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energy intake

Thomas D Whitney, Michael I Sitvarin, Edward A Roualdes, Simon J Bonner, James D Harwood
Generalist predators are capable of selective foraging, but are predicted to feed in close proportion to prey availability to maximize energetic intake especially when overall prey availability is low. By extension, they are also expected to feed in a more frequency-dependent manner during winter compared to the more favorable foraging conditions during spring, summer and fall seasons. For 18 months, we observed the foraging patterns of forest-dwelling wolf spiders from the genus Schizocosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) using PCR-based gut-content analysis and simultaneously monitored the activity-densities of two common prey: springtails (Collembola) and flies (Diptera)...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Benoit Talbot, Maarten J Vonhof, Hugh G Broders, Brock Fenton, Nusha Keyghobadi
Parasite-host relationships create strong selection pressures that can lead to adaptation and increasing specialization of parasites to their hosts. Even in relatively loose host-parasite relationships, such as between generalist ectoparasites and their hosts, we may observe some degree of specialization of parasite populations to one of the multiple potential hosts. Salivary proteins are used by blood-feeding ectoparasites to prevent hemostasis in the host and maximize energy intake. We investigated the influence of association with specific host species on allele frequencies of salivary protein genes in Cimex adjunctus, a generalist blood-feeding ectoparasite of bats in North America...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Mads Rosenkilde, Lisbeth Rygaard, Pernille Nordby, Lars Bo Nielsen, Bente Stallknecht
Exercise training and weight loss both reduce cardiovascular risk, but the independent importance of the two strategies is unclear. We aimed to investigate independent and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on lipoproteins and dyslipidemia in overweight sedentary men. Sixty individuals were randomized to 12 weeks of endurance training (T), energy-reduced diet (D), training and energy increased diet (T-iD), or control (C). Equal energetic deficits (-600 kcal/day) were prescribed by exercise for T and caloric restriction for D...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hanne Rosendahl-Riise, Therese Karlsson, Christian A Drevon, Ellen M Apalset, Ottar K Nygård, Grethe S Tell, Jutta Dierkes
PURPOSE: Fish is a source of various nutrients beneficial for bone health, but few studies have investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and fish consumption. Thus, the aim was to investigate the relationship between total fish intake and BMD and between both lean and fatty fish intake and BMD. METHOD: These cross-sectional analyses include 4656 participants in the Hordaland Health Study, a community-based study conducted in 1997-1999. The study includes two birth cohorts of men and women from Hordaland county (Norway) born in 1950-1951 and 1925-1927...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Monica Taylor, Elizabeth F Nagle, Fredric L Goss, Elaine N Rubinstein, Andrew Simonson
Monitoring an athlete's energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) is an important consideration of nutritional planning for sport conditioning and peak performance. In order to provide appropriate recommendations regarding nutritional requirements and caloric needs, an accurate determination of energy requirements is necessary. By knowing an individual's EE, a coach, athletic performance staff or trainer can effectively determine training loads and volumes necessary for periodization and seasonal planning for a particular sport...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Mirian Samblas, Fermin I Milagro, M Angeles Zulet, Maria L Mansego, Jose I Riezu-Boj, J Alfredo Martinez
Folate deficiency has been putatively implicated in the onset of diverse metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, by altering epigenetic processes on key regulatory genes. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is involved in the regulation of critical metabolic processes such as adiposity and glucose homeostasis. This study hypothesized associations between low folate intakes and lower methylation levels of the CAMKK2 gene, with the presence of metabolic alterations in subjects with obesity...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Dailson Paulucio, Augusto Terra, Caleb G Santos, Mauricio Cagy, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Bruno M da Costa, Mariana Gongora, Renato Alvarenga, Luciano Alonso, Fernando A M S Pompeu
Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design)...
2018: PloS One
Tuyen Van Duong, Te-Chih Wong, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Tzen-Wen Chen, Tso-Hsiao Chen, Yung-Ho Hsu, Sheng-Jeng Peng, Ko-Lin Kuo, Chi-Sin Wang, I-Hsin Tseng, Yi-Wei Feng, Tai-Yue Chang, Chien-Tien Su, Shwu-Huey Yang
Dietary energy intake strongly linked to dialysis outcomes. We aimed to explore the optimal cut-off point of energy intake (EI) for identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hemodialysis patients. The cross-sectional data of 243 hemodialysis patients from multi-dialysis centers in Taiwan was used. The dietary intake was assessed by using the three-day dietary questionnaire, and a 24-hour dietary recall, clinical and biochemical data were also evaluated. The MetS was diagnosed by the Harmonized Metabolic Syndrome criteria...
2018: PloS One
Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Thais T Zampieri, Frederick Wasinski, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Jose Donato
Several metabolic adaptations emerge during pregnancy and continue through lactation, including increases in food intake and body weight, as well as insulin and leptin resistance. These maternal adaptations are thought to play a role in offspring viability and success. Using a model of attenuated maternal metabolic adaptations induced by ablation of the Socs3 gene in leptin receptor expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice), our study aimed to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes are required for normal offspring development, and if their absence causes metabolic imbalances in adulthood...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Valentina Cardi, Núria Mallorqui-Bague, Gaia Albano, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Carly Griffiths, Lisa Harnack, Mark A Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from leading nutrition tracking applications (apps). DESIGN: Nutrient intake estimates from thirty 24 h dietary recalls collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) were compared with intake calculations from these recalls entered by the researcher into five free nutrition tracking apps. Apps were selected from the Apple App Store based on consumer popularity from the list of free 'Health and Fitness' apps classified as a nutrition tracking apps...
March 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Melissa Ventura Marra, Sowmyanarayanan V Thuppal, Elizabeth J Johnson, Regan L Bailey
Proactive nutrition screening is an effective public health strategy for identifying and targeting individuals who could benefit from making dietary improvements for primary and secondary prevention of disease. The Dietary Screening Tool (DST) was developed and validated to assess nutritional risk among rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and validity of the DST to identify nutritional risk in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study in middle-aged adults (45-64 year olds, n = 87) who reside in Appalachia, examined nutritional status using an online health survey, biochemical measures, anthropometry, and three representative 24-h dietary recalls...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Shan-Xuan Lim, Jia-Ying Toh, Linde van Lee, Wee-Meng Han, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Kok-Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Yap-Seng Chong, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Janelle A Skinner, Manohar L Garg, Christopher V Dayas, Sasha Fenton, Tracy L Burrows
Context: Oxytocin plays an important hormonal role in the regulation of feeding and energy intake. Objective: The aims of this review were to 1) determine the effects of dietary intake/behaviors on endogenous oxytocin and 2) examine the effect of exogenous oxytocin on dietary intake/behaviors. Data sources: Published studies up to December 2016 were identified through searches of 5 electronic databases. Data extraction: Eligible studies included those in adults that included a measure related to an individual's diet and a measure of oxytocin and the relationship between the 2 outcomes...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Roger Fielding, Linda Riede, James P Lugo, Aouatef Bellamine
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
Chou-Yueh Chang, Horng-Rong Chang, Hsing-Chun Lin, Han-Hsin Chang
Objective Vegetarian diets have been shown to increase the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies, such as iron. As a number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Taiwan are lacto-ovo vegetarians, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different proportions and sources of protein in lacto-ovo vegetarian and omnivorous diets, as well as the influence of adequate dietary protein intake, on renal function and nutritional status of Taiwanese patients with stage 3 to stage 5 CKD. Methods This is a cross-sectional study...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Sara Nejatinamini, Catherine Kubrak, Mirey Álvarez-Camacho, Vickie E Baracos, Sunita Ghosh, Wendy V Wismer, Vera C Mazurak
This study assessed dietary and micronutrient intakes of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients at key points in the disease trajectory and evaluated the contribution of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) to micronutrient intake. HNC patients (n = 114) completed a three-day dietary record and a tool to assess Nutrition Impact Scores (NIS) at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up. Foods were classified into food categories. Micronutrient, protein, and energy intakes were compared to European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines for cancer patients...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
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