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toxic elements

Simi Muraleedharan, Aksah Sam, Helen Skaer, Maneesha S Inamdar
Insect nephrocytes provide a valuable model for kidney disease, as they are structurally and functionally homologous to mammalian kidney podocytes. They possess an exceptional macromolecular assembly, the nephrocyte diaphragm (ND), which serves as a filtration barrier and helps maintain tissue homeostasis by filtering out wastes and toxic products. However, the elements that maintain nephrocyte architecture and the ND are not understood. We show that Drosophila nephrocytes have a unique cytoplasmic cluster of F-actin, which is maintained by the microtubule cytoskeleton and Rho-GTPases...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Belén Herce-Sesa, José A López-López, Carlos Moreno
Transition metals Cd, Pd and Ag are toxic even at very low concentration. Cd is considered a priority substance; while, Pd and Ag are emerging pollutants. Membrane technologies have been applied for their extraction; however, they require important amounts of reagents, time and energy. Additionally, effective reagents for metal extraction in saline natural waters are limited. In this case, hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction with a configuration of solvent bar (SBME) using the ionic liquid Cyphos® 101 as extractant is proposed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhenzhou Yang, Sicong Tian, Lili Liu, Xidong Wang, Zuotai Zhang
In the present study, long-term environmental impacts of compact and ground cement composites, in which 30 wt.% of cement was replaced by washed municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash, were investigated for use in building industry. Consecutive leaching tests over a time span of 180 days were performed in acid water, deionized water, and saline water, respectively, with the accumulative concentration of different elements determined in the leachate. Different leaching behaviors are observed among different potential toxic elements (PTEs)...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Violeta Nikolić, Miroslav Komljenović, Nataša Džunuzović, Zoran Miladinović
Preventing or reducing negative effects on the environment from the waste landfilling is the main goal defined by the European Landfill Directive. Generally geopolymers can be considered as sustainable binders for immobilization of hazardous wastes containing different toxic elements. In this paper the influence of addition of high amount of lead on structure, strength, and leaching behavior (the effectiveness of Pb immobilization) of fly ash-based geopolymers depending on the geopolymer curing conditions was investigated...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Saniye Elvan Öztürk, Mehmet Göktay, Canan Has, Mehmet Babaoğlu, Jens Allmer, Sami Doğanlar, Anne Frary
Puccinellia distans, common alkali grass, is found throughout the world and can survive in soils with boron concentrations that are lethal for other plant species. Indeed, P. distans accumulates very high levels of this element. Despite these interesting features, very little research has been performed to elucidate the boron tolerance mechanism in this species. In this study, P. distans samples were treated for three weeks with normal (0.5 mg L -1 ) and elevated (500 mg L -1 ) boron levels in hydroponic solution...
February 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Bryan A Rosales, Miles A White, Javier Vela
Many technologically relevant semiconductors contain toxic, heavily regulated (Cd, Pb, As) or relatively scarce (Li, In) elements, and often require high manufacturing costs. We report a facile, general, low-temperature, and size tunable (4-28 nm) solution phase synthesis of ternary APnE2 semiconductors based on Earth-abundant and biocompatible elements (A = Na, Pn = Bi, E = S or Se). The observed experimental band gaps (1.20-1.45 eV) fall within the ideal range for solar cells. Computational investigation of the lowest energy superstructures that result from 'coloring', caused by mixed cation sites present in their rock salt lattice agree with other better-known members of this family of materials...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Krystyna Ciarkowska
The approach based on metallophytes during reclamation of grounds contaminated with heavy metals is still sparse. Thus, we investigated the response of D. carthusianorum calamine ecotype to Pb and Cd stress. We focused on in vitro selection of tolerant plant material appropriated to direct use on chemically degraded areas. Shoot cultures were treated with various concentration of Pb or Cd ions. Plantlets status was estimated on the basis of micropropagation efficiency, growth tolerance index (GTI) and physiological analysis...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
Adhigan Murali, Neelamegan Haridharan, Pombala Suresh Babu, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Sellamuthu N Jaisankar
We report rhodamine based fluorophore derivative for the stable dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which can afford better fluorescent label to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanotubes-fluorophore conjugates are helpful in achieving stable dispersion in polar and non-polar solvents with intense fluorescence. The product was characterized through NMR, Mass spectrometry, Raman, XPS, SEM, AFM and Fluorescence measurements. The formation of SWCNT-g- Rhodamine was confirmed by the presence of D and G bands in Raman spectrum...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
C Boente, C Sierra, D Martínez-Blanco, J M Menéndez-Aguado, J R Gallego
The present study focuses on soil washing enhancement via soil pretreatment with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for the remediation of potentially toxic elements. To this end, soil polluted with As, Cu, Hg, Pb and Sb was partitioned into various grain sizes (500-2000, 125-500 and <125 μm). The fractions were pretreated with nZVI and subsequently subjected, according to grain size, to Wet-High Intensity Magnetic Separation (WHIMS) or hydrocycloning. The results were compared with those obtained in the absence of nanoparticles...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hasintha Wijesekara, Nanthi S Bolan, Lauren Bradney, Nadeeka Obadamudalige, Balaji Seshadri, Anitha Kunhikrishnan, Rajarathnam Dharmarajan, Yong Sik Ok, Jörg Rinklebe, M B Kirkham, Meththika Vithanage
This study focused on quantifying and characterising microbeads in biosolids (i.e., treated sewage sludge), and in examining interactions of microbeads with trace elements when biosolids are added to soil. Under laboratory conditions, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption of Cu onto pure and surface modified microbeads suspended in soil. The ecotoxicity of microbead-metal complexes to soil microbial activities was also investigated by monitoring basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity...
February 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Hayoung Rhee, Taemin Kim, Jong-In Hong
Mercury, one of the most prevalent toxic metal elements, poses severe risks to human health and the environment. Several molecular probes have been developed for colorimetric and fluorometric detection of Hg(ii) ions. Nevertheless, development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive probe for Hg(ii) ions remains important. Herein, we report three Ir(iii) complex-based phosphorescence and electrochemiluminescence chemodosimeters for the selective detection of Hg(ii) ions. The acetylacetonate ancillary ligand of probe 1 reacts selectively with the Hg(ii) ion, inducing phosphorescence enhancement with a concomitant blue-shift...
February 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Airton da Cunha Martins, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Denise Grotto, Joseph A Adeyemi, Fernando Barbosa
Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) are toxic elements widely distributed in the environment. Exposure to these elements was attributed to produce several acute and chronic illnesses including hypertension. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the most frequently proposed mechanisms underlying hypertension associated with As, Cd, and Hg exposure including: oxidative stress, impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling, modified vascular response to neurotransmitters and disturbed vascular muscle Ca2+ signaling, renal damage, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Edward J Calabrese, Ivo Iavicoli, Vittorio Calabrese, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, James Giordano
This paper assessed approximately 30 studies, mostly involving occupationally exposed subjects, concerning the extent to which those who developed elemental mercury (Hg)-induced central and/or peripheral neurotoxicities from chronic or acute exposures recover functionality and/or performance. While some recovery occurred in the vast majority of cases, the extent of such recoveries varied considerably by individual and endpoint. Factors accounting for the extensive inter-individual variation in toxicity and recovery were not specifically assessed such as age, gender, diet, environmental enrichment, chelation strategies and dose-rate...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Research
Pedro García-Fortea, Isaac Cohen-Corcia, Juan Antonio Córdoba-Doña, Alberto Reche-Rosado, Ernesto González-Mesa
We analysed the association between the concentration of four toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) and diverse reproductive outcomes in a cohort of 194 women with fertility disorders undergoing IVF in a public hospital. Concentration in hair specimens was explored as biomarker of exposure during the three months prior to oocyte retrieval. The proportion of negative results, especially regarding pregnancy and birth outcomes, is remarkable. However, we found that the probability of mature oocytes was inversely associated with the concentration of Hg in hair (RR = 0...
February 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Donatella Desideri, Carla Roselli, Laura Feduzi, Lucia Ugolini, Maria Assunta Meli
This study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of toxic elements, including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in five commercial algae consumed by humans in Italy. The degree of bioaccessibility of these elements may have important implications for human health. Simulation of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion was divided into three stages through use of synthetic saliva, gastric, and bile-pancreas solutions. After pre-treatment with a saliva solution, seaweed samples underwent one of the following treatments: (1) simulated gastric digestion only or (2) simulated complete GIT digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Gabriel Marc, Anca Stana, Adrian Pîrnău, Laurian Vlase, Dan C Vodnar, Mihaela Duma, Brînduşa Tiperciuc, Ovidiu Oniga
A series of 12 new thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives were obtained by microwave-assisted synthesis. All compounds were physicochemically characterized by quantitative elemental C, H, N, S analysis and spectral data (mass spectrometry [MS], infrared [IR], and nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR]), with the results being in agreement with the expected data. An in vitro screening performed on Candida albicans ATCC 10231 showed their moderate antifungal activity, which was further investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration values for the most active compounds on four strains of Candida...
February 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Arun Upadhyay, Amit Mishra
Amyloids are primarily known for their roles in neurodegenerative disorders, as well as in systemic diseases like diabetes. Evolutionary forces tend to maintain a healthy set of heritable characteristics, while eliminating toxic or unfavourable elements; but amyloids seem to represent an exception to this fundamental concept. In addition to their presence in mammals, amyloids also persist in the proteome of many lower organisms that may be linked with possible roles in survival, which are still unexplored. Herein, we address some unanswered questions regarding amyloids: are these well-structured proteinaceous aggregates a by-product of inefficient folding events, or have they been retained in our protein repertoire for as yet unknown functional roles; and how do protein misfolding and associated disorders originate, despite the presence of protein quality-control systems inside the cells? This review aims to extend our current understanding about the multifaceted useful properties of amyloids and their functional interactions with other molecular pathways in various species; this may provide new insights to identify novel therapeutic strategies for ageing and neurodegenerative diseases...
February 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Matthew A Cutulle, Gregory R Armel, Dean Adam Kopsell, Henry P Wilson, James Brosnan, Jose J Vargas, Thomas E Hines, Rebecca M Koepke-Hill
Herbicides are pesticides used to eradicate unwanted plants in both crop and non-crop environments. These chemistries are toxic to weeds due to inhibition of key enzymes or disruption of essential biochemical processes required for weedy plants to survive. Crops can survive systemic herbicide applications through various forms of detoxification including metabolism that can be enhanced by safeners. Field studies were conducted near Louisville, TN and Painter, VA to determine how the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, nicosulfuron, and atrazine applied with or without the safener isoxadifen-ethyl would impact the nutritional quality of 'Incredible' sweet corn (Zea mays L...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sora Choi, Afua A Gyamfi, Prince Neequaye, Samuel Addo, Frank J Gonzalez, Maxwell A Gyamfi
The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that defends against toxic agents. We have shown that PXR promotes chronic ethanol (EtOH)-induced steatosis. Therefore, we examined the role of PXR in binge EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity. Male wild type (WT) and Pxr-null mice were orally administered three binge doses of EtOH (4.5 g/kg, every 12 hours) and euthanized four hours after the final dose. Pxr-null mice displayed higher basal mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebp-1c) and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) and the lipid peroxide detoxifying aldo-keto reductase 1b7 (Akr1b7) and higher protein levels of EtOH-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
S Muñoz, J L Sebastián, P Antoranz, J P García-Cambero, A Sanchis-Otero
PURPOSE: This paper studies the variation of the electromagnetic parameters of a suspension of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to assess its potential applications to toxicological and biomedical research areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique is applied to a modified coaxial line enclosing the biological suspension to be characterized in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The electrical parameters of the suspension under test were obtained by fitting the impedance spectra to the resulted from the simulation of the test fixture using finite elements (FE)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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