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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#1
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821352/towards-optimisation-of-induced-pluripotent-cell-culture-extracellular-acidification-results-in-growth-arrest-of-ipsc-prior-to-nutrient-exhaustion
#2
Anja Wilmes, Caroline Rauch, Giada Carta, Georg Kern, Florian Meier, Wilfried Posch, Doris Wilflingseder, Lyle Armstrong, Majlinda Lako, Mario Beilmann, Gerhard Gstraunthaler, Paul Jennings
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have the potential to radically reduce the number of animals used in both toxicological science and disease elucidation. One initial obstacle culturing iPSC is that they require daily medium exchange. This study attempts to clarify why and propose some practical solutions. Two iPSC lineages were fed at different intervals in a full growth area (FGA) or a restricted growth area (RGA). The FGA consisted of a well coated with Matrigel™ and the RGA consisted of a coated coverslip placed in a well...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818833/using-whiteboards-to-support-college-students-learning-of-complex-physiological-concepts
#3
Caron Y Inouye, Christine L Bae, Kathryn N Hayes
Research underscores the importance of retrieval-based practice and application of knowledge for meaningful learning. However, the didactic lecture format continues to persist in traditional university physiology courses. A strategy called whiteboarding, where students use handheld dry erase boards and work in small groups to actively retrieve, discuss, and apply concepts presented in the lecture, has the potential to address challenges associated with actively engaging students in science courses for greater learning...
September 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816207/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-various-sound-pressure-levels-on-the-level-of-serum-aldosterone-concentration-in-rats
#4
Parvin Nassiri, Sajad Zare, Mohammad R Monazzam, Akram Pourbakht, Kamal Azam, Taghi Golmohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs) on the serum aldosterone level among rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three...
July 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816053/in-vitro-exposure-systems-and-dosimetry-assessment-tools-for-inhaled-tobacco-products-workshop-proceedings-conclusions-and-paths-forward-for-in-vitro-model-use
#5
Holger Behrsing, Erin Hill, Hans Raabe, Raymond Tice, Suzanne Fitzpatrick, Robert Devlin, Kent Pinkerton, Günter Oberdörster, Chris Wright, Roman Wieczorek, Michaela Aufderheide, Sandro Steiner, Tobias Krebs, Bahman Asgharian, Richard Corley, Michael Oldham, Jason Adamson, Xiang Li, Irfan Rahman, Sonia Grego, Pei-Hsuan Chu, Shaun McCullough, Rodger Curren
In 2009, the passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference entitled, In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP...
July 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814924/cousinia-waldheimiana-asteraceae-a-new-record-from-uzbekistan-central-asia
#6
Mansur X Usmonov
During the study of plant specimens in the Central herbarium Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan Institute of the gene pool of plants and animals (TASH) one new record for the flora of Uzbekistan (Cousinia waldheimiana) was identified. This species is the fourth member of Cousinia sect. Jurineopsis collected in the Uzbek part of the Northern Alay range.
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813201/applying-movement-ecology-to-marine-animals-with-complex-life-cycles
#7
Richard M Allen, Anna Metaxas, Paul V R Snelgrove
Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812686/interactions-of-microplastic-debris-throughout-the-marine-ecosystem
#8
REVIEW
Tamara S Galloway, Matthew Cole, Ceri Lewis
Marine microscopic plastic (microplastic) debris is a modern societal issue, illustrating the challenge of balancing the convenience of plastic in daily life with the prospect of causing ecological harm by careless disposal. Here we develop the concept of microplastic as a complex, dynamic mixture of polymers and additives, to which organic material and contaminants can successively bind to form an 'ecocorona', increasing the density and surface charge of particles and changing their bioavailability and toxicity...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809810/veterinary-and-equine-science-students-interpretation-of-horse-behaviour
#9
Gabriella Gronqvist, Chris Rogers, Erica Gee, Audrey Martinez, Charlotte Bolwell
Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses' welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students' interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses...
August 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808449/efficacy-of-enamel-matrix-derivative-in-vital-pulp-therapy-a-review-of-literature
#10
REVIEW
Shariq Najeeb, Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Sana Zohaib, Fahad Siddiqui
INTRODUCTION: Vital pulp therapy (VPT) aims to preserve the health and maintain life of the tooth pulp which has been compromised by caries, trauma or restorative procedures. Recently, enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been introduced as a material for vital pulp therapy. The aim of this review is to critically analyze and summarize the available literature on EMD for VPT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Online databases (PubMED/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science, and Wiley-Online) were searched by using the following keywords in various combinations: Enamel Matrix Derivative, Emdogain, 'Vital Pulp Therapy, 'Apexogenisis', Apexification, Pulp Capping, Endodontics, Dentine and Pulpotomy for studies indexed from January 1949 to April 2016...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804707/framework-to-define-structure-and-boundaries-of-complex-health-intervention-systems-the-alert-project
#11
Elena Boriani, Roberto Esposito, Chiara Frazzoli, Peter Fantke, Tine Hald, Simon R Rüegg
Health intervention systems are complex and subject to multiple variables in different phases of implementation. This constitutes a concrete challenge for the application of translational science in real life. Complex systems as health-oriented interventions call for interdisciplinary approaches with carefully defined system boundaries. Exploring individual components of such systems from different viewpoints gives a wide overview and helps to understand the elements and the relationships that drive actions and consequences within the system...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803534/moving-rehabilitation-research-forward-developing-consensus-statements-for-rehabilitation-and-recovery-research
#12
Julie Bernhardt, Karen Borschmann, Lara Boyd, S Thomas Carmichael, Dale Corbett, Steven C Cramer, Tammy Hoffmann, Gert Kwakkel, Sean Savitz, Gustavo Saposnik, Marion Walker, Nick Ward
Stroke recovery is the next frontier in stroke medicine. While growth in rehabilitation and recovery research is exponential, a number of barriers hamper our ability to rapidly progress the field. Standardized terminology is absent in both animal and human research, methods are poorly described, recovery biomarkers are not well defined, and we lack consistent timeframes or measures to examine outcomes. Agreed methods and conventions for developing, monitoring, evaluating and reporting interventions directed at improving recovery are lacking, and current approaches are often not underpinned by biology...
August 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801498/comparison-of-veterinary-drugs-and-veterinary-homeopathy-part-1
#13
REVIEW
P Lees, L Pelligand, M Whiting, D Chambers, P-L Toutain, M L Whitehead
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products...
August 12, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799656/review-of-the-effects-of-manufactured-nanoparticles-on-mammalian-target-organs
#14
REVIEW
Tianshu Wu, Meng Tang
Nanotechnology had matured significantly during the last two decades as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Even though the issue of safety of nanotechnology has been raised nearly one decade ago, the rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials has not yet been matched by toxicological investigations. Many recent studies have simply outlined the toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs), but few have systematically addressed their potentially adverse biological effects on target organs...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#15
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797134/looking-beyond-the-intervertebral-disc-the-need-for-behavioral-assays-in-models-of-discogenic-pain
#16
REVIEW
Grace E Mosley, Thomas W Evashwick-Rogler, Alon Lai, James C Iatridis
Orthopedic research into chronic discogenic back pain has commonly focused on aging- and degeneration-related changes in intervertebral disc structure, biomechanics, and biology. However, the primary spine-related reason for physician office visits is pain. The ambiguous nature of the human condition of discogenic low back pain motivates the use of animal models to better understand the pathophysiology. Discogenic back pain models must consider both emergent behavioral changes following pain induction and changes in the nervous system that mediate such behavior...
August 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796840/yes-research-matters
#17
Mari L Shinohara
My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99%) have been infected with H...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794869/medicinal-plants-with-promising-antileishmanial-activity-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Masoud Soosaraei, Mahdi Fakhar, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Elham Sadat Banimostafavi
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti-Leishmania activity which used in Iran. METHODS: Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Information obtained included plant family, extraction method, concentrations of extracts, animal models and parasite strains...
September 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793006/osteointegration-of-porous-absorbable-bone-substitutes-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
Maria Júlia Escanhoela Paulo, Mariana Avelino Dos Santos, Bruno Cimatti, Nelson Fabrício Gava, Marcelo Riberto, Edgard Eduard Engel
Biomaterials' structural characteristics and the addition of osteoinductors influence the osteointegration capacity of bone substitutes. This study aims to identify the characteristics of porous and resorbable bone substitutes that influence new bone formation. An Internet search for studies reporting new bone formation rates in bone defects filled with porous and resorbable substitutes was performed in duplicate using the PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, and University of São Paulo Digital Library databases...
July 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792800/national-antimicrobial-resistance-monitoring-system-two-decades-of-advancing-public-health-through-integrated-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#20
Beth E Karp, Heather Tate, Jodie R Plumblee, Uday Dessai, Jean M Whichard, Eileen L Thacker, Kis Robertson Hale, Wanda Wilson, Cindy R Friedman, Patricia M Griffin, Patrick F McDermott
Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U...
August 9, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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