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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213721/effect-of-chemical-amendments-on-remediation-of-potentially-toxic-trace-elements-ptes-and-soil-quality-improvement-in-paddy-fields
#1
Sung Chul Kim, Young Kyu Hong, Se Jin Oh, Seung Min Oh, Sang Phil Lee, Do Hyung Kim, Jae E Yang
Remediation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in paddy fields is fundamental for crop safety. In situ application of chemical amendments has been widely adapted because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental safety. The main purpose of this research was to (1) evaluate the reduction in dissolved concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) with the application of chemical amendments and (2) monitor microbial activity in the soil to determine the remediation efficiency. Three different chemical amendments, lime stone, steel slag, and acid mine drainage sludge, were applied to paddy fields, and rice (Oryza sativa L...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211330/biosorption-and-biomineralization-of-uranium-vi-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-crystal-formation-of-chernikovite
#2
Xin-Yan Zheng, Xiao-Yu Wang, Yang-Hao Shen, Xia Lu, Tie-Shan Wang
Biosorption of heavy metal elements including radionuclides by microorganisms is a promising and effective method for the remediation of the contaminated places. The responses of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the toxic uranium solutions during the biosorption process and the mechanism of uranium biomineralization by cells were investigated in the present study. A novel experimental phenomenon that uranium concentrations have negative correlation with pH values and positive correlation with phosphate concentrations in the supernatant was observed, indicating that hydrogen ions, phosphate ions and uranyl ions were involved in the chernikovite precipitation actively...
February 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211326/evaluation-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-toxicological-and-genotoxic-potential-of-aluminum-chloride
#3
Letícia Nazareth Fernandes Paz, Laís Mesquita Moura, Danielle Cristinne A Feio, Mirella de Souza Gonçalves Cardoso, Wagner Luiz O Ximenes, Raquel C Montenegro, Ana Paula N Alves, Rommel R Burbano, Patrícia Danielle L Lima
Aluminum and its compounds are common contaminants of water and food, as well as medications and cosmetics. The wide distribution of the element facilitates the demand for detailed studies of its biological and toxicological effects. This work aimed to evaluate the possible genotoxic and toxic activity resulting from in vivo and in vitro exposure to Al. For in vivo analysis, 40 Swiss mice were used, various concentrations of hydrated aluminum chloride were administered orally. They were analyzed for possible genic activity and metal cytotoxicity using a micronucleus test (MN), and for toxicity through histopathological evaluation of the extracted organs...
February 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209268/inorganic-mercury-prevents-the-differentiation-of-sh-sy5y-cells-amyloid-precursor-protein-microtubule-associated-proteins-and-ros-as-potential-targets
#4
Miguel Chin Chan, Elizabeth Bautista, Isabel Alvarado-Cruz, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, José Segovia
Exposure to mercury (Hg) occurs through different pathways and forms including methylmecury (MeHg) from seafood and rice, ethylmercury (EtHg), and elemental Hg (Hg(0)) from dental amalgams and artisanal gold mining. Once in the brain all these forms are transformed to inorganic Hg (I-Hg), where it bioaccumulates and remains for long periods. Hg is a well-known neurotoxicant, with its most damaging effects reported during brain development, when cellular key events, such as cell differentiation take place. A considerable number of studies report an impairment of neuronal differentiation due to MeHg exposure, however the effects of I-Hg, an important form of Hg found in brain, have received less attention...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207806/trace-element-accumulation-in-lotic-dragonfly-nymphs-genus-matters
#5
Dean E Fletcher, Angela H Lindell, Garrett K Stillings, Susan A Blas, J Vaun McArthur
Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199947/environmental-biomonitoring-of-essential-and-toxic-elements-in-human-scalp-hair-using-accelerated-microwave-assisted-sample-digestion-and-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectroscopy
#6
Hope Kumakli, A'ja V Duncan, Kiara McDaniel, Tsdale F Mehari, Jamira Stephenson, Lareisha Maple, Zaria Crawford, Calvin L Macemore, Carol M Babyak, Sayo O Fakayode
Human scalp hair samples were collected and used to assess exposure to toxic elements and essential elements in the state of North Carolina, USA using accelerated microwave assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES were appropriate for elemental analysis in scalp hair with detection limits as low as 0.0001 mg/L for Cd, good linearity (R(2) > 0.9978), and percent recoveries that ranged from 96 to 106% for laboratory-fortified-blanks and 88-112% for sample spike recovery study...
February 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198993/a-debate-can-we-recommend-electronic-cigarettes-to-our-patients-opinion-2
#7
Michał Poznański, Tadeusz Pietras, Adam Antczak
Electronic cigarettes are more and more frequently used to deliver nicotine. They are used both by the users of regular cigarettes and those who to date have not smoked. The literature about potential impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems on health is constantly growing. Particular concern is expressed about toxicity of chemical compounds and elements delivered with the vapour of electronic cigarettes. It turns out that products that have positive image in media, actually are not so beneficial. Furthermore, they not only may cause damage to health but also death...
2017: Adv Respir Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195202/application-of-pristine-and-doped-sno2-nanoparticles-as-a-matrix-for-agro-hazardous-material-organophosphate-detection
#8
Naushad Khan, Taimur Athar, H Fouad, Ahmad Umar, Z A Ansari, S G Ansari
With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194995/aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophs-in-gold-mine-tailings-in-nopiming-provincial-park-manitoba-canada
#9
Elizabeth Hughes, Breanne Head, Chris Maltman, Michele Piercey-Normore, Vladimir Yurkov
A sampling trip to Central Gold Mine, Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, was taken in September 2011. Abundance, distribution, and physiology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAP) from 4 locations were studied. Enumeration revealed 14.6% of culturable microbes were AAP. Five strains (NM4.16, NM4.18, C4, C9, C11) were chosen for analysis. All grow best on complex media without vitamin requirements and with an optimal pH 7.0-8.0, with strain C4 preferring pH 6.0. Strain NM4.18 tolerates the highest pH 11.0. Optimal temperature for all is 28 °C (range of 2-37 °C except NM4...
February 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193585/the-filter-feeder-dreissena-polymorpha-affects-nutrient-silicon-and-metal-loid-mobilization-from-freshwater-sediments
#10
Jörg Schaller, Britta Planer-Friedrich
Organic sediments in aquatic ecosystems are well known sinks for nutrients, silicon, and metal(loid)s. Organic matter-consuming organisms like invertebrate shredders, grazers, and bioturbators significantly affect element fixation or remobilization by changing redox conditions or binding properties of organic sediments. Little is known about the effect of filter feeders, like the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an invasive organism in North American and European freshwater ecosystems. A laboratory batch experiment exposing D...
February 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#11
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188904/exposure-to-cadmium-during-in-vitro-maturation-at-environmental-nanomolar-levels-impairs-oocyte-fertilization-through-oxidative-damage-a-large-animal-model-study
#12
N A Martino, G Marzano, M Mangiacotti, O Miedico, A M Sardanelli, A Gnoni, G M Lacalandra, A E Chiaravalle, E Ciani, L Bogliolo, F Minervini, F Pizzi, M E Dell'Aquila
Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal with negative effects on oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to analyse whether cadmium-induced impairment of fertilization is caused by mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). Preliminarily, 19 trace element levels were measured in ovaries from juvenile and adult ewes and age-related cadmium ovarian bioaccumulation at nanomolar concentrations was found. COCs from juvenile and adult ewes, exposed during in vitro maturation to 1nM or 100nM CdCl2, and subjected to in vitro fertilization showed significantly lower fertilization rates in exposed COCs compared with controls...
February 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187997/-adjuvant-radiotherapy-for-bladder-cancer-in-patients-with-risk-of-locoregional-recurrence-who-what-and-how
#13
P Sargos, S Larré, O Chapet, I Latorzeff, A Fléchon, G Roubaud, M Orré, S Belhomme, P Richaud
Radical cystectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection remains the standard of care for non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Locoregional control is a key factor in the outcome of patients since it is related to overall survival, metastasis-free survival and specific survival. Locoregional recurrence rate is directly correlated to pathological results and the quality of lymphadenectomy. In addition, while pre- or postoperative chemotherapy improved overall survival, it showed no impact on locoregional recurrence-free survival...
February 7, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187792/evolution-of-rna-and-dna-guided-antivirus-defense-systems-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-common-ancestry-vs-convergence
#14
REVIEW
Eugene V Koonin
: Complementarity between nucleic acid molecules is central to biological information transfer processes. Apart from the basal processes of replication, transcription and translation, complementarity is also employed by multiple defense and regulatory systems. All cellular life forms possess defense systems against viruses and mobile genetic elements, and in most of them some of the defense mechanisms involve small guide RNAs or DNAs that recognize parasite genomes and trigger their inactivation...
February 10, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187746/slow-lung-clearance-and-limited-translocation-of-four-sizes-of-inhaled-iridium-nanoparticles
#15
Alison Buckley, James Warren, Alan Hodgson, Tim Marczylo, Konstantin Ignatyev, Chang Guo, Rachel Smith
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been expressed that inhaled nanoparticles may behave differently to larger particles in terms of lung clearance and translocation, with potential implications for their toxicity. Studies undertaken to investigate this have typically involved limited post-exposure periods. There is a shortage of information on longer-term clearance and translocation patterns and their dependence on particle size, which this study aimed to address. METHODS: Rats were exposed (<3 h) nose-only to aerosols of spark-generated radioactive iridium-192 nanoparticles of four sizes: 10 nm, 15 nm, 35 nm and 75 nm (count median diameter) (aerosol mass concentrations 17, 140, 430, and 690 μg/m(3), respectively)...
February 10, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187389/atmospheric-wet-deposition-of-dissolved-trace-elements-to-jiaozhou-bay-north-china-fluxes-sources-and-potential-effects-on-aquatic-environments
#16
Jianwei Xing, Jinming Song, Huamao Yuan, Qidong Wang, Xuegang Li, Ning Li, Liqin Duan, Baoxiao Qu
To analyze the fluxes, seasonal variations, sources and potential ecological effects of dissolved trace elements (TEs) in atmospheric wet deposition (AWD), one-year wet precipitation samples were collected and determined for nine TEs in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) between June 2015 and May 2016. Both the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration and flux sequence for the measured TEs was Al > Mn > Zn > Fe > Pb > Se > Cr > Cd > Co. Al was the most abundant TE with a VWM concentration and wet flux of 33...
February 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185733/evaluating-the-potential-health-risk-of-toxic-trace-elements-in-vegetables-accounting-for-variations-in-soil-factors
#17
Yang Yang, Weiping Chen, Meie Wang, Yanling Li, Chi Peng
Vegetable crop consumption is one of the main sources of dietary exposure to toxic trace elements (TEs). A paired survey of soil and vegetable samples was conducted in 589 agricultural sites in the Youxian prefecture, southern China, to investigate the effect of soil factors on the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in different vegetables. A site-specific model was developed to estimate the health risk from vegetable consumption. The TE concentration varied in different plant species, and rape can be cultivated in contaminated areas for its potential use in restricting the transfer of TE from soil to edible plant parts...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184394/tracing-cytotoxic-effects-of-small-organic-se-species-in-human-liver-cells-back-to-total-cellular-se-and-se-metabolites
#18
T A Marschall, N Kroepfl, K B Jensen, J Bornhorst, B Meermann, D Kuehnelt, T Schwerdtle
Small selenium (Se) species play a major role in the metabolism, excretion and dietary supply of the essential trace element selenium. Human cells provide a valuable tool for investigating currently unresolved issues on the cellular mechanisms of Se toxicity and metabolism. In this study, we developed two isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma tandem-mass spectrometry based methods and applied them to human hepatoma cells (HepG2) in order to quantitatively elucidate total cellular Se concentrations and cellular Se species transformations in relation to the cytotoxic effects of four small organic Se species...
February 10, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183247/streptomyces-as-overexpression-system-for-heterologous-production-of-an-antimicrobial-peptide
#19
Marisol Roldán-Tapia, Jozef Anné, Ana Gisela Reyes, Ulises Carrasco, Cesar Millán-Pacheco, Javier Barrios-González, Armando Mejía
Defense mechanisms of plants against phytopathogens include cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs). The broad-spectrum activity of these peptides has been evaluated previously against different phytopathogens. Their lack of toxicity for plants and animals is a promising feature for pest control. Although, some attempts have been made previously in order to increase their heterologous expressions, the employed strategies have so far proven to be ineffective. Low production yield and elevated costs are the obstacles to overcome...
February 8, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183061/trace-elements-in-oceanic-pelagic-communities-in-the-western-indian-ocean
#20
Nathalie Bodin, Dora Lesperance, Rona Albert, Stephanie Hollanda, Philippe Michaud, Maxime Degroote, Carine Churlaud, Paco Bustamante
The mineral composition of target and non-target pelagic fish caught by purse-seiners and longliners in the western-central Indian Ocean was determined. From the 10 essential elements analysed, selenium and zinc showed the highest concentrations in swordfish and blue marlin while Indian mackerel appeared as a good source of copper, iron and chrome. All catch had levels of lead and cadmium, two toxic elements, below the maximum sanitary limits. Although some concerns were raised regarding mercury concentrations in the largest species (wahoo, swordfish and blue marlin), molar ratios of mercury and selenium indicate that all oceanic pelagic fish from the western-central Indian Ocean are safe for human consumption...
January 21, 2017: Chemosphere
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