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animals science

P Di Giminiani, J S Stausholm, E Viitasaari, L J Petersen, M S Herskin
Aims This study aimed to gain methodological knowledge about quantification of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigs stimulated on the hind legs. Methods Thirty-two castrated male pigs were used, weighing 50-60kg, 16 weeks of age and housed in standard pens (4.40m×4.40m) with ad libitum access to water and feed. Mechanical nociceptive testing (4 stimulations/pig) was done by an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (IITC Life Science Inc., CA) with a rigid, hollow plastic tip (cut-off: 1000 gf) and an area of 0...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Deeptej Singh, Juliya Fisher, Devorah Shagalov, Aakaash Varma, Daniel M Siegel
The plant and mushroom kingdoms have species used for intoxication, inebriation, or recreation. Some of these species are toxic. Given that many of these plants or substances are illegal and have histories of abuse, much of the research regarding therapeutic application is based on basic science, animal studies, and traditional use. This review examines Cannabis, Euphorbia, Ricinus, Podophyllum, Veratrum, mushrooms, and nightshades, along with resveratrol and cocaine as they relate to dermatology.
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Víctor J Carrión, Viviane Cordovez, Olaf Tyc, Desalegn W Etalo, Irene de Bruijn, Victor C L de Jager, Marnix H Medema, Leo Eberl, Jos M Raaijmakers
Disease-suppressive soils are ecosystems in which plants suffer less from root infections due to the activities of specific microbial consortia. The characteristics of soils suppressive to specific fungal root pathogens are comparable to those of adaptive immunity in animals, as reported by Raaijmakers and Mazzola (Science 352:1392-3, 2016), but the mechanisms and microbial species involved in the soil suppressiveness are largely unknown. Previous taxonomic and metatranscriptome analyses of a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani revealed that members of the Burkholderiaceae family were more abundant and more active in suppressive than in non-suppressive soils...
June 13, 2018: ISME Journal
Inara F Raupp-Barcaro, Maria A Vital, José C Galduróz, Roberto Andreatini
OBJECTIVE: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Bufang Xu, Mingjuan Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Dan Zhang, Feng Guo, Chenchen Si, Peter C K Leung, Aijun Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Is allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), a cytokine associated with inflammation and allograft rejection, aberrantly elevated in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol with potential effects on endometrial receptivity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our findings indicated AIF-1 is increased in IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol and mediates greater TNF-α expression during implantation phase, which may be unfavorable for embryo implantation...
June 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
Despoina Iatridou, Zsuzsanna Nagy, Nancy De Briyne, Jimmy Saunders, Ana Bravo
Developing a common market and allowing free movement of goods, services, and people is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Area. In the field of scientific research, Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes aims to improve the welfare of laboratory animals by following the principle of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement). Each breeder, supplier, and user must appoint a designated veterinarian to advise on the well-being and treatment of the animals...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Benjamin Piña, Laia Navarro, Carlos Barata, Demetrio Raldúa, Rubén Martínez, Marta Casado
The genome revolution represents a complete change on our view of biological systems. The quantitative determination of changes in all major molecular components of the living cells, the "omics" approach, opened whole new fields for all health sciences. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and others, together with appropriate prediction and modeling tools, will mark the future of developmental toxicity assessment both for wildlife and humans. This is especially true for disciplines, like teratology, which rely on studies in model organisms, as studies at lower levels of organization are difficult to implement...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana M Calado, Maria Dos Anjos Pires
In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic principles of teratology, beginning with its definition, the critical point for teratogenesis to occur and the most evident etiological agents to improve the understanding of this science.Teratology is a recent science that began in the early twentieth century, and has greatly improved over the recent years with the advancements in molecular biology, toxicology, animal laboratory science, and genetics, as well as the improvement on the knowledge of the environmental influences...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michaela Golic, Kristin Kräker, Caroline Fischer, Natalia Alenina, Nadine Haase, Florian Herse, Till Schütte, Wolfgang Henrich, Dominik N Müller, Andreas Busjahn, Michael Bader, Ralf Dechend
Aim: Diabetes in pregnancy is a major burden with acute and long-term consequences. Its treatment requires adequate diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Many experimental research on diabetes during pregnancy has been performed in rats. Recently, continuous blood glucose monitoring of non-pregnant diabetic rats revealed an increased circadian variability of blood glucose that made a single blood glucose measurement per day inappropriate to reflect glycemic status. Continuous blood glucose measurement has never been performed in pregnant rats...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Maria Terezinha Santos Leite Neta, Rajiv Gandhi Sathiyabama, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are naturally occurring compounds, extensively distributed in plants. T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines balance plays an essential role in the reaction of inflammatory, allergic and infectious processes and transplantation rejection. PURPOSE: This systematic review focuses on various classes of flavonoids with a view to evaluate whether Th1/Th2 cytokine-mediated pathways of immunoenhancement could reduce immune overwhelming reactions. METHODS: Articles in English published from inception to December 2017 reporting flavonoids with immunomodulatory activity for the management of immune-mediated disorders were acquired from PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science and a animal experiments where Th1 and Th2 cytokines were investigated to assess the outcome of immunoregulatory therapy were included...
May 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Sathya Narayanan Patmanathan, Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Moon Nian Lim, Roslina Husaini, Kamal Shaik Fakiruddin, Zubaidah Zakaria
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 or CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of the hottest topics discussed lately due to its robustness and effectiveness in genome editing. The technology has been widely used in life science research including microbial, plant, animal, and human cell studies. Combined with the pluripotency of stem cells, the technology represents a powerful tool to generate various cell types for disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology, and targeted therapies...
June 12, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Paul J Black, Deborah R Smith, Kunal Chaudhary, Eric P Xanthopoulos, Christine Chin, Catherine S Spina, Mark E Hwang, Mark Mayeda, Yi-Fang Wang, Eileen P Connolly, Tony J C Wang, Cheng-Shie Wuu, Tom K Hei, Simon K Cheng, Cheng-Chia Wu
PURPOSE: To implement Velocity-based image fusion and adaptive deformable registration to enable treatment planning for preclinical murine models of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57BL6 mice underwent 3 unique cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans: 2 in the prone position and a third supine. A single T1-weighted post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series of a murine metastatic brain tumor model was selected for MRI-to-CBCT registration and gross tumor volume (GTV) identification...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jonathan van Senten, Carole R Engle, Kathleen Hartman, Kamina K Johnson, Lori L Gustafson
The growth of aquaculture, both in terms of the volume of production and the diversity of species and production systems, has created challenges for effective animal health policies. This paper presents results of a case study of the costs to a sector of U.S. aquaculture in which producers raising fish that are sold and shipped live contend with widely differing requirements for testing and certification of aquatic animal health. These are compared to related costs under a proposed uniform standard. The uniform standard scenario assumes adoption by the majority of the industry of a non-regulatory surveillance and biosecurity program with veterinary oversight, as an alternative to the current complex regulatory environment based on administrative political districts rather than on risk of disease transmission...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Vincenzo Cavalieri, Elena Baiamonte, Melania Lo Iacono
Lentiviruses have a number of molecular features in common, starting with the ability to integrate their genetic material into the genome of non-dividing infected cells. A peculiar property of non-primate lentiviruses consists in their incapability to infect and induce diseases in humans, thus providing the main rationale for deriving biologically safe lentiviral vectors for gene therapy applications. In this review, we first give an overview of non-primate lentiviruses, highlighting their common and distinctive molecular characteristics together with key concepts in the molecular biology of lentiviruses...
June 9, 2018: Viruses
Michelle Sinclair, Clive Julian Christie Phillips
Animal welfare is an increasingly global initiative, which makes the intricate business of operating across borders of particular relevance to the movement. There is, however, a distinct absence of literature dedicated to investigating operational strategies that are more likely to result in the success of international animal welfare initiatives. In addition to this, opportunities exist to investigate the human aspects of animal welfare, parallel to the growing field of animal-based science. This study aimed to begin addressing these gaps by conducting semi structured interviews with 15 leaders of some of the largest international animal welfare charities...
June 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Georgia Kritikos, Nicole Weidner, James L Atkinson, Julie Bayle, Ingrid van Hoek, Adronie Verbrugghe
OBJECTIVE To quantify vitamin D3 (VitD3 ) concentrations in commercial dog foods and compare those concentrations with Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) recommendations and manufacturer-reported concentrations. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 82 commercial dog foods. PROCEDURES Samples of commercially available dog foods were obtained from owners of healthy dogs in the Guelph, ON, Canada, area and owners of dogs that were patients at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre's Mona Campbell Centre for Animal Cancer...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Ahmad Yahyazadeh, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Gamze Altun, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Devra Davis
Humans are exposed to increasing levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at various frequencies as technology advances. In this context, improving understanding of the biological effects of EMF remains an important, high priority issue. Although a number of studies in this issue and elsewhere have focused on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress caused by EMF, the precise understanding of the processes involved remains to be elucidated. Due to unclear results among the studies, the issue of EMF exposure in the literature should be evaluated at the genomic level on the reproductive system...
May 25, 2018: Environmental Research
Marina Gaínza-Lein, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Adriana Ulate-Campos, Tobias Loddenkemper, Adam P Ostendorf
OBJECTIVE: Describe basic science, animal models and clinical data related to timing of treatment in status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: We summarized the results of 15 studies that reported time to treatment in SE, and reviewed basic and clinical literature. RESULTS: SE is a life-threatening and time-sensitive emergency that requires immediate treatment. Current guidelines recommend escalation of anti-seizure medications (ASM) within specified time frames...
June 1, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Utkarsha A Singh, Mukta Kumari, Soumya Iyengar
Background: Although genomic DNA isolation using the Chelex 100 resin is rapid and inexpensive, the DNA obtained by this method has a low concentration in solution and contains suspended impurities. The presence of debris in the DNA solution may result in degradation of DNA on long term storage and inhibition of the polymerase chain reaction. In order to remove impurities and concentrate the DNA in solution, we have introduced modifications in the existing DNA isolation protocol using Chelex-100...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
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