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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596625/antecedents-and-near-term-consequences-for-interdisciplinary-dissertators
#1
Kevin M Kniffin, Andrew S Hanks
Given the complexity of questions studied by academicians, institutions are increasingly encouraging interdisciplinary research to tackle these problems; however, neither the individual-level pathways leading to the pursuit of interdisciplinary research nor the resulting market outcomes have been closely examined. In this study, we focus attention on the individuals who complete interdisciplinary dissertations to ask "who are they and how do they fare after earning the PhD?" Since interdisciplinary research is known to be relatively risky among academics, we examine demographic variables that are known to be associated in other contexts with risk-taking before considering whether interdisciplinarians' outcomes are different upon graduating...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570597/-i-was-in-the-darkness-but-the-group-brought-me-light-development-relevance-and-feasibility-of-the-sondela-hiv-adjustment-and-coping-intervention
#2
Nwabisa Shai, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Ingrid van der Heijden, Naeemah Abrahams, Rachel Jewkes
Developing interventions that address psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV is critical to ensure strong linkages to and retention in HIV care. This paper describes the development of Sondela, an HIV adjustment and coping intervention for heterosexual men and women living with HIV, and its relevance and feasibility in the South African context. Sondela is a six three-hour, small group-based, participatory workshop series. We followed an iterative, multi-phased process of curriculum development that involved research, theoretical frameworks and piloting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537008/diverging-views-of-epigenesis-the-wolff-blumenbach-debate
#3
Andrea Gambarotto
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) is widely known as the father of German vitalism and his notion of Bildungstrieb, or nisus formativus, has been recognized as playing a key role in the debates about generation in German-speaking countries around 1800. On the other hand, Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-1794) was the first to employ a vitalist notion, namely that of vis essentialis, in the explanatory framework of epigenetic development. Is there a difference between Wolff's vis essentialis and Blumenbach's nisus formativus? How does this difference influence their overall understanding of the epigenetic process? The paper aims to provide an answer to these questions through the analysis of a little-known document, which contributes to shed light on a crucial chapter of the German life sciences in the late eighteenth-century, namely the decisive phase of the process that led to the formalization of biology as a unified field of inquiry at the beginning of the nineteenth century...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523227/parental-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-genotype-child-prosociality-and-their-interaction-as-predictors-of-parents-warmth
#4
Reut Avinun, Ariel Knafo-Noam
BACKGROUND: Parental warmth has been associated with various child behaviors, from effortful control to callous-unemotional traits. Factors that have been shown to affect parental warmth include heritability and child behavior. However, there is limited knowledge about which specific genes are involved, how they interact with child behavior, how they affect differential parenting, and how they affect fathers. We examined what affects paternal and maternal warmth by focusing on the child's prosocial behavior and parents' genotype, specifically a Valine to Methionine substitution at codon 66 in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463242/exercise-alters-mouse-sperm-small-noncoding-rnas-and-induces-a-transgenerational-modification-of-male-offspring-conditioned-fear-and-anxiety
#5
A K Short, S Yeshurun, R Powell, V M Perreau, A Fox, J H Kim, T Y Pang, A J Hannan
There is growing evidence that the preconceptual lifestyle and other environmental exposures of a father can significantly alter the physiological and behavioral phenotypes of their children. We and others have shown that paternal preconception stress, regardless of whether the stress was experienced during early-life or adulthood, results in offspring with altered anxiety and depression-related behaviors, attributed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. The transgenerational response to paternal preconceptual stress is believed to be mediated by sperm-borne small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNAs...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323747/supporting-a-youth-with-cerebellar-ataxia-into-adolescence
#6
Veronica Meneses, Zurisadai Gonzalez-Castillo, Veronica B Edgar, Marilyn Augustyn
Zoe, a 13-year-old white girl, presents as a new patient to your pediatric clinic with complaints of frequent emesis, anxiety, and learning problems, and previous diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. Parents accompany Zoe and state, "it is really hard for her to go out, she gets sick and falls easily." She was born full term by vaginal delivery without complications. Given globally delayed milestones, she received early intervention services. Feeding problems began at infancy, including gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia...
April 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295850/the-effect-of-stereotypes-and-prejudices-regarding-gender-roles-on-the-relation-between-nurses-and-muslim-fathers-in-health-institutions-within-the-community-of-madrid-spain
#7
Juan Luis González-Pascual, Laura Esteban-Gonzalo, Marta Rodríguez-García, Sagrario Gómez-Cantarino, Manuel Moreno-Preciado
Modern Western societies are characterized by a considerable cultural and ethnic diversity whereby different groups and minorities live side by side. However, not all people are viewed in the same light by the autochthonous population. This is particularly true in the case of Muslim immigrants, who are often prone to negative stereotyping and prejudice. This has become increasingly apparent since the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and the subsequent attacks in various Western countries. This study seeks to analyze the relation between female nurses and those labeled by nurses as "Muslim fathers," as part of a research project on the care of immigrant children in Madrid (Spain)...
March 13, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222910/agents-of-the-father-s-law-in-a-society-of-brothers-a-philosophic-and-psychoanalytic-perspective-on-legitimate-use-of-violence
#8
Efrat Even-Tzur, Uri Hadar
This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969017/transition-to-parenthood-during-the-transition-to-modernity-in-jordan-new-parents-views-on-family-and-healthcare-support-systems
#9
Lina Mrayan, Flora Cornish, Nimesh Dhungana, Barbara Parfitt
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore new parents' experiences of family support during their transition to parenthood. BACKGROUND: Family support is widely considered a crucial factor in contributing toward positive outcomes for parents during transition to parenthood. However, inter-generational and socio-cultural differences among family members in understandings and practices of childcare can be a source of tension between new parents and family members...
November 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863847/parental-attitudes-about-placebo-use-in-children
#10
Vanda Faria, Joe Kossowsky, Mike P Petkov, Ted J Kaptchuk, Irving Kirsch, Alyssa Lebel, David Borsook
OBJECTIVE: To assess parental attitudes regarding placebo use in pediatric randomized controlled trials and clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: Parents with children under age 18 years living in the US completed and submitted an online survey between September and November 2014. RESULTS: Among all 1300 participants, 1000 (76.9%; 538 mothers and 462 fathers) met the study inclusion criteria. The majority of surveyed parents considered the use of placebos acceptable in some pediatric care situations (86%) and some pediatric trials (91...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855430/prospective-fathers-psychosocial-adaptation-and-involvement-in-the-last-trimester-of-pregnancy
#11
Karin Kuljanić, Tamara Martinac Dorčić, Ivana Ljubičić Bistrović, Alemka Brnčić-Fischer
BACKGROUND: Paternal involvement in pregnancy has been recognized to have an impact on new-born's outcomes and only recently got under the spot light of mental health perspective. The aim of this study was to test differences in paternal involvement in pregnancy, perceived stress and relationship quality regarding complications in pregnancy and pregnancy duration (gestational weeks) in the last trimester of pregnancy. The role of personality traits (neuroticism and extroversion), relationship quality satisfaction and perceived stress in prospective father's perception of pregnancy involvement were examined...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802126/psychological-and-physical-health-of-nonoffending-parents-after-disclosure-of-sexual-abuse-of-their-child
#12
Mireille Cyr, Jean-Yves Frappier, Martine Hébert, Marc Tourigny, Pierre McDuff, Marie-Ève Turcotte
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children...
October 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798710/prevalence-and-determinants-of-unintended-pregnancy-in-mchinji-district-malawi-using-a-conceptual-hierarchy-to-inform-analysis
#13
Jennifer Anne Hall, Geraldine Barrett, Tambosi Phiri, Andrew Copas, Address Malata, Judith Stephenson
BACKGROUND: In 2012 there were around 85 million unintended pregnancies globally. Unintended pregnancies unnecessarily expose women to the risks associated with pregnancy, unsafe abortion and childbirth, thereby contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. Studies have identified a range of potential determinants of unplanned pregnancy but have used varying methodologies, measures of pregnancy intention and analysis techniques. Consequently there are many contradictions in their findings...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620690/a-review-and-critique-of-research-on-same-sex-parenting-and-adoption
#14
REVIEW
Walter R Schumm
Are the outcomes for children of gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents in general the same as those for heterosexual parents? That controversial question is discussed here in a detailed review of the social science literature in three parts: (1) stability of same-sex parental relationships, (2) child outcomes, and (3) child outcomes in same-sex adoption. Relationship instability appears to be higher among gay and lesbian parent couples and may be a key mediating factor influencing outcomes for children. With respect to part 2, while parental self-reports usually present few significant differences, social desirability or self-presentation bias may be a confounding factor...
December 2016: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456967/building-a-science-of-animal-minds-lloyd-morgan-experimentation-and-morgan-s-canon
#15
Simon Fitzpatrick, Grant Goodrich
Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) is widely regarded as the father of modern comparative psychology. Yet, Morgan initially had significant doubts about whether a genuine science of comparative psychology was even possible, only later becoming more optimistic about our ability to make reliable inferences about the mental capacities of non-human animals. There has been a fair amount of disagreement amongst scholars of Morgan's work about the nature, timing, and causes of this shift in Morgan's thinking. We argue that Morgan underwent two quite different shifts of attitude towards the proper practice of comparative psychology...
July 25, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333431/anxiety-and-attachment-to-the-mother-in-preschoolers-receiving-psychiatric-care-the-father-child-activation-relationship-as-a-protective-factor
#16
Sébastien Gaumon, Daniel Paquette, Chantal Cyr, Mutsuko Émond-Nakamura, Martin St-André
This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety...
July 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300263/elevated-paternal-glucocorticoid-exposure-alters-the-small-noncoding-rna-profile-in-sperm-and-modifies-anxiety-and-depressive-phenotypes-in-the-offspring
#17
A K Short, K A Fennell, V M Perreau, A Fox, M K O'Bryan, J H Kim, T W Bredy, T Y Pang, A J Hannan
Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296986/the-prevalence-of-depressive-symptoms-among-fathers-and-associated-risk-factors-during-the-first-seven-years-of-their-child-s-life-findings-from-the-millennium-cohort-study
#18
Selina Nath, Lamprini Psychogiou, Willem Kuyken, Tamsin Ford, Elizabeth Ryan, Ginny Russell
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that postnatal paternal depression is associated with adverse emotional, behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children. Despite this, few studies have determined the prevalence of fathers' depressive symptoms during the first few years of their children's lives and explored what factors are related to these symptoms. We estimated the prevalence and examined associated risk factors of paternal depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of fathers with children aged between 9 months and 7 years old from the Millennium cohort study...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195173/a-facs-based-case-study-on-two-hbe-%C3%AE-thalassaemia-members-of-a-family-having-similar-mutational-background
#19
Tridip Chatterjee, Suchismita Halder, Amit Chakravarty, Sudipa Chakravarty, Abhijit Chakrabarti
In this report we have tried to explain the reasons behind the difference in the pattern of transfusion requirement between two members of a family with similar β-globin mutation. The father and younger son both are HbE-β, but the father never had transfusion, whereas the younger son takes transfusion monthly. Mother and the elder son are HbEE without any history of transfusion. β-globin mutations of all family members were determined by ARMS-PCR. These were reconfirmed by direct sequencing of β-globin gene...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175002/correlates-of-home-and-neighbourhood-based-physical-activity-in-uk-3-4-year-old-children
#20
Jill A Hnatiuk, Kathryn R Hesketh, Esther M F van Sluijs
BACKGROUND: Identifying context-specific correlates of home- and neighbourhood-based physical activity in preschool-aged children may help improve intervention program development for these settings. METHODS: A total of 153 3-4-year-old children were recruited through preschool settings in Cambridgeshire (January-July 2013). Children wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≤7 days to assess their sedentary time (ST), light-(LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA)...
December 2016: European Journal of Public Health
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