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toxic elements

Celine I L Justino, Armando C Duarte, Teresa A P Rocha-Santos
The environmental monitoring has been one of the priorities at the European and global scale due to the close relationship between the environmental pollution and the human health/socioeconomic development. In this field, the biosensors have been widely employed as cost-effective, fast, in situ, and real-time analytical techniques. The need of portable, rapid, and smart biosensing devices explains the recent development of biosensors with new transduction materials, obtained from nanotechnology, and for multiplexed pollutant detection, involving multidisciplinary experts...
December 15, 2017: Sensors
Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci, Kemal Yuce
Zinc, which is involved in the structure of all enzyme classes, is a micro nutrient element and necessary for growth and development. The ability of zinc to function without causing toxic effects is depends on the protection of its homeostasis. Zinc transporter proteins are responsible for keeping zinc at certain concentrations. Based on their predicted membrane topology, Zn transporters are divided into two major families, SLC39s/ZIPs and SLC30s/ZnTs, which transport Zn in opposite directions through cellular and intracellular membranes...
December 14, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Giuliana Fusco, Serene W Chen, Philip T F Williamson, Roberta Cascella, Michele Perni, James A Jarvis, Cristina Cecchi, Michele Vendruscolo, Fabrizio Chiti, Nunilo Cremades, Liming Ying, Christopher M Dobson, Alfonso De Simone
Oligomeric species populated during the aggregation process of α-synuclein have been linked to neuronal impairment in Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. By using solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in conjunction with other structural methods, we identified the fundamental characteristics that enable toxic α-synuclein oligomers to perturb biological membranes and disrupt cellular function; these include a highly lipophilic element that promotes strong membrane interactions and a structured region that inserts into lipid bilayers and disrupts their integrity...
December 15, 2017: Science
Christian Turra
Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of chemical elements that include lanthanoids (lanthanum to lutetium), scandium and yttrium. In the last decades, the REE demand in the industry and other areas has increased significantly. In general, REE have shown low concentrations in soils, plants, water and atmosphere, but they may accumulate in such environments due to anthropogenic inputs. In areas where there is REE contamination, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Yongxia Liu, Qian Wang, Wen Zhuang, Yanli Yuan, Yani Yuan, Keqin Jiao, Mantang Wang, Qing Chen
As a common pollutive metal element, Tl is very biotoxic. The potential ecological risk index (RI) proposed by Håkanson is one of the commonest methods for evaluation of ecological risk of a metal in sedimentary environment of a water body. According to the calculation principle proposed by Håkanson, the toxicity coefficient of Tl was calculated, and determined as 10 in this paper. In addition, the environmental risk of Tl in the surface sediment of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Zaozhuang Section) was evaluated by RI method, enrichment factor method, etc...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hatem Mohamed, Parvez I Haris, Eid I Brima
Exposure of the inhabitants of Najran area in Saudi Arabia to the toxic elements As, Cd, Cr, and Pb through foods has not been previously investigated. Exposure to such elements is an important public health issue, so the study described here was performed with the aim of determining estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) for these metals in Najran area. The As, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations in four staple foods (rice, wheat, red meat, and chicken) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed by 80 study participants...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
James M Barazesh, Carsten Prasse, Jannis Wenk, Stephanie Berg, Christina K Remucal, David L Sedlak
As water scarcity intensifies, point-of-use and point-of-entry treatment may provide a means of exploiting locally available water resources that are currently considered to be unsafe for human consumption. Among the different classes of drinking water contaminants, toxic trace elements (e.g., arsenic and lead) pose substantial operational challenges for distributed drinking water treatment systems. Removal of toxic trace elements via adsorption onto iron oxides is an inexpensive and robust treatment method; however, the presence of metal-complexing ligands associated with natural organic matter (NOM) often prevents the formation of iron precipitates at the relatively low concentrations of dissolved iron typically present in natural water sources, thereby requiring the addition of iron which complicates the treatment process and results in a need to dispose of relatively large amounts of accumulated solids...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Metal-tolerant thermophiles are inhabitants of a wide range of extreme habitats like solfatara fields, hot springs, mud holes, hydrothermal vents oozing out from metal-rich ores, hypersaline pools and soil crusts enriched with metals and other elements. The ability to withstand adverse environmental conditions, like high temperature, high metal concentration and sometimes high pH in their niche, makes them an interesting subject for understanding mechanisms behind their ability to deal with multiple duress simultaneously...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nasim Babaknejad, Somaye Bahrami, Ali Asghar Moshtaghie, Hashem Nayeri, Parvin Rajabi, Farhad Golshan Iranpour
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element, which may cause toxicity to most organs in the body. Zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) are essential minerals with probable benefits on Cd harmful effects. Finding an efficient and non-pathological treatment against Cd toxicity seems promising. Fifty adult rats were divided into ten experimental groups of five rats each. The Cd group was treated with 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 cm3 normal saline. The other eight groups received Zn (0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) and Mg (0...
December 14, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Allison J Lazard, M Justin Byron, Huyen Vu, Ellen Peters, Annie Schmidt, Noel T Brewer
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires the US government to inform the public about the quantities of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. A website can accomplish this task efficiently, but the site's user interface must be usable to benefit the general public. We conducted online experiments with national convenience samples of 1,451 US adult smokers and nonsmokers to examine the impact of four interface display elements: the chemicals, their associated health effects, quantity information, and a visual risk indicator...
December 13, 2017: Health Communication
Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin, Barbara Klik, Dorota Kulikowska
Soil washing effectively and permanently decreases soil pollution. Thus, it can be considered for removal of the most toxic elements, e.g. arsenic (As). In this study, historically As contaminated soils (2041-4294 mg/kg) were remediated with tannic acid (TA) as the washing agent. The scope of this study included optimization of the operational conditions of As removal, determination of As distribution in soil before and after double soil washing, and measurement of TA loss during washing. The optimum conditions for As removal were 4% TA, pH 4 and 24 h washing time...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
Michael Levi, Camilla Hjelm, Florencia Harari, Marie Vahter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Magdalena Mezynska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal belonging to the group of the main chemical pollutants of the natural and occupational environment in economically developed countries. The forecasts indicate that contamination of the environment with this toxic metal, and thus the exposure of the general population, will increase. Food (particularly plant products) is the main source of the general population exposure to this element. Moreover, an important, and often the main, source of intoxication with Cd is habitual tobacco smoking...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Priyanka Mondal, Amanda J Reichelt-Brushett, M P Jonathan, S B Sujitha, Santosh Kumar Sarkar
The present work investigated the spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of total and mild acid-leachable trace elements in surface sediments (top 0-10 cm; grain size ≤ 63 μm) along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary and Sundarban Mangrove Wetland, India. The trace elements, analyzed by ICPMS, showed wide range of variations with the following descending order (mean values expressed in milligrams per kilogram): Fe (25,050 ± 4918) > Al (16,992 ± 4172) > Mn (517 ± 102) > Zn (53 ± 18) > Cu (33 ± 11) > Cr (29 ± 7) > Ni (27 ± 6) > Pb (14 ± 3) > As (5 ± 1) > Se (0...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Oratai Neamsuvan, Panadda Komonhiran, Kamonvadee Boonming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Abolfazl Akbari, Khadijeh Nasiri, Mojtaba Heydari, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Aida Iraji
This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated daily for 28 days as follows: control, control-ginger (1 g/kg of body weight [BW]/day by gavage), ethanol group (ethanol 4 g/kg of BW/day by gavage), and ginger-ethanol group. At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of the total homocysteine (tHcy), trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Yevgeny Kreisserman, Simon Emmanuel
During hydraulic fracturing, a technique often used to extract hydrocarbons from shales, large volumes of water are injected into the subsurface. Although the injected fluid typically contains various reagents, it can become further contaminated by interaction with minerals present in the rocks. Pyrite, which is common in organic-rich shales, is a potential source of toxic elements, including arsenic and lead, and it is generally thought that for these elements to become mobilized, pyrite must first dissolve...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
J Aguilar-Carrillo, M Villalobos, T Pi-Puig, I N Escobar-Quiroz, F M Romero
Jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] minerals are effective scavengers of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and are abundant, for example, in acid rock/mine drainage scenarios. The retention process is highly relevant for environmental attenuation of heavy metals and metalloids since these are usually highly soluble and thus mobile under acidic conditions. We investigated both macroscopically and at the molecular scale the extent and the effects of concomitant incorporation of As(v) and Pb(ii) into synthetic jarosite at different As/Pb starting molar ratios, using XRD-Rietveld, SEM, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and wet chemistry...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
A A Galyean, M R Behr, K J Cash
Nanosensors present a biological monitoring method that is biocompatible, reversible, and nano-scale, and they offer many advantages over traditional organic indicators. Typical ionophore-based nanosensors incorporate nile-blue derivative pH indicators but suffer from photobleaching while quantum dot alternatives pose a potential toxicity risk. In order to address this challenge, sodium selective nanosensors containing carbon dots and a pH-sensitive quencher molecule were developed based on an ion-exchange theory and a decoupled recognition element from the pH indicator...
December 11, 2017: Analyst
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