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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930730/effects-of-recreation-on-animals-revealed-as-widespread-through-a-global-systematic-review
#1
Courtney L Larson, Sarah E Reed, Adina M Merenlender, Kevin R Crooks
Outdoor recreation is typically assumed to be compatible with biodiversity conservation and is permitted in most protected areas worldwide. However, increasing numbers of studies are discovering negative effects of recreation on animals. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature and analyzed 274 articles on the effects of non-consumptive recreation on animals, across all geographic areas, taxonomic groups, and recreation activities. We quantified trends in publication rates and outlets, identified knowledge gaps, and assessed evidence for effects of recreation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928551/drug-discrimination-and-the-analysis-of-private-events
#2
Brian D Kangas, David R Maguire
A defining feature of radical behaviorism is the explicit inclusion of private events as material phenomena within a science of behavior. Surprisingly, however, despite much theorizing, there is a notable paucity within behavior analysis of controlled experimentation and analysis of private events, especially in nonhuman animals. One technique that is amenable to the study of private events is drug discrimination. For over 40 years, drug discrimination procedures have been an incredibly effective tool providing a wealth of in vivo pharmacological information about drugs including receptor selectivity, potency, and efficacy...
November 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926813/perturbation-of-h3k27me3-associated-epigenetic-processes-increases-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation
#3
Hidekazu Iwakawa, Benjamin C Carter, Brett C Bishop, Joe Ogas, Stanton B Gelvin
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a core technology for basic plant science and agricultural biotechnology. Improving transformation frequency is a major goal for plant transgenesis. We previously showed that T-DNA insertions in some histone genes decreased transformation susceptibility, whereas overexpression of several Arabidopsis H2A and H4 isoforms increased transformation. Overexpression of several histone H2B and H3 isoforms had little effect on transformation frequency. However, overexpression of histone H3-11 (HTR11) enhanced transformation...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923731/social-modulation-of-cognition-lessons-from-rhesus-macaques-relevant-to-education
#4
REVIEW
Elisabetta Monfardini, Amélie J Reynaud, Jérôme Prado, Martine Meunier
Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919479/how-to-refer-to-people-with-disease-in-research-outputs-the-disconnection-between-academic-practise-and-that-preferred-by-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#5
David Baker, Ananthi Anandhakrishnan, Katie A Tuite-Dalton, Hazel Lockart-Jones, Rodden M Middleton, David V Ford, Christina Crowe, Gavin Giovannoni
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, Government and Charity funders require public engagement in research. Invariably these research outputs describe the condition of someone with the disease of interest. We therefore sought to identify the preferred descriptor of someone with a disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and to determine what descriptors are currently used by academics. METHODS: Several surveys were undertaken: one from the Research Network of the MS Society (MSSRN), a major MS Charity within the United Kingdom, who are involved in reviewing grant applications, priority setting and research governance (n=146), and surveys from both the United Kingdom MS register (MSR; n=1713) and the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry (n=518)...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918951/subjective-alcohol-responses-in-a-cross-sectional-field-based-study-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-effects-of-age-drinking-level-and-dependence-consequences
#6
Hayley Treloar, Mark A Celio, Stephen A Lisman, Robert Miranda, Linda P Spear
BACKGROUND: Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol's stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults...
November 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917961/trends-in-health-surveillance-and-joint-service-delivery-for-pastoralists-in-west-and-central-africa
#7
M F Abakar, E Schelling, M Béchir, B N Ngandolo, K Pfister, I O Alfaroukh, H M Hassane, J Zinsstag
In most sub-Saharan African countries, pastoralism represents an important economic resource and contributes significantly to national growth; however, challenges remain, particularly in providing social services to pastoralists (especially health and education) and in avoiding conflict with local sedentary communities and local authorities. All of this takes place while pastoralists try to maintain their mobile lifestyle within a rapidly changing ecosystem. Transdisciplinary approaches, such as 'One Health', which covers both human and animal health, have proven effective in delivering services and reaching mobile pastoralists in remote areas...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913797/promoting-gait-recovery-and-limiting-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#8
Catherine Mercier, Meyke Roosink, Jason Bouffard, Laurent J Bouyer
Most persons living with a spinal cord injury experience neuropathic pain in the months following their lesion, at the moment where they receive intensive gait rehabilitation. Based on studies using animal models, it has been proposed that central sensitization in nociceptive pathways (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to motor learning (adaptive plasticity) share common neural mechanisms and compete with each other. This article aims to address the discrepancy between the growing body of basic science literature supporting this hypothesis and the general belief in rehabilitation research that pain and gait rehabilitation represent two independent problems...
December 2, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911022/membrane-defects-and-genetic-redundancy-are-we-at-a-turning-point-for-dyt1-dystonia
#10
REVIEW
Ana Cascalho, Julie Jacquemyn, Rose E Goodchild
Heterozygosity for a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in TOR1A/torsinA is one of the most common causes of hereditary dystonia. In this review, we highlight current understanding of how this mutation causes disease from research spanning structural biochemistry, cell science, neurobiology, and several model organisms. We now know that homozygosity for ΔGAG has the same effects as Tor1a(KO) , implicating a partial loss of function mechanism in the ΔGAG/+ disease state. In addition, torsinA loss specifically affects neurons in mice, even though the gene is broadly expressed, apparently because of differential expression of homologous torsinB...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909075/cell-scientist-to-watch-brian-stramer
#11
(no author information available yet)
Brian Stramer completed his undergraduate degree at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY, and then moved to pursue his PhD at Tufts University in Boston, MA. He then crossed the Atlantic to work in the laboratory of Paul Martin as a US/UK Royal Society Fellow at the University of Bristol, UK. Before becoming a lecturer and a group leader at King's College London in 2008, Brian was also a lecturer of Veterinary Basic Sciences at the Royal Veterinary College in London. In 2015, Brian received a Wellcome Trust Investigator Award, which he will use to continue his research on the regulation of contact inhibition of locomotion and its roles in animal physiology...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904714/facilitating-the-commercialization-and-use-of-organ-platforms-generated-by-the-microphysiological-systems-tissue-chip-program-through-public-private-partnerships
#12
REVIEW
Christine A Livingston, Kristin M Fabre, Danilo A Tagle
Microphysiological systems (organs-on-chips, tissue chips) are devices designed to recapitulate human physiology that could be used to better understand drug responses not easily addressed using other in vivo systems or in vitro animal models. Although still in development, initial results seem promising as tissue chips exhibit in vivo systems-like functional responses. The National Center for Advancing Translation Science (NCATS) identifies this technology as a potential tool that could improve the process of getting safer, more effective treatments to patients, and has led to the Tissue Chip Program, which aims to develop, integrate and validate major organ systems for testing...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904580/quercetin-and-ovarian-cancer-an-evaluation-based-on-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Arefe Parvaresh, Roghaye Razavi, Nahid Rafie, Reza Ghiasvand, Makan Pourmasoumi, Maryam Miraghajani
Some studies have suggested chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of quercetin (Q) on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review was to evaluate the association between Q and ovarian cancer risk among human researches and induced sensitivity to some types of chemotherapeutic drugs and antiproliferative effects of this flavonoid in the animals and cell lines studies. Data for this systematic review were achieved through searches of the MEDLINE (PubMed), Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane, SID, and Magiran databases for studies published up to May 2015...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904549/effects-of-nigella-sativa-supplementation-on-blood-parameters-and-anthropometric-indices-in-adults-a-systematic-review-on-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
Alireza Mohtashami, Mohammad Hasan Entezari
BACKGROUND: Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and several studies have been performed in the last decades to reveal the effects of it on different medical disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. We evaluated the effects of N. sativa supplementation on lipid profiles, glycemic control, blood pressure (BP), and some anthropometric indices in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search on published studies was done by using databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Thomas Reuters Web of Science, and Cochrane...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902721/facial-indicators-of-positive-emotions-in-rats
#15
Kathryn Finlayson, Jessica Frances Lampe, Sara Hintze, Hanno Würbel, Luca Melotti
Until recently, research in animal welfare science has mainly focused on negative experiences like pain and suffering, often neglecting the importance of assessing and promoting positive experiences. In rodents, specific facial expressions have been found to occur in situations thought to induce negatively valenced emotional states (e.g., pain, aggression and fear), but none have yet been identified for positive states. Thus, this study aimed to investigate if facial expressions indicative of positive emotional state are exhibited in rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899658/the-big-data-center-from-deposition-to-integration-to-translation
#16
(no author information available yet)
Biological data are generated at unprecedentedly exponential rates, posing considerable challenges in big data deposition, integration and translation. The BIG Data Center, established at Beijing Institute of Genomics (BIG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, provides a suite of database resources, including (i) Genome Sequence Archive, a data repository specialized for archiving raw sequence reads, (ii) Gene Expression Nebulas, a data portal of gene expression profiles based entirely on RNA-Seq data, (iii) Genome Variation Map, a comprehensive collection of genome variations for featured species, (iv) Genome Warehouse, a centralized resource housing genome-scale data with particular focus on economically important animals and plants, (v) Methylation Bank, an integrated database of whole-genome single-base resolution methylomes and (vi) Science Wikis, a central access point for biological wikis developed for community annotations...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898889/accuracies-of-genomic-prediction-of-feed-efficiency-traits-using-different-prediction-and-validation-methods-in-an-experimental-nelore-cattle-population
#17
R M O Silva, B O Fragomeni, D A L Lourenco, A F B Magalhães, N Irano, R Carvalheiro, R C Canesin, M E Z Mercadante, A A Boligon, F S Baldi, I Misztal, L G Albuquerque
Animal feeding is the most important economic component of beef production systems. Selection for feed efficiency has not been effective mainly due to difficult and high costs to obtain the phenotypes. The application of genomic selection using SNP can decrease the cost of animal evaluation as well as the generation interval. The objective of this study was to compare methods for genomic evaluation of feed efficiency traits using different cross-validation layouts in an experimental beef cattle population genotyped for a high-density SNP panel (BovineHD BeadChip assay 700k, Illumina Inc...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893625/robotic-vitreoretinal-surgery
#18
Roomasa Channa, Iulian Iordachita, James T Handa
PURPOSE: To review the current literature on robotic assistance for ophthalmic surgery, especially vitreoretinal procedures. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to August, 2016, for articles relevant to the review topic. Queries included combinations of the terms: robotic eye surgery, ophthalmology, and vitreoretinal. RESULTS: In ophthalmology, proof-of-concept papers have shown the feasibility of performing many delicate anterior segment and vitreoretinal surgical procedures accurately with robotic assistance...
November 23, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889956/red-blood-cell-function-and-dysfunction-redox-regulation-nitric-oxide-metabolism-anemia
#19
Viktoria Kuhn, Lukas Diederich, T C Stevenson Keller Iv, Christian M Kramer, Wiebke Lückstädt, Christina Panknin, Tatsiana Suvorava, Brant Isakson, Malte Kelm, Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: Recent clinical evidence identified anemia to be correlated with severe complications of cardiovascular disease such as bleeding, thromboembolic events, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmias, as well as inflammation, particularly in elderly patients. The underlying mechanisms of these complications are largely unidentified. Recent Advances: Previously, red blood cells (RBCs) were considered exclusively as transporters of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. More recent experimental evidence indicates that RBCs are important inter-organ communication systems with additional functions, including participation in control of systemic NO metabolism, redox regulation, blood rheology and viscosity...
November 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887783/a-systematic-review-of-mancozeb-as-a-reproductive-and-developmental-hazard
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer Runkle, Joan Flocks, Jeannie Economos, Anne L Dunlop
BACKGROUND: The potential adverse reproductive and developmental effects of Mancozeb, especially in sensitive subpopulations, have not been fully reviewed for this widely used fungicide. OBJECTIVE: To review the experimental and epidemiologic evidence for the association between exposure to Mancozeb and reproductive and developmental health outcomes using an adaptation of the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) systematic review framework...
November 22, 2016: Environment International
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