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toxic elements

Najmeh Karimian, Angela Maria Stortini, Ligia Maria Moretto, Claudio Costantino, Sara Bogialli, Paolo Ugo
This work is aimed at developing an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive and selective detection of trace levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in water. Contamination of waters by perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) is a problem of global concern due to their suspected toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. PFOS is the perfluorinated compound of major concern, as it has the lowest suggested control concentrations. The sensor reported here is based on a gold electrode modified with a thin coating of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), prepared by anodic electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) in the presence of PFOS as the template...
June 18, 2018: ACS Sensors
Renata Kuras, Beata Janasik, Magdalena Stanislawska, Wojciech Wasowicz
Diverse forms of mercury (Hg) have various effects on animals and humans because of a variety of routes of administration. Inorganic mercury (iHg) binds to thiol groups of proteins and enzymes in one's body or is methylated by microorganisms. Organic form of Hg, contrary to the iHg, is more stable but may be demethylated to Hg2+ in the tissue of intestinal flora. Selenium (Se) also occurs in a variety of chemical forms in one's body but both of these elements behave very differently from one another. Mercury binding to selenide or Se-containing ligands is a primary molecular mechanism that reduces toxicity of Hg...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Mohammed Messaoudi, Samir Begaa
This study presents the elemental concentration obtained in two Algerian spices (Coriandrum sativum L. and Cuminum cyminum L.) evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), in order to highlight the importance of these spices as a potential source of micronutrients. The daily intake of micronutrients and potentially toxic elements were determined and compared with the recommended values (RDA) and were found to be well below the tolerance limits. Twenty-two elements were assessed, eight essential chemicals were quantified with tendency K > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Cr > Co > Se, and three potential toxic elements were present in the descending content pattern Br > As > Sb...
June 17, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Svetlana Antić-Mladenović, Mirjana Kresović, Dragan Čakmak, Veljko Perović, Elmira Saljnikov, Vlado Ličina, Jörg Rinklebe
Extreme flooding in May, 2014 affected the sub-catchments of six major rivers in Serbia. The goal of the study was to evaluate the contents of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in flood sediments and arable soils within the affected sub-catchments using regulatory guidelines and background levels. The sub-catchment of West Morava was selected to assess the degree of sediments and soils contamination and environmental risk [using the Pollution index (Pi ), Enrichment factor, Geo-accumulation index, and Potential ecological risk index (PERI)] as well as to identify main PTEs sources by Principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis...
June 16, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Cheng-Bin Liu, Li Zhang, Qi Wu, Guang-Bo Qu, Yong-Guang Yin, Li-Gang Hu, Jian-Bo Shi, Gui-Bin Jiang
Selenium (Se) is commonly recognized as a protective element with an antagonistic effect against mercury (Hg) toxicity. However, the mechanisms of this Hg-Se antagonism are complex and remain controversial. To gain insight into the Hg-Se antagonism, a type of unicellular eukaryotic protozoa (Tetrahymena malaccensis, T. malaccensis) was selected and individually or jointly exposed to two Hg and three Se species. We found that Se species showed different toxic effects on the proliferation of T. malaccensis with the toxicity following the order: selenite (Se(IV))>selenomethionine (SeMeth)>selenate (Se(VI))...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Mihaela Badea, Octavio P Luzardo, Ana González-Antuña, Manuel Zumbado, Liliana Rogozea, Laura Floroian, Dana Alexandrescu, Marius Moga, Laura Gaman, Mariana Radoi, Luis D Boada, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Smoking is considered an important source for inorganic elements, most of them toxic for human health. During the last years, there has been a significant increase in the use of e-cigarettes, although the role of them as source of inorganic elements has not been well established. A cross-sectional study including a total of 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups (non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarettes smokers) were recruited to disclose the role of smoking on the human exposure to inorganic elements...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Research
Dong Gil Lee, Min Kyoung Kam, Kyung Min Kim, Han Seop Kim, Oh-Shin Kwon, Hyun-Shik Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Iron is an essential element for neuronal as well as cellular functions. However, Iron overload has been known to cause neuronal toxicity through mitochondrial fission, dysregulation of Ca2+ , endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms of iron-induced oxidative stress and mitochondria- and ER-related iron toxicity in neuronal cells are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that iron overload induces ROS production earlier in the ER than in the mitochondria, and peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5), which is a kind of antioxidant induced by iron overload, prevents iron overload-induced mitochondrial fragmentation mediated by contact with ER and translocation of Drp1, by inhibiting ROS production and calcium/calcineurin pathway in HT-22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Zheng Wang, Xiaowei Wang, Ying Xue, Rong Zhao, Rencai Luo, Dong Chen
OBJECTIVE: To developed a method for rapid visual and colorimetric detection of trace high toxicity element mercury( Hg~(2+)) in natural mineral water via coupling cloud-point extraction with gold nanoparticle probe. METHODS: The concentration of Hg~(2+)was quantified via the color degree of the Triton X-114 phase. The functionalized gold nanoparticle probe was synthesized and purified. 200 μL gold nanoparticle probe was added into 10 mL water sample( pH 7. 5), coupled with 400 μL, 5 % Triton X-114 solution...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Wei Lu, Lei Guo, Tianlong Jiang, Shenghui Ni, Yuyan Zhao
Magnesium alloys have shown potential as biodegradable metallic materials for orthopaedic applications due to their degradability, and their resemblance to cortical bone and biocompatible degradation/corrosion products. However, the fast corrosion rate and the potential toxicity of their alloying element has limited the clinical application of Mg alloys. In the present study, a novel Mg‑2Zn‑0.5Nd alloy was prepared, and then the effects on the cell biological behaviour of the Mg‑2Zn‑0.5Nd alloy was compared with 317L stainless steel and titanium (Ti‑6Al‑4V) alloys as controls...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sarah Brown, Colin C Everett, Kamran Naraghi, Claire Davies, Bryony Dawkins, Claire Hulme, Christopher McCabe, Sue Pavitt, Paul Emery, Linda Sharples, Maya H Buch
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common autoimmune disease in the UK, is a chronic systemic inflammatory arthritis that affects 0.8% of the UK population. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not an alternative class of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are comparable to rituximab in terms of efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with RA in whom initial tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) bDMARD and methotrexate (MTX) therapy failed because of inefficacy...
June 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Hugo Varet, Yana Shaulov, Odile Sismeiro, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Rachel Legendre, Jean-Yves Coppée, Serge Ankri, Nancy Guillen
Oxidative stress is one of the strongest toxic factors in nature: it can harm or even kill cells. Cellular means of subverting the toxicity of oxidative stress are important for the success of infectious diseases. Many types of bacterium inhabit the intestine, where they can encounter pathogens. During oxidative stress, we analyzed the interplay between an intestinal parasite (the pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica - the agent of amoebiasis) and enteric bacteria (microbiome residents, pathogens and probiotics)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiangang Hu, Chaoxiu Ren, Weilu Kang, Li Mu, Xiaowei Liu, Xiaokang Li, Tong Wang, Qixing Zhou
Much attention has been paid to extracting and isolating specific and well-known nanoparticles (especially for engineered nanomaterials) from complex environmental matrices. However, such research may not provide global information on actual contamination because nanoscale fragments exist as mixtures of various elements and matrices in the real environment. The present work first isolated and characterized nanoscale fragments in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The nanoscale fragments were found to be composed of 70-85% carbon and low amounts of oxygen, heavy metals and other elements and exhibited nanosheet topographies (approximately 0...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bo Liang, Chi Chiu Wang
In vivo pregnant study protocols covering preconceptional exposure as well as prenatal and postnatal development including the lactation period to screen the toxic effects on specific elements of the highly complicated reproductive cycle are time-consuming and expensive. Morphology-based whole embryo culture is the most common alternative in vitro embryotoxicity method to evaluate the early developmental toxicity of drugs. Here we share our procedures and experience in the whole embryo culture for drug embryotoxicity assessments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Venkatayogi Sudarshan, Adimalla Narsimha, S V G Das
Excess fluoride in drinking water has been one of the leading problem faced by the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Significantly in India the people suffer from fluorosis comparing to other toxic elements like Arsenic etc., in drinking water. Approximately, in India the excessive fluoride in groundwater is noticed in 177 districts covering 21 states, affecting 66 million people, including 6 million children and Moreover, the latest estimation gives nearly 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, are affected by the deadly disease of fluorosis [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14]...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Tingjun Wu, Peng Gao
Oxide perovskite materials have a long history of being investigated for thermoelectric applications. Compared to the state-of-the-art tin and lead chalcogenides, these perovskite compounds have advantages of low toxicity, eco-friendliness, and high elemental abundance. However, because of low electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, the total thermoelectric performance of oxide perovskites is relatively poor. Variety of methods were used to enhance the TE properties of oxide perovskite materials, such as doping, inducing oxygen vacancy, embedding crystal imperfection, and so on...
June 12, 2018: Materials
Sören Meyer, Mariya Markova, Gabriele Pohl, Talke A Marschall, Olga Pivovarova, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Tanja Schwerdtle
Multi-element determination in human samples is very challenging. Especially in human intervention studies sample volumes are often limited to a few microliters and due to the high number of samples a high-throughput is indispensable. Here, we present a state-of-the-art ICP-MS/MS-based method for the analysis of essential (trace) elements, namely Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se and I, as well as food-relevant toxic elements such as As and Cd. The developed method was validated regarding linearity of the calibration curves, method LODs and LOQs, selectivity and trueness as well as precision...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Ivan Timofeev, Natalia Kosheleva, Nikolay Kasimov
Mining of mineral resources exerts strong impact on the environment and leads to irreversible changes in vegetation, soils, atmosphere, surface and ground waters. The aim of this study is to assess the modern geochemical state of soil cover in Zakamensk, a city located in Buryat Republic (Russia) and known as one of the biggest ore mining center in the former Soviet Union. The center was operating for 68 years and closed 17 years ago. Soil-geochemical survey was conducted in 2012 and included collection of 103 soil samples in Zakamensk and 27 samples in the background areas...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yu-Chiang Chao, Kai-Ping Cheng, Ching-Yi Lin, Yu-Li Chang, Yi-Yun Ko, Tzu-Yin Hou, Cheng-Yi Huang, Walter H Chang, Cheng-An J Lin
Solution-processed optoelectronic devices are attractive because of the potential low-cost fabrication and the compatibility with flexible substrate. However, the utilization of toxic elements such as lead and cadmium in current optoelectronic devices on the basis of colloidal quantum dots raises environmental concerns. Here we demonstrate that white-light-emitting diodes can be achieved by utilizing non-toxic and environment-friendly gold nanoclusters. Yellow-light-emitting gold nanoclusters were synthesized and capped with trioctylphosphine...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christian Njatcha, Mariya Farooqui, Adam Kornberg, Daniel E Johnson, Jennifer R Grandis, Jill M Siegfried
Constitutively activated STAT3 plays a critical role in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression by mediating proliferation and survival. STAT 3 activation in normal cells is transient, making it an attractive target for NSCLC therapy. The therapeutic potential of blocking STAT3 in NSCLC was assessed utilizing a decoy approach by ligating a double-stranded 15-mer oligonucleotide that corresponds to the STAT3 response element of STAT3-target genes, to produce a cyclic STAT3 decoy (CS3D). The decoy was evaluated using NSCLC cells containing either wild-type (WT) EGFR (201T) or mutant EGFR with an additional EGFRi resistance mutation (H1975)...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Michaela Zeiner, Iva Juranović Cindrić
Fruits and vegetables are considered a beneficial contribution to the human diet. Especially, berries contain a great deal of bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, organic acids, tannins, phenols, and antioxidants. Apart from organic substances, inorganic nutrients are also present in fruits. Some metals and metalloids are essential for humans, whilst others may exhibit harmful effects. Wild grown berries, collected in so-called unpolluted areas, are considered to be free of any potentially toxic ingredients...
June 8, 2018: Toxics
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