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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043874/the-risk-of-occupational-exposure-to-mercury-vapor-in-some-public-dental-clinics-of-baghdad-city-iraq
#1
Enas Sultan Al-Zubaidi, Adel Mashaan Rabee
BACKGROUND: Dental workers are exposed to elevated levels of elemental mercury vapor substantially above the occupational exposure standards when placing or removing mercury/silver tooth restorations and disposing of mercury waste. This results in a significant increase in occupational exposure and risk of mercury intoxication. METHODS: To evaluate the occupational exposure of dental workers to amalgam in four dental clinics in Baghdad city, the concentrations of mercury vapor were measured seasonally from February to November 2016...
October 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043797/metal-oxides-in-surface-sediment-control-nickel-bioavailability-to-benthic-macroinvertebrates
#2
Raissa Marques Mendonca, Jennifer M Daley, Michelle L Hudson, Christian Schlekat, G Allen Burton, David Costello
In aquatic ecosystems, the cycling and toxicity of nickel (Ni) are coupled to other elemental cycles that can limit its bioavailability. Current sediment risk assessment approaches consider acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) as the major binding phase for Ni, but have not yet incorporated ligands that are present in oxic sediments. Our study aimed to assess how metal oxides play a role in Ni bioavailability in surficial sediments exposed to effluent from two mine sites. We coupled spatially explicit sediment geochemistry (i...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043483/iron-toxicity-in-yeast-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-vacuolar-iron-importer-ccc1
#3
REVIEW
Liangtao Li, Diane M Ward
All eukaryotes require the transition metal, iron, a redox active element that is an essential cofactor in many metabolic pathways, as well as an oxygen carrier. Iron can also react to generate oxygen radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions, which are highly toxic to cells. Therefore, organisms have developed intricate mechanisms to acquire iron as well as to protect themselves from the toxic effects of excess iron. In fungi and plants, iron is stored in the vacuole as a protective mechanism against iron toxicity...
October 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043347/zinc-ing-it-out-zinc-homeostasis-mechanisms-and-their-impact-on-the-pathogenesis-of-human-pathogen-group-a-streptococcus
#4
REVIEW
Nishanth Makthal, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Group A Streptococccus (GAS) is a major human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Zinc is an essential trace element required for GAS growth, however, zinc can be toxic at excess concentrations. The bacterial strategies to maintain zinc sufficiency without incurring zinc toxicity play a crucial role in host-GAS interactions and have a significant impact on GAS pathogenesis. The host deploys nutritional immune mechanisms to retard GAS growth by causing either zinc deprivation or zinc poisoning...
October 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043335/remarkable-lowering-in-the-synthesis-temperature-of-limn2o4via-citrate-solution-gel-synthesis-facilitated-by-ethanol
#5
G Maino, R Carleer, W Marchal, G Bonneux, A Hardy, M K Van Bael
LiMn2O4 (LMO) is interesting from the viewpoint of its energy storage applications as it is a cathode in lithium ion batteries (LIB), which contains no rare, toxic or expansive elements, while it provides a high theoretical capacity (148 mA h g(-1)) at a reasonable voltage (4 V region) and a higher thermal stability compared to cobalt based cathodes and has a good rechargeability and cycling stability due to its spinel structure. Low temperature synthesis routes for cathode materials are currently gaining attention, in order to decrease the ecological footprint of the final LIB...
October 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040977/gene-microarray-integrated-with-high-throughput-proteomics-for-the-discovery-of-transthyretin-in-rhabdomyolysis-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Ou Li, Xiaodong Geng, Qian Ma, Weiwei Wang, Ran Liu, Zhong Yin, Siyang Wang, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen, Quan Hong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rhabdomyolysis, one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI), develops after trauma, drug toxicity, infections, burns, and physical exertion. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in gene and protein expression to elucidate the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis (RM)-induced AKI. METHODS: In this study, we used glycerol induced renal injury as a model of RM-induced AKI. Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 microarrays were used to perform gene microarray analysis...
October 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040791/roles-of-mmu_pir_003399-in-microcystin-leucine-arginine-mc-lr-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-the-spermatogonial-cells-and-testis
#7
Ling Zhang, Xiannan Meng, Zou Xiang, Dongmei Li, Xiaodong Han
Our previous work has demonstrated that microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a potent toxin for the reproductive system of male mice and it exerts cytotoxicity in spermatogonial cells, resulting in the constitutional and functional changes of the mouse testis. The present study was designed to investigate the functions of P-element-induced wimpy (piwi)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in MC-LR-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice. We observed an increase in the mmu_piR_003399 level in spermatogonial cells and mouse testicular tissues following treatment with MC-LR...
October 12, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039350/the-toxicity-of-vanadium-on-gastrointestinal-urinary-and-reproductive-system-and-its-influence-on-fertility-and-fetuses-malformations
#8
Aleksandra Wilk, Dagmara Szypulska-Koziarska, Barbara Wiszniewska
Vanadium is a transition metal that has a unique and beneficial effect on both humans and animals. For many years, studies have suggested that vanadium is an essential trace element. Its biological properties are of interest due to its therapeutic potential, including in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Vanadium deficiencies can lead to a range of pathologies. However, excessive concentration of this metal can cause irreversible damage to various tissues and organs. Vanadium toxicity mainly manifests in gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight reduction...
September 25, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038429/one-dimensional-coordination-polymer-of-zn-ii-for-developing-multifunctional-nanoparticles
#9
Rashmi A Agarwal
A variety of nanoparticles (NPs) including Ag, Au, Pd, Cr and mixed Cu/Fe have been synthesized in a non-activated (without solvent removal) one dimensional coordination polymer (CP) of Zn(II) via two different mechanisms, acid formation and redox activity of the framework. Main driving force to grow these NPs within the cavities of CP is the presence of free oxygens of one of the monodentate carboxylate groups of BDC ligand. These free oxygens act as anchoring sites for the metal ions of the metal precursors...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035796/characterization-of-iron-and-manganese-minerals-and-their-associated-microbiota-in-different-mine-sites-to-reveal-the-potential-interactions-of-microbiota-with-mineral-formation
#10
Jin Hee Park, Bong-Soo Kim, Chul-Min Chon
Different environmental conditions such as pH and dissolved elements of mine stream induce precipitation of different minerals and their associated microbial community may vary. Therefore, mine precipitates from various environmental conditions were collected and their associated microbiota were analyzed through metagenomic DNA sequencing. Various Fe and Mn minerals including ferrihydrite, schwertmannite, goethite, birnessite, and Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH (δ-(Fe1-x, Mnx)OOH) were found in the different environmental conditions...
October 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035753/toxic-inorganic-pollutants-in-foods-from-agricultural-producing-areas-of-southern-italy-level-and-risk-assessment
#11
Andrea Salvo, Giovanna Loredana La Torre, Valentina Mangano, Katia Erminia Casale, Giovanni Bartolomeo, Antonello Santini, Tiziano Granata, Giacomo Dugo
This study focused on the inorganic environmental contaminants in specific food products which form part of the food chain of the population residing in the area of Southern Italy (Gela) where there is a high mortality rate linked to tumor diseases and congenital malformations. Determination of toxic metals was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The toxicological data for every toxic element has been applied to evaluate the risk for the consumer by calculating the amount of potentially toxic element that would ingest an average of 60kg weight individual adult...
October 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033170/assessing-the-effect-of-mercury-pollution-on-cultured-benthic-foraminifera-community-using-morphological-and-edna-metabarcoding-approaches
#12
Fabrizio Frontalini, Mattia Greco, Letizia Di Bella, Franck Lejzerowicz, Emanuela Reo, Antonio Caruso, Claudia Cosentino, Antonella Maccotta, Giovanna Scopelliti, Maria Pia Nardelli, Maria Teresa Losada, Eric Armynot du Châtelet, Rodolfo Coccioni, Jan Pawlowski
Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify. Here, we analyze the response of benthic foraminifera communities cultured in mesocosm and exposed to different concentrations of Hg. Standard morphological analyses and environmental DNA metabarcoding show evidence that Hg pollution has detrimental effects on benthic foraminifera. The molecular analysis provides a more complete view of foraminiferal communities including the soft-walled single-chambered monothalamiids and small-sized hard-shelled rotaliids and textulariids than the morphological one...
October 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032684/effect-of-boron-on-thymic-cytokine-expression-hormone-secretion-antioxidant-functions-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-potential-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#13
Erhui Jin, Man Ren, Wenwen Liu, Shuang Liang, Qianqian Hu, Youfang Gu, Shenghe Li
Boron is an essential trace element in animals. Appropriate boron supplementation can promote thymus development; however, a high dose of boron can lead to adverse effects and cause toxicity. The influencing mechanism of boron on the animal body remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of boron on cytokine expression, thymosin and thymopoietin secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the ERK1/2 pathway in the thymus of rats. We found that supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L of boron to the drinking water significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and thymosin α1 in the thymus of rats (P < 0...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031118/chemical-elements-in-mediterranean-macroalgae-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Giuseppe Bonanno, Martina Orlando-Bonaca
This review analyzes the state of knowledge on the capacity of Mediterranean macroalgae to accumulate, tolerate and biomonitor macro- and micro-elements present in seawater and sediments. The results show that the investigated macroalgal species amount to c. 5.0% of all Mediterranean native Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta. The most commonly analyzed elements in algae were Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu, whereas very few studies were available for macroelements such as Ca and K. Uptake mechanisms and the factors influencing accumulation are overall well known, but the available studies are restricted to a limited number of chemical elements and algal species...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030874/depuration-of-cadmium-from-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis-by-protein-hydrolysate-fe-2-complex-the-role-of-metallothionein
#15
Bin Zhang, Chuan-Dong Fang, Jun-Hui Xu, Hui-Juan Cao
Metallothionein (MT) plays a major role in the detoxification of toxic metal ions in mussel. This study served to investigate the effects of prepared protein hydrolysate-Fe(2+) (PH-Fe(2+) ) on depuration of cadmium salt (Cd(2+) ) from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). The results indicated that Cd(2+) concentrations in control ranged from 46.1 to 47.1 μg/g during 15 d of depuration. While, 40 mg/L PH-Fe(2+) feed mussels exhibited obvious changes in Cd(2+) concentration variables, which decreased by 22.8 μg/g after 15 d of depuration, making them significantly lower than the values of the control...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028684/toxic-metals-increase-serum-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-levels-modified-by-essential-elements-and-different-types-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-promoter-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
#16
Yung-Cheng Huang, Wei-Chiao Chang, Ya-Han Shan, Chao-Yi Lin, Chao-Ling Wang, Chia-Yen Dai, Chi-Kung Ho, Ming-Tsang Wu, Hung-Yi Chuang
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) could cause health issues through oxidative stress that is indicated in the elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). However, some of the essential elements-selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu)-are cofactors or structural components of antioxidant enzymes. It is suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF-α gene have different TNF-α responses. This study aims to evaluate the effect of serum TNF-α levels through the interactions between toxic metals and essential elements and how the interactions between the toxic metals and TNF-α SNPs (-1031 T > C, -863 C > A, -857 C > T, -308 G > A, -238 G > A) influence serum TNF-α levels...
October 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028613/divergent-biology-of-facultative-heavy-metal-plants
#17
REVIEW
Hermann Bothe, Aneta Słomka
Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028541/tuning-the-structure-of-aminoferrocene-based-anticancer-prodrugs-to-prevent-their-aggregation-in-aqueous-solution
#18
Steffen Daum, Svetlana Babiy, Helen Konovalova, Walter Hofer, Alexander Shtemenko, Natalia Shtemenko, Christina Janko, Christoph Alexiou, Andriy Mokhir
Aminoferrocene-based prodrugs are activated in cancer cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS). They were shown to exhibit high cytotoxicity towards a variety of cancer cell lines and primary cancer cells, but remain not toxic towards non-malignant cells. However, these prodrugs have rather high lipophilicity leading to relatively low water solubility. In particular, an n-octanol/water partition coefficient for the best aminoferrocene-based prodrug (2) was found to be 4.51±0.03. Though the approaches for decreasing lipophilicity are straightforward and include the addition of polar residues to the drug structure, these modifications also lead to dramatic decrease of cell permeability and, correspondingly, lower the activity of the drug...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027657/practical-issues-of-nutrition-during-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#19
Dariusz Onichimowski, Radosław Goraj, Rakesh Jalali, Jolanta Grabala, Ewa Mayzner-Zawadzka, Mirosław Czuczwar
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients has significant impact on one's ability to provide efficient nutritional therapy. CRRT may help in the prevention of intestinal oedema and the maintenance of the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract by enabling strict control of the fluid balance. It facilitates early introduction of nutrition via the enteral route, as well as allowing for the composition of high-volume feeding mixtures. It is necessary to take into consideration that during CRRT, together with blood purification of toxic substances, nutritive elements are also eliminated to some extent (micro- and macronutrients)...
October 13, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023967/copper-toxicity-and-date-palm-seedling-tolerance-monitoring-of-related-biomarkers
#20
Zayneb ChaÂBene, Imen Rekik Hakim, Agnieszka Rorat, Amine Elleuch, Hafedh Mejdoub, Franck Vandenbulcke
Date palm seeds were exposed to different copper solutions to examine plant stress responses. Low Cu concentrations (0.02 and 0.2 mM) caused an increase of seed germination, whereas, higher Cu amount (2 mM) significantly inhibited seeds germination, delayed hypocotyl elongation, increased seedling mortality and reduced germination index by more than 90 %. Metal-related toxicity symptoms appeared after 15 days of 2 mM Cu exposure. Biochemical activities, like amylase activity and redox balance elements were examined in order to study the relationship between external Cu amount and internal plant response...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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