clinicians, and the optimal approach remains unclear. Aims: We aim to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the BCG vaccine side effects in Sfax. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all the cases of BCG vaccine adverse reactions recorded in the Dermatology and Paediatrics Departments of Hedi Chaker University Hospital of Sfax over a period of 10 years (2005-2015)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
G Krantzberg, P Hartley
Endocrine disruptors when introduced to waterways have many adverse health effects on wildlife and humans. These health effects vary from neurological, immune, carcinogenic and reproductive disorders. Currently, there are few wastewater treatment facilities that are purposefully treating endocrine disruptors as part of the normal wastewater treatment process. Current literature has shown that endocrine disruptors can be treated using conventional methods. These conventional methods are centered around the denitrification process, which is rarely adopted in Canada...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Michal Fried, Jonathan D Kurtis, Bruce Swihart, Robert Morrison, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Amadou Barry, Youssoufa Sidibe, Sekouba Keita, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Naissem Andemel, Oumar Attaher, Adama B Dembele, Kadidia B Cisse, Bacary S Diarra, Moussa B Kanoute, David L Narum, Alassane Dicko, Patrick E Duffy
BACKGROUND: Maternal malaria is a tropical scourge associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Women become resistant to Plasmodium falciparum pregnancy malaria as they acquire antibodies to the variant surface antigen VAR2CSA, a leading vaccine candidate. Because malaria infection may increase VAR2CSA antibody levels and thereby confound analyses of immune protection, gravidity-dependent changes in antibody levels during and after infection, and the effect of VAR2CSA antibodies on pregnancy outcomes were evaluated...
March 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sohrab Kazemi, Mohsen Khalili-Fomeshi, Atefeh Akbari, Seydeh Narges Mousavi Kani, Seyed Raheleh Ahmadian, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Nonylphenol (NP) has been introduced as the most common endocrine disturbing-chemical (EDC) in the environment. NP exerts several adverse effects on the reproductive system, immune system, and central nervous system (CNS) via its potent hormonal activity. In this study, the correlation between NP concentration and the resulting memory impairment and induction of anxiety was examined in adult rats. NP (at doses of 0.2 or 2 mg/kg) and corn oil (as NP vehicle) were orally administrated for 35 days. On day 36, animals were evaluated for anxiety and cognitive performance using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze test, respectively...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Rebeca Hid Cadena, Wayel H Abdulahad, G A P Hospers, T T Wind, Annemieke M H Boots, Peter Heeringa, Elisabeth Brouwer
Age-associated changes in the immune system including alterations in surface protein expression are thought to contribute to an increased susceptibility for autoimmune diseases. The balance between the expression of coinhibitory and costimulatory surface protein molecules, also known as immune checkpoint molecules, is crucial in fine-tuning the immune response and preventing autoimmunity. The activation of specific inhibitory signaling pathways allows cancer cells to evade recognition and destruction by the host immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Katharine C Pike, Melika Akhbari, Dylan Kneale, Katherine M Harris
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in school-aged children peak in autumn, shortly after children return to school following the summer holiday. This might reflect a combination of risk factors, including poor treatment adherence, increased allergen and viral exposure, and altered immune tolerance. Since this peak is predictable, interventions targeting modifiable risk factors might reduce exacerbation-associated morbidity and strain upon health resources. The peak occurs in September in the Northern Hemisphere and in February in the Southern Hemisphere...
March 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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