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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351755/bone-mineral-density-at-the-hip-and-its-relation-to-fat-mass-and-lean-mass-in-adolescents-the-troms%C3%A3-study-fit-futures
#1
Anne Winther, Lone Jørgensen, Luai Awad Ahmed, Tore Christoffersen, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Guri Grimnes, Rolf Jorde, Ole Andreas Nilsen, Elaine Dennison, Nina Emaus
BACKGROUND: Positive association between body weight and bone mass is well established, and the concept of body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and reduced fracture risk. BMI, that comprises both fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) may contribute to peak bone mass achievement in different ways. This study explored the influence of body composition in terms of total body LM and FM on hip aBMD-values in adolescence. METHODS: In 2010/2011, 93% of the region's first-year upper-secondary school students (15-17 years old) in Tromsø, Norway attended the Tromsø Study, Fit Futures...
January 19, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#2
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351425/source-of-dietary-sucrose-influences-development-of-leptin-resistance-in-male-and-female-rats
#3
Ruth B S Harris
Male rats offered 30% sucrose solution in addition to chow develop leptin resistance without increasing energy intake or body fat. Here we tested whether the leptin resistance was dependent upon the physical form of the sucrose. Sprague Dawley rats were offered a sucrose-free diet (NS), a 66.6% energy as sucrose diet (HS), or NS diet and 30% sucrose solution (LS). Sucrose intake of LS rats equaled that of HS rats, but total carbohydrate intake exceeded that of HS rats. After 33 days male and female LS rats were resistant to the inhibitory effect of peripherally administered leptin on food intake...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351257/modifications-in-the-consumption-of-energy-sugar-and-saturated-fat-among-the-mexican-adult-population-simulation-of-the-effect-when-replacing-processed-foods-that-comply-with-a-front-of-package-labeling-system
#4
Rosario Mendoza, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Lucia Hernández-Barrera, Claudia Nieto, Eric A Monterrubio-Flores, Simón Barquera
A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the effect on nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population (20-59 years old) after replacing commonly consumed processed foods with those that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2164 adults)...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350563/dietary-advanced-glycosylation-end-products-dages-and-melanoidins-formed-through-maillard-reaction-physiological-consequences-of-their-intake
#5
Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Vincenzo Fogliano
The main purpose of this review is to clarify whether the consumption of food rich in melanoidins and dietary advanced glycosylation end-products (dAGEs) are harmful or beneficial for human health. There are conflicting results on their harmful effects in the literature, partly due to a methodological issue in how dAGEs are determined in food. Melanoidins have positive functions particularly within the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the intake of dAGEs has controversial physiological consequences. Most of the in vivo intervention trials were done comparing boiled versus roasted diet (low and high dAGE, respectively)...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#6
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350310/proanthocyanidins-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer-in-italy
#7
Delphine Praud, Maria Parpinel, Valentina Guercio, Cristina Bosetti, Diego Serraino, Gaetano Facchini, Maurizio Montella, Carlo La Vecchia, Marta Rossi
Proanthocyanidins are polymers of monomeric unit flavan-3-ols with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities. We investigated the association between proanthocyanidin intake and prostate cancer risk through data that were collected between 1991 and 2002 in an Italian case-control study, including a total of 1,294 incident, histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer and 1,451 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, and non-hormone-related diseases. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression models, and computed energy-adjusted proanthocyanidin intakes using the residual method...
January 19, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349922/association-between-breast-milk-intake-at-9-10%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-growth-and-development-among-malawian-young-children
#8
Chiza Kumwenda, Jaimie Hemsworth, John Phuka, Ulla Ashorn, Mary Arimond, Kenneth Maleta, Elizabeth L Prado, Marjorie J Haskell, Kathryn G Dewey, Per Ashorn
World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age...
January 19, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349584/-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-geriatrics-indications-technique-and-complications
#9
Rainer Wirth
The technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was introduced in 1979 as a semi-invasive approach for children with the need for a gastric fistula in order to avoid an operative intervention. The suture pull-through method was rapidly established and is now omnipresent. Because scientific evidence is broadly missing, there is some uncertainty about the indications in geriatric medicine. Guidelines do not recommend the insertion of a PEG in patients with severe dementia and malnutrition. Tube feeding is mainly recommended as a temporary method for patients who cannot take oral nutrition for more than 3 days or for whom the energy intake for more than 10 days presumably covers less than 50% of their needs, assuming that the overall prognosis is reasonable...
January 18, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349218/comparing-methods-of-targeting-obesity-interventions-in-populations-an-agent-based-simulation
#10
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Mehdi Jalalpour, Thomas A Glass
Social networks as well as neighborhood environments have been shown to effect obesity-related behaviors including energy intake and physical activity. Accordingly, harnessing social networks to improve targeting of obesity interventions may be promising to the extent this leads to social multiplier effects and wider diffusion of intervention impact on populations. However, the literature evaluating network-based interventions has been inconsistent. Computational methods like agent-based models (ABM) provide researchers with tools to experiment in a simulated environment...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348715/ginseng-and-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Although ginseng has been shown to have an antiobesity effect, antiobesity-related mechanisms are complex and have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated ginseng's effects on food intake, the digestion, and absorption systems, as well as liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in order to identify the mechanisms involved. A review of previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ginseng and ginsenosides can increase energy expenditure by stimulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase pathway and can reduce energy intake...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348470/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-increases-insulin-sensitivity-through-specific-expansion-of-subcutaneous-fat
#12
Huating Li, Guangyu Wu, Qichen Fang, Mingliang Zhang, Xiaoyan Hui, Bin Sheng, Liang Wu, Yuqian Bao, Peng Li, Aimin Xu, Weiping Jia
Although the pharmacological effects of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are well-documented, uncertainty about its role in regulating excessive energy intake remains. Here, we show that FGF21 improves systemic insulin sensitivity by promoting the healthy expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Serum FGF21 levels positively correlate with the SAT area in insulin-sensitive obese individuals. FGF21 knockout mice (FGF21KO) show less SAT mass and are more insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet. Replenishment of recombinant FGF21 to a level equivalent to that in obesity restores SAT mass and reverses insulin resistance in FGF21KO, but not in adipose-specific βklotho knockout mice...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348409/artificial-selection-for-improved-energy-efficiency-is-reaching-its-limits-in-broiler-chickens
#13
C W Tallentire, I Leinonen, I Kyriazakis
Modern broiler chickens are a major animal husbandry success story, both in terms of efficient resource utilisation and environmental sustainability. However, continuing artificial selection for both efficiency and rapid growth will be subject to both biological limits and animal welfare concerns. Using a novel analytical energy flow modelling approach, we predict how far such selection can go, given the biological limits of bird energy intake and partitioning of energy. We find that the biological potential for further improvements in efficiency, and hence environmental impact reduction, is minimal relative to past progress already made via artificial selection...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347866/effects-of-cereal-bar-containing-polydextrose-on-subjective-feelings-of-appetite-and-energy-intake-in-overweight-adults-over-15-d
#14
Marcela Martinelli, Emilia Hick, Florencia Walz, Silvina R Drago
The effects of 15 d polydextrose (16.7 g) consumption on energy intake (EI) and appetite feelings were investigated. Overweight adults consumed a polydextrose-bar or a control-bar matched in energy content as a midmorning snack for 15 consecutive days in a single-blind, randomised, crossover design. The two 15-d intervention periods were separated by a 15-d washout period. On the day 1 and the day 15 of each intervention period, energy intake (primary outcome) and appetite feelings (secondary outcome) were assessed...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346857/higher-energy-intake-variability-as-predisposition-to-obesity-novel-approach-using-interquartile-range
#15
Martin Forejt, Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová, Jan Novák, Filip Zlámal, Marie Forbelská, Petr Bienert, Petra Duchečková, Miroslava Zavřelová, Aneta Jackowská, Miluše Jurášková, Nabil Salah, Julie Bienertová-Vašků
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345609/dietary-patterns-and-their-association-with-adiponectin-and-leptin-concentrations-throughout-pregnancy-a-prospective-cohort
#16
Nadya H Alves-Santos, Paula G Cocate, Ilana Eshriqui, Camila Benaim, Érica G Barros, Pauline M Emmett, Gilberto Kac
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns (DP) with maternal adiposity indicators, leptin, adiponectin and insulin concentrations during pregnancy. A prospective cohort of pregnant women followed up at the 5th-13th, 20th -26th and 30th-36th gestational weeks and 30-40 d postpartum was conducted in Rio de Janeiro. A FFQ was administered in the third trimester (30th-36th gestational weeks). The reduced rank regression procedure was used to identify DP that explain response variables (dietary fibre and total fat) related to indicators of maternal adiposity (postpartum weight retention and gestational weight gain (GWG) adequacy), and plasma leptin, adiponectin and insulin concentrations...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#17
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345174/case-study-using-contemporary-behaviour-change-science-to-design-and-implement-an-effective-nutritional-intervention-within-professional-rugby-league
#18
Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton, Ben Jones
Designing and implementing successful dietary intervention is integral to the role of sport nutrition professionals as they attempt to positively change the dietary behaviour of athletes. High-performance sport is a time-pressured environment where immediate results can often supersede pursuit of the most effective evidence-based practice. However, efficacious dietary intervention necessitates comprehensive, systematic and theoretical behavioural design and implementation if the habitual dietary behaviours of athletes are to be positively changed...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345166/effects-of-coffee-components-on-muscle-glycogen-recovery-a-systematic-review
#19
Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis, Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and it can improve insulin sensitivity, stimulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle when adequate carbohydrate intake is observed. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of coffee and coffee components on muscle glycogen metabolism. A literature search was conducted according to PRISMA and seven studies were included. They explored the effects of coffee components on various substances and signaling proteins. In one of the studies with humans, caffeine was shown to increase glucose levels, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) phosphorylation, glycogen resynthesis rates and glycogen accumulation after exercise...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343842/leptin-resistance-was-involved-in-susceptibility-to-overweight-in-the-striped-hamster-re-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#20
Ying Zhao, Li-Bing Chen, Si-Si Mao, Hong-Xia Min, Jing Cao
Food restriction (FR) is the most commonly used intervention to prevent the overweight. However, the lost weight is usually followed by "compensatory growth" when FR ends, resulting in overweight. The present study was aimed to examining the behavior patterns and hormones mechanisms underpinning the over-weight. Energy budget and body fat content, and several endocrine markers related to leptin signals were examined in the striped hamsters under 20% FR refed by either low-fat diet (LF group) or high-fat diet (HF group)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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