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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457234/community-engagement-and-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-insects-and-animals
#1
Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456807/potential-of-polymeric-particles-as-future-vaccine-delivery-systems-adjuvants-for-parenteral-and-non-parenteral-immunization-against-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi
Objectives: Production of effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is necessity. However, the development of new subunit vaccines is faced with concerns about their weak immunogenicity. To overcome such problems, polymers-based vaccine delivery systems have been proposed to be used via various routes. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of polymeric particles as future vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants for parenteral and non-parenteral immunization against TB. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Science-Direct, and the ISI web of knowledge databases were searched for related keywords...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452784/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-sex-differences
#3
REVIEW
Christina Villard, Rebecka Hultgren
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) predominantly affects an elderly male population. Even so, AAA appears more detrimental in women, who experience a higher risk of aneurysm rupture and a worse outcome after surgery than men. Why women are privileged from yet are worse off once affected has been attributed to an effect of sex hormones. This review summarizes the knowledge of sex differences in AAA and addresses the changes in the aneurysm wall from a gender perspective. METHOD: Standard reporting guidelines set by the PRISMA Group were followed to identify studies examining AAA from a gender perspective...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450305/the-grimace-scale-reliably-assesses-chronic-pain-in-a-rodent-model-of-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain
#4
Titilola Akintola, Charles Raver, Paige Studlack, Olivia Uddin, Radi Masri, Asaf Keller
The limited success in translating basic science findings into effective pain management therapies reflects, in part, the difficulty in reliably assessing pain in experimental animals. This shortcoming is particularly acute in the field of chronic, ongoing pain. Quantitative analysis of facial expressions-the grimace score-was introduced as a promising tool, however, it is thought to reliably assess only pain of short or medium duration (minutes to hours). Here, we test the hypothesis that grimace scores are a reliable metric of ongoing neuropathic pain, by testing the prediction that chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION) will evoke significant increases in grimace scale scores...
August 2017: Neurobiology of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441797/animal-assisted-intervention-and-dementia-a-systematic-review
#5
Michelle L Yakimicki, Nancy E Edwards, Elizabeth Richards, Alan M Beck
This review discusses the relationship between animal-assisted interventions (AAI) and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). A systematic search was conducted within CINAHL, Web of Science CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO for primary research articles. A total of 32 studies were included in the final review. Variation was noted in study designs and in study setting. Twenty-seven of 32 studies used dogs as the intervention. Agitation/aggression showed a significant decrease in nine of 15 studies...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439706/use-of-eradication-in-hiv-cure-related-research-a-public-health-debate
#6
Karine Dubé, Stuart Luter, Breanne Lesnar, Luke Newton, Jerome Galea, Brandon Brown, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication could be conflated with disease eradication at the population level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438472/klinefelter-syndrome-integrating-genetics-neuropsychology-and-endocrinology
#7
Claus H Gravholt, Simon Chang, Mikkel Wallentin, Jens Fedder, Philip Moore, Anne Skakkebæk
Although first identified over 70 years ago, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) continue to pose significant diagnostic challenges, as many patients are still misdiagnosed, or remain undiagnosed. In fact, as few as 25% of KS patients are accurately diagnosed, and most of these diagnoses are not made until adulthood. Classic characteristics of KS include small testes, infertility, hypergonadothropic hypogonadism, and cognitive impairment. However, the pathophysiology behind KS is not well understood, although genetic effects are also thought to play a role...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436169/rethinking-developmental-toxicity-testing-evolution-or-revolution
#8
Anthony R Scialli, George Daston, Connie Chen, Prägati S Coder, Susan Y Euling, Jennifer Foreman, Alan M Hoberman, Julia Hui, Thomas Knudsen, Susan L Makris, LaRonda Morford, Aldert H Piersma, Dinesh Stanislaus, Kary E Thompson
BACKGROUND: Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental toxicity testing? METHODS: A workshop was held under the auspices of the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute to consider how we might design developmental toxicity testing if we started over with 21st century knowledge and techniques (revolution)...
February 12, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435725/a-tribute-to-dr-gordon-hisashi-sato-december-24-1927-march-31-2017
#9
REVIEW
J Denry Sato, Tetsuji Okamoto, David Barnes, Jun Hayashi, Ginette Serrero, Wallace L McKeehan
Gordon H. Sato, an innovator in mammalian tissue culture and integrated cellular physiology, passed away in 2017. In tribute to Dr. Sato, In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Animal presents a collection of invited remembrances from six colleagues whose associations with Dr. Sato spanned more than 40 years. Dr. Sato was a past president of the Tissue Culture Association (now the Society for In Vitro Biology), editor-in-chief of In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology (1987-1991), and the recipient of the lifetime achievement award from the Society for In Vitro Biology (2002)...
February 12, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433676/bioactive-phytochemicals-that-regulate-the-cellular-processes-involved-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#10
REVIEW
Amna Parveen, Mirim Jin, Sun Yeou Kim
BACKGROUND: Owing to the multiple causative factors, the current advances in medication for diabetic nephropathy (DN) do not appear to have improved therapies for patients. Furthermore, use of multiple synthetic medications has shown various adverse effects and ultimately leads to deterioration of the condition. Medicinal plants and their bioactive constituents are considered to be safer and more effective than synthetic medicines against various chronic diseases. Therefore, the use of natural products in the management of DN has been suggested...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431584/horizon-scanning-how-will-metabolomics-applications-transform-food-science-bioengineering-and-medical-innovation-in-the-current-era-of-foodomics
#11
Mustafa Bayram, Çağlar Gökırmaklı
Food and engineering sciences have tended to neglect the importance of human nutrition sciences and clinical study of new molecules discovered by food engineering community, and vice versa. Yet, the value of systems thinking and use of omics technologies in food engineering are rapidly emerging. Foodomics is a new concept and practice to bring about "precision nutrition" and integrative bioengineering studies of food composition, quality, and safety, and applications to improve health of humans, animals, and other living organisms on the planet...
February 12, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431520/beneficial-effects-of-acute-trans-resveratrol-supplementation-in-treated-hypertensive-patients-with-endothelial-dysfunction
#12
B C A A Marques, M Trindade, J C F Aquino, A R Cunha, R O Gismondi, M F Neves, W Oigman
Endothelial dysfunction is a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. Resveratrol is known to improve endothelial function in animals, however, clinical trials are limited. We hypothesized that the acute trans-resveratrol supplementation improves endothelial function in treated hypertensive patients with endothelial dysfunction. Twenty-four hypertensive patients between 45 and 65 years-old with baseline endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized, cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
February 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427723/intra-articular-injection-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-treating-knee-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-of-animal-studies
#13
Dan Xing, Joey Kwong, Ziyi Yang, Yunfei Hou, Wei Zhang, Bin Ma, Jianhao Lin
PURPOSE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injection has emerged as a novel treatment for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) but with inconsistent results in the experimental studies. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the preclinical animal studies of MSCs injection for KOA and to determine the evidence for a role for MSCs in further clinical trials. METHODS: A systematic search of KOA animal studies published through Aug 2017 was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and web of science...
February 7, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425197/how-the-microbiome-challenges-our-concept-of-self
#14
Tobias Rees, Thomas Bosch, Angela E Douglas
Today, the three classical biological explanations of the individual self--the immune system, the brain, the genome--are being challenged by the new field of microbiome research. Evidence shows that our resident microbes orchestrate the adaptive immune system, influence the brain, and contribute more gene functions than our own genome. The realization that humans are not individual, discrete entities but rather the outcome of ever-changing interactions with microorganisms has consequences beyond the biological disciplines...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422031/transcripts-within-rod-photoreceptors-of-the-zebrafish-retina
#15
Chi Sun, Carlos Galicia, Deborah L Stenkamp
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify transcripts of retinal rod photoreceptors of the zebrafish. The zebrafish is an important animal model for vision science due to rapid and tractable development, persistent neurogenesis of rods throughout the lifespan, and capacity for functional retinal regeneration. RESULTS: Zebrafish rods, and non-rod retinal cells of the xops:eGFP transgenic line, were separated by cell dissociation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), followed by RNA-seq...
February 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417853/challenges-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-cyanide-poisoning
#16
J L Parker-Cote, J Rizer, J P Vakkalanka, S V Rege, C P Holstege
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify isolated acute cyanide poison cases and to identify reported signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Web of Science case reports and series using a number of MeSH descriptors pertaining to cyanide, toxicity, and poisonings. We excluded studies on plants, laboratory analyses, smoke inhalation poisonings, animals as well as non-English language articles and those in which data were not available...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415914/high-frequency-echocardiography%C3%A3-transformative-clinical-and-research-applications-in-humans-mice-and-zebrafish
#17
Louis W Wang, Scott H Kesteven, Inken G Huttner, Michael P Feneley, Diane Fatkin
Echocardiography is an invaluable tool for characterizing cardiac structure and function in vivo. Technological advances in high-frequency ultrasound over the past 3 decades have increased spatial and temporal resolution, and facilitated many important clinical and basic science discoveries. Successful reverse translation of established echocardiographic techniques, including M-mode, B-mode, color Doppler, pulsed-wave Doppler, tissue Doppler and, most recently, myocardial deformation imaging, from clinical cardiology into the basic science laboratory has enabled researchers to achieve a deeper understanding of myocardial phenotypes in health and disease...
February 6, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412005/citizen-science-to-communicate-about-public-health-messages-the-reach-of-a-playful-online-survey-on-sitting-time-and-physical-activity
#18
Katrien De Cocker, Sebastien F M Chastin, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Ineke Imbo, Jeroen Stragier, Greet Cardon
There is a lack of research on how to communicate public health guidelines. Citizen science (CS) has been an effective way to involve the public in research. This study analyses the reach of a well-established CS experiment, launched during an annual national science event, to understand if it could be used as communication strategy for public health issues. A short playful online survey contained tailored health-related messages associated to an "animal totem" profile, based on the combination of sitting and physical activity levels (koala: high sitting, low activity; gorilla: high sitting, high activity; zebra: low sitting, low activity; bee: low sitting, high activity)...
February 7, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408292/effect-of-apdt-on-streptococcus-mutans-and-candida-albicans-present-in-the-dental-biofilm-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Ana Caroline Fumes, Paloma Dias da Silva Telles, Silmara Aparecida Milori Corona, Maria Cristina Borsatto
To evaluate the effect of aPDT on S. mutans and C. albicans present in the dental biofilm, using methylene blue as a photosensitizer in different pre-irradiation times. The searches were made on Pubmed, Web of Science, Bireme, Scopus and Cochrane Library, and were complemented by screening the references of selected articles in the attempt to find any article that did not appear in the database search. The searches were performed by two researchers and limited to studies involving human subjects published in the English language...
February 2, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405033/therapy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-an-unexpected-evolving-scenario
#20
Vincenzo Silani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in increasing disability, being uniformly fatal. Since its approval in the 1990s, riluzole remained for long time the unique treatment, offering modest survival benefit. Most recently a second drug has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of ALS: edaravone. Significant advances have been made in the symptomatic management of the disease but more effective drug therapy targeting disease progression is still dreadfully needed, the success appearing almost a miracle...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
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