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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231791/glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-neoplasia-a-systematic-review
#1
Linea Landgrebe Ring, Nikolaj Nerup, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Lars Bo Svendsen, Michael Patrick Achiam
Glucagon like peptide-2 is synthesized from enteroendocrine L cells primarily located in the ileum and large intestine. GLP-2 stimulates crypt cell proliferation, increases intestinal blood flow, enhances gut barrier function, induces mucosal healing, and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. Due to these effects GLP-2 is used in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Areas covered The aim of this systematic review was to provide information on the potential risk of intestinal neoplasia in patients receiving treatment with GLP-2...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229473/cystic-fibrosis-research-topics-featured-at-the-14th-ecfs-basic-science-conference-chairman-s-summary
#2
Marcus A Mall, Tzyh-Chang Hwang, Ineke Brakman
In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the development of novel drugs targeting the basic defect in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This breakthrough is based on a solid foundation of knowledge on CFTR's function in health and how mutations in CFTR cause CF multi-organ disease. This knowledge has been collected and continuously expanded by an active and persistent CF research community and has paved the way for precision medicine for CF. Since 2004, the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) has held an annual Basic Science Conference that has evolved as an international forum for interdisciplinary discussion of hot topics and unsolved questions related to CF research...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228986/addressing-vulnerability-building-resilience-community-based-adaptation-to-vector-borne-diseases-in-the-context-of-global-change
#3
REVIEW
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226543/maternal-immune-activation-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Cynthia M Solek, Nasr Farooqi, Myriam Verly, Tony K Lim, Edward S Ruthazer
Converging lines of evidence from basic science and clinical studies suggest a relationship between maternal immune activation (MIA) and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. The mechanisms through which MIA increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders have become a subject of intensive research. This review aims to describe how dysregulation of microglial function and immune mechanisms may link MIA and neurodevelopmental pathologies. We also summarize the current evidence in animal models of MIA...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224871/short-communication-stall-occupancy-behavior-of-nili-ravi-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-when-first-introduced-to-freestall-housing
#5
S H Magsi, M N Haque, N Ahmad, M Q Shahid
The aim of the present study was to assess stall occupancy of Nili Ravi buffaloes when first introduced to freestall housing. Thirty Nili Ravi buffaloes of different parity, weight, and pregnancy status were enrolled from the dairy farm of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. All of the enrolled animals had no previous experience with freestalls. The selected buffaloes were introduced to the freestall shed. During an adaptation period of 7 d, all buffaloes had 24 h of free access to lie down in 1 of 3 areas: (1) freestalls, (2) alleys, and (3) an outside open area...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224642/drug-induced-cardiac-abnormalities-in-premature-infants-and-neonates
#6
REVIEW
Luana Pesco-Koplowitz, Gary Gintant, Robert Ward, Dominique Heon, Muriel Saulnier, Jeff Heilbraun
The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium (CSRC) is a transparent, public-private partnership that was established in 2005 as a Critical Path Program and formalized in 2006 under a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Food and Drug Administration and Duke University. Our continuing goal is to advance paradigms for more efficient regulatory science related to the cardiovascular safety of new therapeutics, both in the United States and globally, particularly where such safety questions add burden to innovative research and development...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223678/protein-sparing-therapies-in-acute-illness-and-obesity-a-review-of-george-blackburn-s-contributions-to-nutrition-science
#7
REVIEW
Dylan D Thomas, Nawfal W Istfan, Bruce R Bistrian, Caroline M Apovian
Protein sparing therapies were developed to mitigate the harms associated with protein-calorie malnutrition and nitrogen losses induced by either acute illness or hypocaloric diets in patients with obesity. We review the development of protein sparing therapies in illness and obesity with a focus on the pioneering contributions of George Blackburn, MD, PhD. He recognized that protein-calorie malnutrition is a common and serious clinical condition and developed new approaches to its treatment in hospitalized patients...
December 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222552/animal-models-of-retinal-vein-occlusion
#8
Meiaad Khayat, Noemi Lois, Michael Williams, Alan W Stitt
Purpose: To provide a comprehensive and current review on the available experimental animal models of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and to identify their strengths and limitations with the purpose of helping researchers to plan preclinical studies on RVO. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on experimental animal models of RVO was undertaken. Medline, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies published between January 1, 1965, and March 31, 2017, and that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218304/from-invention-to-innovation-risk-analysis-to-integrate-one-health-technology-in-the-dairy-farm
#9
Andrea Lombardo, Carlo Boselli, Simonetta Amatiste, Simone Ninci, Chiara Frazzoli, Roberto Dragone, Alberto De Rossi, Gerardo Grasso, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanni Brajon
Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217849/life-time-dosimetric-assessment-for-mice-and-rats-exposed-in-reverberation-chambers-of-the-2-year-ntp-cancer-bioassay-study-on-cell-phone-radiation
#10
Yijian Gong, Myles Capstick, Sven Kuehn, Perry Wilson, John Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L McCormick, Ronald L Melnick, Niels Kuster
In this paper, we present the detailed life-time dosimetry analysis for rodents exposed in the reverberation exposure system designed for the two-year cancer bioassay study conducted by the National Toxicology Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The study required the well-controlled and characterized exposure of individually housed, unrestrained mice at 1900 MHz and rats at 900 MHz, frequencies chosen to give best uniformity exposure of organs and tissues. The wbSAR, the peak spatial SAR and the organ specific SAR as well as the uncertainty and variation due to the exposure environment, differences in the growth rates, and animal posture were assessed...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217848/a-radio-frequency-radiation-exposure-system-for-rodents-based-on-reverberation-chambers
#11
Myles Capstick, Niels Kuster, Sven Kuehn, Veronica Berdinas-Torres, Yijian Gong, Perry Wilson, John Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L McCormick, James Gauger, Ronald L Melnick
In this paper we present the novel design features, their technical implementation, and an evaluation of the radio Frequency (RF) exposure systems developed for the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) studies on the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of 2nd and 3rd generation mobile-phone signals. The system requirements for this 2-year NTP cancer bioassay study were the tightly-controlled lifetime exposure of rodents (1568 rats and 1512 mice) to three power levels plus sham simulating typical daily, and higher, exposures of users of GSM and CDMA (IS95) signals...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217507/multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-medial-arterial-calcification
#12
Ophélie Gourgas, Juliana Marulanda, Peng Zhang, Monzur Murshed, Marta Cerruti
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification significantly increases morbidity in life-threatening diseases, and no treatments are available because of lack of understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we study the physicochemical details of mineral nucleation and growth in an animal model that faithfully recapitulates medial arterial calcification in humans, to understand how pathological calcification is initiated on the vascular extracellular matrix. APPROACH AND RESULTS: MGP (matrix Gla protein) is a potent mineralization inhibitor...
December 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215911/weird-animals-sex-and-genome-evolution
#13
Jennifer A Marshall Graves
Making my career in Australia exposed me to the tyranny of distance, but it gave me opportunities to study our unique native fauna. Distantly related animal species present genetic variation that we can use to explore the most fundamental biological structures and processes. I have compared chromosomes and genomes of kangaroos and platypus, tiger snakes and emus, devils (Tasmanian) and dragons (lizards). I particularly love the challenges posed by sex chromosomes, which, apart from determining sex, provide stunning examples of epigenetic control and break all the evolutionary rules that we currently understand...
December 7, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211969/use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-immediately-after-an-injury-did-not-improve-ligament-healing-and-increasing-platelet-concentrations-was-detrimental-in-an-in-vivo-animal-model
#14
Robert F LaPrade, Laurie R Goodrich, Jennifer Phillips, Grant J Dornan, Travis Lee Turnbull, Michael L Hawes, Kimi D Dahl, Ashley N Coggins, John Kisiday, David Frisbie, Jorge Chahla
BACKGROUND: Limited information in basic science and clinical trials exists to determine if ligament healing may be accelerated with the use of biological adjuvants, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP). However, there has been widespread acceptance of PRP for use in clinical practice, despite an inadequate understanding of its biological mechanism of action. PURPOSE: To determine whether a single dose of PRP could accelerate ligament healing and correspondingly improve histological characteristics and biomechanical properties when injected immediately postoperatively into the injured medial collateral ligament (MCL) of New Zealand White rabbits...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210105/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-serum-refractometry-and-brix-refractometry-for-the-diagnosis-of-inadequate-transfer-of-passive-immunity-in-calves
#15
REVIEW
S Buczinski, E Gicquel, G Fecteau, Y Takwoingi, M Chigerwe, J M Vandeweerd
BACKGROUND: Transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed by direct measurement of immunoglobulin G (IgG) by methods such as radial immunodiffusion (RID) or turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). IgG can also be measured indirectly by methods such as serum refractometry (REF) or Brix refractometry (BRIX). OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of REF and BRIX for assessment of inadequate transfer of passive immunity (ITPI) in calves. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208216/clinical-veterinary-proteomics-techniques-and-approaches-to-decipher-the-animal-plasma-proteome
#16
REVIEW
P Ghodasara, P Sadowski, N Satake, S Kopp, P C Mills
Over the last two decades, technological advancements in the field of proteomics have advanced our understanding of the complex biological systems of living organisms. Techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful tools to contextualise existing genomic information and to create quantitative protein profiles from plasma, tissues or cell lines of various species. Proteomic approaches have been used increasingly in veterinary science to investigate biological processes responsible for growth, reproduction and pathological events...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207450/one-health-perspectives-on-emerging-public-health-threats
#17
Sukhyun Ryu, Bryan Inho Kim, Jun-Sik Lim, Cheng Siang Tan, Byung Chul Chun
Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative...
November 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204259/early-development-of-infants-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-series
#18
Anna May Kolesnik, Emily Jane Harrison Jones, Shruti Garg, Jonathan Green, Tony Charman, Mark Henry Johnson
Background: Prospective studies of infants at familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded insights into the earliest signs of the disorder but represent heterogeneous samples of unclear aetiology. Complementing this approach by studying cohorts of infants with monogenic syndromes associated with high rates of ASD offers the opportunity to elucidate the factors that lead to ASD. Methods: We present the first report from a prospective study of ten 10-month-old infants with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a monogenic disorder with high prevalence of ASD or ASD symptomatology...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204127/synthetic-aminoindanes-a-summary-of-existing-knowledge
#19
REVIEW
Nikola Pinterova, Rachel R Horsley, Tomas Palenicek
Objectives: Aminoindanes ("bath salts," a class of novel psychoactive substances, NPSs) increased rapidly in popularity on the recreational drug market, particularly after mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones were banned in the UK in 2010. Novel aminoindanes continue to emerge, but relatively little is known about their effects and risks. Their history, chemistry, pharmacology, behavioral effects, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity are reviewed in this paper. Methods: Scientific literature was searched on ISI Web of Knowledge: Web of Science (WoS) during June and July 2017, using English language terms: aminoindanes such as 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI), 5-iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI), 2-aminoindane (2-AI), 5,6-methylenedioxy-N-methyl-2-aminoindane (MDMAI), and 5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindane (MMAI)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202452/systemic-inflammation-is-associated-with-exaggerated-skeletal-muscle-protein-catabolism-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#20
Serpil M Deger, Adriana M Hung, Jorge L Gamboa, Edward D Siew, Charles D Ellis, Cindy Booker, Feng Sha, Haiming Li, Aihua Bian, Thomas G Stewart, Roy Zent, William E Mitch, Naji N Abumrad, T Alp Ikizler
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and muscle wasting are highly prevalent and coexist in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients. METHODS: Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope kinetic studies. We incorporated expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue from integrin β1 gene KO CKD mice models...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
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