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veterinary toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406359/enantioselective-analysis-of-chloramphenicol-residues-in-honey-samples-by-chiral-lc-msms-and-results-of-a-honey-survey
#1
Gerhard G Rimkus, Dirk Hoffmann
Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used widely both in human and in veterinary medication. Since 1994 CAP is not authorised anymore for use in food-producing animals in the EU due to several adverse effects. A minimum required performance level (MRPL) 0.3 µg kg(-1) was established in 2003. CAP molecule contains two asymmetric centres thus in total four para-CAP stereoisomers exist. Only the RR-CAP enantiomer is bioactive having significant antimicrobial activity. For the first time a chiral LC/MSMS method is reported to identify and quantify the four CAP enantiomers at residue levels in honey samples...
April 13, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375070/teaching-tip-improving-students-email-communication-through-an-integrated-writing-assignment-in-a-third-year-toxicology-course
#2
April A Kedrowicz, Sarah Hammond, David C Dorman
Client communication is important for success in veterinary practice, with written communication being an important means for veterinarian-client information sharing. Effective communication is adapted to clients' needs and wants, and presents information in a clear, understandable manner while accounting for varying degrees of client health literacy. This teaching tip describes the use of a mock electronic mail assignment as one way to integrate writing into a required veterinary toxicology course. As part of this project, we provide baseline data relating to students' written communication that will guide further development of writing modules in other curricula...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372226/multiresidue-determination-of-veterinary-medicines-in-lyophilized-egg-albumen-with-subsequent-consumer-exposure-evaluation
#3
Marta Piątkowska, Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Anna Gajda, Piotr Jedziniak, Tomasz Błądek, Jan Żmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
The process of lyophilization causes that the veterinary drugs residues present in egg albumen do not decompose, as it takes place during the process of high-temperature drying. Thus, lyophilized albumen may be a potential source of their residues for consumers. As a consequence, reliable methods for the determination of veterinary medicinal products from egg albumen are needed. The method for the determination of 85 analytes in lyophilized egg albumen was developed and successfully validated. The recoveries were between 84 and 110%, within laboratory repeatability and reproducibility - in the range of 3...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235786/systematic-account-of-animal-poisonings-in-germany-2012-2015
#4
S E McFarland, R H Mischke, C Hopster-Iversen, X von Krueger, H Ammer, H Potschka, A Stürer, K Begemann, H Desel, M Greiner
A systematic retrospective study on animal poisonings in Germany (wildlife excluded) between January 2012 and December 2015 was conducted. Data were collected on animal exposure calls to German poison centres, poisoning cases presenting to the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover Small Animal and Equine Clinics, cases involving off-label use of veterinary medicinal products reported to the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety and toxicological submissions to the Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich...
April 1, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056663/principles-for-assessing-adversity-in-toxicologic-clinical-pathology
#5
Lila Ramaiah, Lindsay Tomlinson, Niraj K Tripathi, Laura C Cregar, Allison Vitsky, Barbara von Beust, Valerie G Barlow, William J Reagan, Daniela Ennulat
There is limited direction in the literature or regulatory guidance on determination of adversity for clinical pathology (CP) biomarkers in preclinical safety studies. Toxicologic clinical pathologists representing the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology-Regulatory Affairs Committee and Society of Toxicologic Pathology-Clinical Pathology Interest Group identified principles, overall approach, and unique considerations for assessing adversity in CP data interpretation to provide a consensus opinion...
February 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007369/pentobarbital-in-the-context-of-possible-suicides-analysis-of-a-case
#6
Paula Melo, Pedro Costa, Maria José Quintas, André Castro, Sónia Tarelho, João Miguel Franco, Helena M Teixeira
Pentobarbital is a barbiturate, acting as a central nervous system depressant (CNS), being used for its anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and anaesthetic properties. Barbiturates were replaced by benzodiazepines, leading to a decrease in poisoning cases with these compounds. However, pentobarbital is still used in many countries as an anaesthetic in veterinary medicine. Due to its properties, this compound is sought after by people who wish to commit suicide, acquiring it on the black market. The authors present an unusual fatal pentobarbital intoxication case, in a 37 years-old male salesperson, with no known connection with the veterinary field, being more difficult to obtain this compound...
May 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974078/operation-canine-lifeline-recommendations-for-enhancing-prehospital-care-for-government-working-dogs
#7
Teija Corse, Chelsea Firth, John Burke, Kenneth Schor, James F Koterski, Sabrina McGraw, Nancy Vincent-Johnson, Lori Gordon
Operation Canine Lifeline was a tabletop exercise developed by students and faculty of Boston University School of Medicine's Healthcare Emergency Management master's program. The tabletop exercise led to discussion on current protocols for canines working in the field, what occurs if a canine encounters a toxin in the field, and what to do in situations of national security that require working with civilian agencies. This discussion led to the creation of a set of recommendations around providing prehospital veterinary care to government working dogs...
December 15, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871899/balkan-endemic-nephropathy-still-continuing-enigma-risk-assessment-and-underestimated-hazard-of-joint-mycotoxin-exposure-of-animals-or-humans
#8
REVIEW
Stoycho D Stoev
The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. The natural content of the most frequent nephrotoxic mycotoxins in target feedstuffs/foods were investigated, in addition to their significance for development of renal damages in endemic areas. An estimation of the level of exposure of humans to the nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), is made. The possible synergism or additive effects between some target mycotoxins in the development of nephropathy is also covered...
January 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862218/toxicity-of-individual-pharmaceuticals-and-their-mixtures-to-aliivibrio-fischeri-evidence-of-toxicological-interactions-in-binary-combinations
#9
Valeria Di Nica, Sara Villa, Antonio Finizio
The combined toxicities of binary mixtures of veterinary pharmaceutical active compounds were examined using the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri as a test organism (Microtox® test). Mixtures were prepared at an equitoxic ratio that corresponded to the inhibitory concentration, 10% (IC10) of individual pharmaceutical active compounds. In addition, the toxicity was determined of a multicomponent mixture that contained all of the investigated pharmaceutical active compounds mixed at a ratio corresponding to their individual predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values...
March 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717067/one-health-transdisciplinary-opportunities-for-setac-leadership-in-integrating-and-improving-the-health-of-people-animals-and-the-environment
#10
A Alonso Aguirre, Val R Beasley, Tom Augspurger, William H Benson, Janet Whaley, Niladri Basu
One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people, animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ∼2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interinstitutional research partnerships, conferences, communications, and organizational frameworks, particularly those championed by the human health and veterinary medical communities. Environmental quality is arguably the least developed component within the One Health framework, but can be guided by expertise within the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679801/perspectives-in-veterinary-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#11
EDITORIAL
Arturo Anadón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677079/effects-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-avermectin-exposure-on-alpha-synuclein-expression-and-proteasomal-activity-in-pigeons
#12
Ming Li, Shuo Zhou, Xian-Song Wang, Ci Liu, Shu Li
Avermectins (AVMs) are used worldwide in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Residues of avermectin drugs, causing toxicological effects on non-target organisms, have raised great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM on the expression levels of alpha synuclein (α-Syn) and proteasomal activity in pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that, the mRNA and protein levels of α-Syn increased in AVM treated groups relative to control groups in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643517/fipronil-insecticide-toxicology-oxidative-stress-and-metabolism
#13
Xu Wang, María Aránzazu Martínez, Qinghua Wu, Irma Ares, María Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadón, Zonghui Yuan
Fipronil (FIP) is widely used across the world as a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole insecticide and veterinary drug. FIP was the insecticide to act by targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and has favorable selective toxicity towards insects rather than mammals. However, because of accidental exposure, incorrect use of FIP or widespread FIP use leading to the contamination of water and soil, there is increasing evidence that FIP could cause a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, reproductive, and cytotoxic effects on vertebrate and invertebrates...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616733/animal-serial-killing-the-first-criminal-conviction-for-animal-cruelty-in-brazil
#14
Fernanda Auciello Salvagni, Adriana de Siqueira, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima, Marina Frota de Albuquerque Landi, Heidi Ponge-Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Maiorka
Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576563/the-rat-microrna-body-atlas-evaluation-of-the-microrna-content-of-rat-organs-through-deep-sequencing-and-characterization-of-pancreas-enriched-mirnas-as-biomarkers-of-pancreatic-toxicity-in-the-rat-and-dog
#15
Aaron Smith, John Calley, Sachin Mathur, Hui-Rong Qian, Han Wu, Mark Farmen, Florian Caiment, Pierre R Bushel, Jianying Li, Craig Fisher, Patrick Kirby, Erik Koenig, David G Hall, David E Watson
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are ~19-25 nucleotide long RNA molecules that fine tune gene expression through the inhibition of translation or degradation of the mRNA through incorporation into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). MicroRNAs are stable in the serum and plasma, are detectable in a wide variety of body fluids, are conserved across veterinary species and humans and are expressed in a tissue specific manner. They can be detected at low concentrations in circulation in animals and humans, generating interest in the utilization of miRNAs as serum and/or plasma based biomarkers of tissue injury...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553946/residue-levels-and-discharge-loads-of-antibiotics-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-wwtps-hospital-lagoons-and-rivers-within-lake-victoria-basin-kenya
#16
Selly Jemutai Kimosop, Z M Getenga, F Orata, V A Okello, J K Cheruiyot
The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented...
September 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509597/evaluation-of-certain-veterinary-drug-residues-in-food-eighty-first-report-of-the-joint-fao-who-expert-committee-on-food-additives
#17
(no author information available yet)
This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i...
2016: World Health Organization Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450041/epidemiology-of-animal-poisoning-an-overview-on-the-features-and-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-the-phenomenon-in-the-north-eastern-italian-regions
#18
Laura Bille, Marica Toson, Paolo Mulatti, Manuela Dalla Pozza, Francesca Capolongo, Claudia Casarotto, Nicola Ferrè, Roberto Angeletti, Federica Gallocchio, Giovanni Binato
In the present paper we analyze and discuss about the records referring to animal poisonings and poisoned baits cases covering the period between 2007 and 2013 and submitted for diagnostic investigations to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), which is the public veterinary health institute competent for the north eastern Italian regions. All data were gathered by a passive surveillance system based on voluntary reporting, which became mandatory in 2009 after a decree of the Italian Ministry of Health had come into force...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431866/a-case-series-of-clenbuterol-toxicity-caused-by-adulterated-heroin
#19
Michelle A Hieger, Michael P Emswiler, Kevin F Maskell, John T Sentz, Kristin B Miller, Carl E Wolf, Kirk L Cumpston, Brandon K Wills
BACKGROUND: Adulteration of drugs of abuse may be done to increase profits. Some adulterants are relatively innocuous and others result in significant toxicity. Clenbuterol is a β2-adrenergic agonist with veterinary uses that has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for human use. It is an infrequently reported heroin adulterant. We describe a cluster of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed clenbuterol exposure resulting in serious clinical effects. CASE SERIES: Ten patients presented with unexpected symptoms shortly after heroin use...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351617/maintenance-of-zebrafish-lines-at-the-european-zebrafish-resource-center
#20
Robert Geisler, Nadine Borel, Marco Ferg, Jana Viktoria Maier, Uwe Strähle
We have established a European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC) at the KIT. This center not only maintains and distributes a large number of existing mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines but also gives zebrafish researchers access to screening services and technologies such as imaging and high-throughput sequencing, provided by the Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG). The EZRC maintains and distributes the stock collection of the Nüsslein-Volhard laboratory, comprising over 2000 publicly released mutations, as frozen sperm samples...
July 2016: Zebrafish
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