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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768042/baseline-knowledge-of-potential-pet-toxins-among-the-us-general-public
#1
Natalie Young, Kenneth Royal, Bryan Lovee, Gigi Davidson
In 2014, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty toAnimals Animal Poison Control Center fielded more than 167,000cases of potential nonhuman animal toxicosis. Concomitantly, thereremain limited free and reputable veterinary toxicology resourcesavailable for companion-animal (pet) caregivers (owners) seekingassistance and advice about potentially harmful exposures inanimals. The objective of this study was to assess pet toxicantknowledge among a representative sample of Americans andgauge the need for additional toxicology resources...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747673/ethnobotanical-survey-of-plants-used-as-repellents-against-housefly-musca-domestica-l-diptera-muscidae-in-budondo-subcounty-jinja-district-uganda
#2
Kalori Baana, Harriet Angwech, Geoffrey Maxwell Malinga
BACKGROUND: The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a major public health and domestic pest that spoils food and causes irritation and is a vector of many infectious disease pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Currently, its control relies largely on chemical pesticides. However, the adverse health and environmental effects of pesticides, risk of development of insect resistance, and bioaccumulation through the food chain emphasize the need to search for environmentally friendly alternatives...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705615/preface-to-the-special-issue-of-food-and-chemical-toxicology-on-the-outcomes-of-the-marlon-project-on-veterinary-epidemiology-of-potential-health-impacts-of-genetically-modified-feeds-in-livestock
#3
EDITORIAL
Peadar Lawlor, Michelle M Epstein, Gijs A Kleter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692725/evaluation-of-marbofloxacin-in-beagle-dogs-after-oral-dosing-preclinical-safety-evaluation-and-comparative-pharmacokinetics-of-two-different-tablets
#4
Zhixin Lei, Qianying Liu, Bing Yang, Haseeb Khaliq, Saeed Ahmed, Bowen Fan, Jiyue Cao, Qigai He
The current study evaluates a tested marbofloxacin tablet (MBT) (Petsen), in terms of bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) in a comparison of the commercialized and standard tablet (Marbocyl) in beagle dogs. Four different bacterial species were selected for the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against marbofloxacin (MBF). Target animal safety studies were conducted with a wide spectrum of dosages of Petsen. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of Petsen were observed after the oral administration of a recommended dosage of 2 mg/kg...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683091/an-automated-image-analysis-method-to-quantify-veterinary-bone-marrow-cellularity-on-h-e-sections
#5
Cleopatra Kozlowski, Jochen Brumm, Gary Cain
Bone marrow toxicity is a common finding when assessing safety of drug candidate molecules. Standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) marrow tissue sections are typically manually evaluated to provide a semiquantitative assessment of overall cellularity. Here, we developed an automated image analysis method that allows quantitative assessment of changes in bone marrow cell population in sternal bone. In order to test whether the method was repeatable and sensitive, we compared the automated method with manual subjective histopathology scoring of total cellularity in rat sternal bone marrow samples across 17 independently run studies...
April 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683082/regulatory-forum-opinion-paper-considerations-for-toxicologic-pathologists-evaluating-the-safety-of-biomaterials-and-finished-medical-devices
#6
Shayne C Gad, JoAnn C L Schuh
Safety ("biocompatibility") assessment of medical devices has evolved along a different path than that of drugs, being historically governed more by the considerations and needs of engineers rather than chemists and biologists. As a result, the involvement of veterinary pathologists has been much more limited-almost entirely to evaluating tissue responses in tissues in direct contact with implanted devices. As devices have become more complex in composition, structure, placement, and use, concerns as to adverse systemic responses in patients have called for more comprehensive and thoughtful evaluations of effects throughout the body...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421996/role-of-abc-transporters-in-veterinary-medicine-pharmaco-toxicological-implications
#7
Guillermo Virkel, Mariana Ballent, Carlos Lanusse, Adrian Lifschitz
Unlike physicians, veterinary practitioners must deal with a number of animal species with crucial differences in anatomy, physiology and metabolism. Accordingly, the pharmacokinetic behaviour, the clinical efficacy and the adverse or toxic effects of drugs may differ across domestic animals. Moreover, the use of drugs in food-producing species may impose a risk for humans due to the generation of chemical residues in edible products, a major concern for public health and consumer's safety. As is clearly known in human beings, the ATP binding cassette (ABC) of transport proteins may influence the bioavailability and elimination of numerous drugs and other xenobiotics in domestic animals as well...
January 31, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#8
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317921/baseline-knowledge-of-potential-pet-toxins-a-survey-of-pharmacists
#9
Natalie W Young, Kenneth D Royal, Gigi S Davidson
Background: Consumer expenditures on their family pets are rapidly increasing, part of which can be attributed to prescription and OTC medications. In turn, community pharmacies are seeking and receiving an increased number of prescriptions for animals. Community pharmacists' ability to safely care for animal patients is relatively unexplored. Human medications, their normal dosing and even medication excipients could be lethal in some animal patients. Objective: The overarching objective of this study was to assess pharmacists' baseline knowledge of potential pet poisons...
October 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261747/sex-specific-reference-intervals-of-hematologic-and-biochemical-analytes-in-sprague-dawley-rats-using-the-nonparametric-rank-percentile-method
#10
Qili He, Guoming Su, Keliang Liu, Fangcheng Zhang, Yong Jiang, Jun Gao, Lida Liu, Zhongren Jiang, Minwu Jin, Huiping Xie
BACKGROUND: Hematologic and biochemical analytes of Sprague-Dawley rats are commonly used to determine effects that were induced by treatment and to evaluate organ dysfunction in toxicological safety assessments, but reference intervals have not been well established for these analytes. Reference intervals as presently defined for these analytes in Sprague-Dawley rats have not used internationally recommended statistical method nor stratified by sex. Thus, we aimed to establish sex-specific reference intervals for hematologic and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley rats according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A3 and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guideline...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239680/the-spots-system-an-ocular-scoring-system-optimized-for-use-in-modern-preclinical-drug-development-and-toxicology
#11
REVIEW
Joshua Seth Eaton, Paul E Miller, Ellison Bentley, Sara M Thomasy, Christopher J Murphy
PURPOSE: To present a semiquantitative ocular scoring system comprising elements and criteria that address many of the limitations associated with systems commonly used in preclinical studies, providing enhanced cross-species applicability and predictive value in modern ocular drug and device development. METHODS: Revisions to the ocular scoring systems of McDonald-Shadduck and Hackett-McDonald were conducted by board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists at Ocular Services On Demand (OSOD) over the execution of hundreds of in vivo preclinical ocular drug and device development studies and general toxicological investigations...
December 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218304/from-invention-to-innovation-risk-analysis-to-integrate-one-health-technology-in-the-dairy-farm
#12
Andrea Lombardo, Carlo Boselli, Simonetta Amatiste, Simone Ninci, Chiara Frazzoli, Roberto Dragone, Alberto De Rossi, Gerardo Grasso, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanni Brajon
Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194519/development-of-an-analytical-procedure-for-the-determination-of-multiclass-compounds-for-forensic-veterinary-toxicology
#13
Bartosz Sell, Tomasz Sniegocki, Jan Zmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
Reported here is a new analytical multiclass method based on QuEChERS technique, which has proven to be effective in diagnosing fatal poisoning cases in animals. This method has been developed for the determination of analytes in liver samples comprising rodenticides, carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides, coccidiostats and mycotoxins. The procedure entails addition of acetonitrile and sodium acetate to 2 g of homogenized liver sample. The mixture was shaken intensively and centrifuged for phase separation, which was followed by an organic phase transfer into a tube containing sorbents (PSA and C18) and magnesium sulfate, then it was centrifuged, the supernatant was filtered and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131471/the-toxicological-effects-of-some-avermectins-on-goat-liver-carbonic-anhydrase-enzyme
#14
Cuneyt Caglayan, İlhami Gulcin
Avermectins are used worldwide as antiparasitic drugs in the field of veterinary medicine and as agricultural pesticides and insecticides. Carbonic anhydrase (CA, E.C. 4.2.1.1) is a zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to yield protons (H+ ) and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ). In this study, some avermectins, including abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, and moxidectin, were investigated for in vitro inhibitory effects on the CA enzyme purified from goat liver, which was purified (125...
January 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111862/slit-lamp-based-ocular-scoring-systems-in-toxicology-and-drug-development-a-literature-survey
#15
Joshua Seth Eaton, Paul E Miller, Ellison Bentley, Sara M Thomasy, Christopher J Murphy
PURPOSE: To present a survey of the features of published slit lamp-based scoring systems and their applicability in the context of modern ocular toxicology and drug development. METHODS: References describing original or modified slit lamp-based scoring systems for human or veterinary clinical patients or in investigative or toxicologic research were collected following a comprehensive literature review using textbooks and online publication searches. Each system's indications and features were compiled to facilitate comparison...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068247/australian-elapid-snake-envenomation-in-cats-clinical-priorities-and-approach
#16
REVIEW
Trudi J Mcalees, Linda A Abraham
Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Clinical challenges: The diagnosis of elapid snake envenomation is not always easy...
November 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968193/mechanism-of-neonicotinoid-toxicity-impact-on-oxidative-stress-and-metabolism
#17
Xu Wang, Arturo Anadón, Qinghua Wu, Fang Qiao, Irma Ares, María-Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Zonghui Yuan, María-Aránzazu Martínez
Thousands of tons of neonicotinoids are widely used around the world as broad-spectrum systemic insecticides and veterinary drugs. Researchers originally thought that neonicotinoids exhibited low mammalian toxicity. However, following their widespread use, it became increasingly evident that neonicotinoids could have various toxic effects on vertebrates and invertebrates. The primary focus of this review is to summarize the research progress associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for neonicotinoid-induced toxicity as well as neonicotinoid metabolism...
January 6, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938132/development-and-validation-of-carbofuran-and-3-hydroxycarbofuran-analysis-by-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detector-hplc-dad-for-forensic-veterinary-medicine
#18
Vagner Gonçalves, Nicolle Queiroz Hazarbassanov, Adriana de Siqueira, Jorge Camilo Florio, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Paulo Cesar Maiorka, André Rinaldi Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929103/authorization-and-toxicity-of-veterinary-drugs-and-plant-protection-products-residues-of-the-active-ingredients-in-food-and-feed-and-toxicity-problems-related-to-adjuvants
#19
REVIEW
Szandra Klátyik, Péter Bohus, Béla Darvas, András Székács
Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830120/detection-of-carfentanil-by-lc-ms-ms-and-reports-of-associated-fatalities-in-the-usa
#20
Kevin G Shanks, George S Behonick
Carfentanil is a mu (μ) opioid receptor agonist and is estimated to be ~10,000 times more potent than morphine in animal (non-human) models. It is not approved for human use and is only used to immobilize large exotic animals in veterinary medicine. In mid-2016, carfentanil emerged as a contaminant in street heroin in the USA and was central to a large number of emergency department visits and deaths. We describe an analytical method for the detection and quantification of carfentanil in whole blood specimens via a protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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