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toxic elements

Felipe K Ricachenevsky, Artur T de Araújo Junior, Janette P Fett, Raul A Sperotto
Plant nutrient uptake is performed mostly by roots, which have to acquire nutrients while avoiding excessive amounts of essential and toxic elements. Apoplastic barriers such as the casparian strip and suberin deposition block free diffusion from the rhizosphere into the xylem, making selective plasma membrane transporters able to control elemental influx into the root symplast, efflux into the xylem and therefore shoot translocation. Additionally, transporters localized to the tonoplast of root cells have been demonstrated to regulate the shoot ionome, and may be important for seed elemental translocation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
S M Rodrigues, N Cruz, L Carvalho, A C Duarte, E Pereira, A G F Boim, L R F Alleoni, P F A M Römkens
Intake of soil by children and adults is a major exposure pathway to contaminants including potentially toxic elements (PTEs). However, only the fraction of PTEs released in stomach and intestine are considered as bioaccessible and results from routine analyses of the total PTE content in soils, therefore, are not necessarily related to the degree of bioaccessibility. Experimental methods to determine bioaccessibility usually are time-consuming and relatively complicated in terms of analytical procedures which limits application in first tier assessments...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Emilie L Fisher, Michael Otto, Gordon Y C Cheung
The Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins are a superfamily of secreted virulence factors that share structural and functional similarities and possess potent superantigenic activity causing disruptions in adaptive immunity. The enterotoxins can be separated into two groups; the classical (SEA-SEE) and the newer (SEG-SE l Y and counting) enterotoxin groups. Many members from both these groups contribute to the pathogenesis of several serious human diseases, including toxic shock syndrome, pneumonia, and sepsis-related infections...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Norihiro Suzuki, Minoru Osada, Motasim Billah, Yoshio Bando, Yusuke Yamauchi, Shahriar A Hossain
Barium titanate (BaTiO3, hereafter BT) is an established ferroelectric material first discovered in the 1940s and still widely used because of its well-balanced ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and dielectric constant. In addition, BT does not contain any toxic elements. Therefore, it is considered to be an eco-friendly material, which has attracted considerable interest as a replacement for lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, bulk BT loses its ferroelectricity at approximately 130 °C, thus, it cannot be used at high temperatures...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daigo Terutsuki, Hidefumi Mitsuno, Takeshi Sakurai, Yuki Okamoto, Agnès Tixier-Mita, Hiroshi Toshiyoshi, Yoshio Mita, Ryohei Kanzaki
Field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors have a wide range of applications, and a bio-FET odorant sensor, based on insect (Sf21) cells expressing insect odorant receptors (ORs) with sensitivity and selectivity, has emerged. To fully realize the practical application of bio-FET odorant sensors, knowledge of the cell-device interface for efficient signal transfer, and a reliable and low-cost measurement system using the commercial complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) foundry process, will be indispensable...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yaqin Liu, Tao Li, Hongshi Ma, Dong Zhai, Cuijun Deng, Jinwu Wang, Shangjun Zhuo, Jiang Chang, Chengtie Wu
For treatment of bone tumor and regeneration of bone defects, the biomaterials should possess the ability to kill tumor cells and regenerate bone defect simultaneously. To date, there are a few biomaterials possessing such dual functions, the disadvantages, however, such as long-term toxicity and degradation, restrict their application. Although bioactive elements have been incorporated into biomaterials to improve their osteogenic activity, there is no report about elements-induced functional scaffolds for photothermal tumor therapy...
April 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Vivian Silva Lira, Cláudia Hitomi Watanabe, Marcela Merides Carvalho, André Henrique Rosa, Renata Fracácio
The sediment compartment stands out because it functions as both a temporary sink of pollutants and a potential source of these elements that may become available to the water column.This study aimed to correlate the concentrations of total metals in the crude sediment and in the interstitial water with the ecotoxicity in the water column using an a modified sediment ecotoxicity test with Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results indicate that the sediment may contribute to the toxicity in the water column and that such toxicity is possibly not related to the metals present...
April 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Liang Fu, Hualin Xie, Shuyun Shi
The concentrations of trace elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. essential oil (ZBMEO) were determined by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry. The ZBMEO sample was directly analyzed after simple dilution with n-hexane. Aiming for a relatively high vapor pressure of n-hexane and its resultant loading on plasma, we used a narrow injector torch and optimized plasma radio frequency power and carrier gas flow to ensure stable operation of the plasma. An optional gas flow of 20% O2 in Ar was added to the carrier gas to prevent the incomplete combustion of highly concentrated organic carbon in plasma and the deposition of carbon on the sampling and skimmer cone orifices...
April 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Guillaume Mouillet, Marie-Justine Paillard, Tristan Maurina, Dewi Vernerey, Thierry Nguyen Tan Hon, Hamadi Almotlak, Ulrich Stein, Fabien Calcagno, Diane Berthod, Elise Robert, Aurelia Meurisse, Antoine Thiery-Vuillemin
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved in the first-line metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) setting at the dose of 50 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by a pause of 2 weeks. Due to toxicity, this standard schedule (50 mg daily 4/2) can induce up to 50% of sunitinib dose modification (reduction and/or interruption). The current recommendation in such case is to reduce the dose to 37.5 mg per day (standard schedule 4/2). Recent data highlight an alternative schedule: 2 weeks of treatment followed by 1 week of pause (experimental schedule 2/1)...
April 12, 2018: Trials
Gayatri Singh, Babita Kumari, Geetgovind Sinam, Kriti, Navin Kumar, Shekhar Mallick
Fluorine is an essential element required in trace amounts but gets toxic for human beings at levels more than 1.5 mg F- L-1 primarily through drinking contaminated water. It is the 13th most abundant element and constitutes about 0.06-0.09% in the earth crust. It is electronegative in aqueous medium forming fluoride ion (F- ). Fluoride contamination in the environment occurs mostly due to anthropogenic and geogenic sources. Fluoride is widely distributed in all components of environment, air (0.1-0.6 μg L-1 ) soils (150-400 mg Kg-1 ) rocks (100-2000 mg Kg-1 ), plant (0...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Akira Nordmeier, Augustus Merwin, Donald F Roeper, Dev Chidambaram
The production of nanoparticles through biosynthesis is a reliable, non-toxic, and sustainable alternative to conventional chemical and physical methods of production. While noble metals, such as palladium, gold, and silver, have been formed via bioreduction, biologically-induced reduction of electroactive elements to a metallic state has not been reported previously. Herein, we report the reduction of an electroactive element, molybdenum, via microbial reduction using Clostridium pasteurianum. C. pasteurianum was able to reduce 88% of the added Mo6+ ions...
February 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Varun Kushwah, Sameer S Katiyar, Chander Parkash Dora, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Dimitrios A Lamprou, Ramesh C Gupta, Sanyog Jain
In the present study, we have modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) by covalently conjugating with anacardic acid (AA) and gemcitabine (GEM) and further used for development of docetaxel (DTX) loaded nanoparticles (AA-GEM-BSA NPs). AA is supposed to provide tumor targeting through VEGF receptors overexpressed in tumors, while the combination of GEM and DTX is supposed to provide synergistic activity by targeting multiple pathways. The conjugate was synthesized via carbodiimide chemistry and characterized by 1 H NMR, FTIR, MALDI-TOF and elemental analysis...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Eva Koubová, Daniela Sumczynski, Lenka Šenkárová, Jana Orsavová, Miroslav Fišera
This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff ( Eragrostis tef L.) grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or adequate intake (AI), and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) and Institute of Medicine (IOM) regulations...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
Jianjun Hu, Qiang Sun, Huan He
The release of selenium (Se) during coal combustion can have serious impacts on the ecological environment and human health. Therefore, it is very important to study the factors that concern the release of Se from coal combustion. In this paper, the characteristics of the release of Se from coal combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification of different coal species under different conditions are studied. The results show that the amount of released Se increases at higher combustion temperatures. There are obvious increases in the amount of released Se especially in the temperature range of 300 to 800 °C...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jiumei Long, Di Tan, Sihan Deng, Ming Lei
To provide information on reclamation of multi-heavy metal polluted soils with conception of phytostabilization, a field survey on the uptake and accumulation of potentially toxic elements such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in colonized plant species around the world's largest antimony mine area, China, was conducted. Samples including leaves and shoots (including roots and stems) of colonized plants as well as rhizospheric soils were collected from eight sampling zones in the studied area...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Zhaoqian Fan, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Huahua Yu, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, Pengcheng Li
Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora capsici Leonian, and Fusarium solani are important plant pathogenic fungi which can cause great crop losses worldwide, but their control methods are limited. It is necessary to develop efficient and green fungicides from abundant marine resources. Chitosan is a non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible marine polysaccharide which has prospective applications in agriculture. In this paper, to increase the antifungal activity of chitosan for application, novel water-soluble functional chitosan derivatives were synthesized by grafting polyaminoethyl and diethoxyphosphoryl groups in accordance with a strategy of improving protonation potential...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wensen Jiang, Aaron F Cipriano, Qiaomu Tian, Chaoxing Zhang, Marisa Lopez, Amy Sallee, Alan Lin, Mayra Celene Cortez Alcaraz, Yuanhao Wu, Yufeng Zheng, Huinan Liu
Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been widely investigated as the most promising biodegradable metals to replace conventional non-degradable metals for temporary medical implant applications. New Mg alloys have been developed for medical applications in recent years; and the concept of alloying Mg with less-toxic elements have aroused tremendous interests due to the promise to address the problems associated with rapid degradation of Mg without compromising its cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. Of particular interests for orthopedic/spinal implant applications are the additions of calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) into Mg matrix because of their beneficial properties for bone regeneration...
April 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
M C Kamaraj, S Mohan Raj, D Palani Selvam, S Subashchandrabose, A Kalaiselvan
The present investigations are phytochemical screening of Latex aqueous (Laq ) extract of C. sparsiflorus and study its role in homeostasis. It is being traditionally used for fresh cuts to stop bleeding immediately. To know the contents of extract, the quantitative phytochemical analysis were performed it showed the contents such as saponins (15.2%), alkaloids (7.61%), phenols (0.62%), tannins (1.1%), and flavonoids (0.224%). The in vitro and in vivo blood clotting mechanism was observed in Wister albino rats to understand the blood clotting activity...
March 27, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Nikhil Thokala, Carmel Kealey, James Kennedy, Damien B Brady, Joseph Farrell
Biomedical polymers are an integral component in a wide range of medical device designs due to their range of desirable properties. However, extensive use of polymer materials in medical devices have also been associated with an increasing incidence of patient infections. Efforts to address this issue have included the incorporation of antimicrobial additives for developing novel antimicrobial polymeric materials. Silver with its high toxicity towards bacteria, oligodynamic effect and good thermal stability has been employed as an additive for polymeric medical devices...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Leonardo Warzea Lima, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits, Michela Schiavon
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient required for many life forms, but toxic at higher concentration. Plants do not have a Se requirement, but can benefit from Se via enhanced antioxidant activity. Some plant species can accumulate Se to concentrations above 0.1% of dry weight and seem to possess mechanisms that distinguish Se from its analog sulfur (S). Research on these so-called Se hyperaccumulators aims to identify key genes for this remarkable trait and to understand ecological implications...
April 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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