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Nkg2d ligand

Kee Siang Lim, Kosaku Mimura, Ley-Fang Kua, Kensuke Shiraishi, Koji Kono
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive upper gastrointestinal cancer and effective treatments are limited. Previous studies reported that natural killer (NK) cells expanded by coculturing with K562-mb15-41BBL feeder cells, a genetically modified K562 leukemia cell line that expresses membrane-bound interleukin (IL)-15 and 41BBL ligand, were highly proliferative and highly cytotoxic. Here, we investigated the potential of expanded NK cells for ESCC treatment. We analyzed both genetic and surface expression levels of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) in ESCC using publicly available microarray data sets and ESCC cell lines...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Yu Huang, Zhiying Chen, Joon Hee Jang, Mirza S Baig, Grant Bertolet, Casey Schroeder, Shengjian Huang, Qian Hu, Yong Zhao, Dorothy E Lewis, Lidong Qin, Michael Xi Zhu, Dongfang Liu
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) is upregulated on a variety of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, during chronic virus infection and tumorigenesis. Blockade of PD-1 or its ligands produces durable clinical responses with tolerable side effects in patients with a broad spectrum of cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how PD-1 regulates NK cell function remain poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine what effect PD-1 signaling has on NK cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Alessandra Zingoni, Rosa Molfetta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Soriani, Rossella Paolini, Marco Cippitelli, Cristina Cerboni, Angela Santoni
The activating receptor NKG2D is peculiar in its capability to bind to numerous and highly diversified MHC class I-like self-molecules. These ligands are poorly expressed on normal cells but can be induced on damaged, transformed or infected cells, with the final NKG2D ligand expression resulting from multiple levels of regulation. Although redundant molecular mechanisms can converge in the regulation of all NKG2D ligands, different stimuli can induce specific cellular responses, leading to the expression of one or few ligands...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tobias Zöller, Mareike Wittenbrink, Meike Hoffmeister, Alexander Steinle
Stress-induced cell surface expression of MHC class I-related glycoproteins of the MIC and ULBP families allows for immune recognition of dangerous "self cells" by human cytotoxic lymphocytes via the NKG2D receptor. With two MIC molecules (MICA and MICB) and six ULBP molecules (ULBP1-6), there are a total of eight human NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL). Since the discovery of the NKG2D-NKG2DL system, the cause for both redundancy and diversity of NKG2DL has been a major and ongoing matter of debate. NKG2DL diversity has been attributed, among others, to the selective pressure by viral immunoevasins, to diverse regulation of expression, to differential tissue expression as well as to variations in receptor interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
M H Abumaree, E Bahattab, A Alsadoun, A Al Dosaimani, F M Abomaray, T Khatlani, B Kalionis, M F El-Muzaini, A O Alawad, A S AlAskar
BACKGROUND: Human decidua parietalis mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (DPMSCs) have unique phenotypic and functional properties that make them promising candidates for cell-based therapy. Here, we investigated DPMSC interaction with natural killer (NK) cells, and the effects of this interaction on NK cell phenotypic characteristics and functional activities. METHODS: DPMSCs isolated from the decidua parietalis of human fetal membranes were cultured with interleukin (IL)-2-activated and IL-2-unactivated NK cells isolated from healthy human peripheral blood...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Da Lin, Thomas K Hiron, Christopher A O'Callaghan
Many human genes have tandem promoters driving overlapping transcription, but the value of this distributed promoter configuration is generally unclear. Here we show that MICA , a gene encoding a ligand for the activating immune receptor NKG2D, contains a conserved upstream promoter that expresses a noncoding transcript. Transcription from the upstream promoter represses the downstream standard promoter activity in cis through transcriptional interference. The effect of transcriptional interference depends on the strength of transcription from the upstream promoter and can be described quantitatively by a simple reciprocal repressor function...
April 11, 2018: EMBO Journal
Lucas Ferrari de Andrade, Rong En Tay, Deng Pan, Adrienne M Luoma, Yoshinaga Ito, Soumya Badrinath, Daphne Tsoucas, Bettina Franz, Kenneth F May, Christopher J Harvey, Sebastian Kobold, Jason W Pyrdol, Charles Yoon, Guo-Cheng Yuan, F Stephen Hodi, Glenn Dranoff, Kai W Wucherpfennig
MICA and MICB are expressed by many human cancers as a result of cellular stress, and can tag cells for elimination by cytotoxic lymphocytes through natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor activation. However, tumors evade this immune recognition pathway through proteolytic shedding of MICA and MICB proteins. We rationally designed antibodies targeting the MICA α3 domain, the site of proteolytic shedding, and found that these antibodies prevented loss of cell surface MICA and MICB by human cancer cells. These antibodies inhibited tumor growth in multiple fully immunocompetent mouse models and reduced human melanoma metastases in a humanized mouse model...
March 30, 2018: Science
Suresh Bugide, Michael R Green, Narendra Wajapeyee
Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated tumor cell eradication could inhibit tumor initiation and progression. However, the factors that regulate NK cell-mediated cancer cell eradication remain unclear. We determined that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells exhibit transcriptional down-regulation of NK group 2D (NKG2D) ligands and are largely resistant to NK cell-mediated eradication. Because the down-regulation of NKG2D ligands occurred at the transcriptional level, we tested 32 chemical inhibitors of epigenetic regulators for their ability to re-express NKG2D ligands and enhance HCC cell eradication by NK cells and found that Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) was a transcriptional repressor of NKG2D ligands...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Felix M Wensveen, Vedrana Jelenčić, Bojan Polić
NKG2D is an activating receptor that is mostly expressed on cells of the cytotoxic arm of the immune system. Ligands of NKG2D are normally of low abundance, but can be induced in virtually any cell in response to stressors, such as infection and oncogenic transformation. Engagement of NKG2D stimulates the production of cytokines and cytotoxic molecules and traditionally this receptor is, therefore, viewed as a molecule that mediates direct responses against cellular threats. However, accumulating evidence indicates that this classical view is too narrow...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Z X Jia, X H Cai, R Xiao, X W Zhang, X Wu, W M Han, M Zhou, Z C Zhu, X Z Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Huan Liu, Andrew R Osterburg, Jennifer Flury, Shuo Huang, Francis X McCormack, Stephania A Cormier, Michael T Borchers
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory tract infection in vulnerable populations. Natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DC) are important for the effector functions of both cell types following infection. Methods: Wild type and NKG2D deficient mice were infected with RSV. Lung pathology, was assessed by histology. DC function and phenotype was evaluated by ELISA and flow cytometry. The expression of NKG2D ligands on lung and lymph node DCs was measured by immunostaining and flow cytometry...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tirtsah Toledano, Alon Vitenshtein, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Einat Seidel, Ofer Mandelboim
Recognition of the human stress-induced ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) by the receptor NKG2D expressed on NK cells leads to NK cell-mediated killing of the target cells. Hence, the expression of MICA must be tightly regulated, and its cell surface expression needs to be quickly downregulated to avoid inappropriate activation of immune cells. In this article, we describe a transcript variant of human MICA that has not yet been studied, which contains a 3' untranslated region of 119 nt instead of 174...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Tong Wang, Fumou Sun, Yang Wang, Jiahao Jiang, Mingzhu Pan, Minne Yuan, Hang Zhang, Xiaodian Du, Kamal Hezam, Kai Song, Min Wang, Juan Zhang
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide. The poor response of CRC to chemotherapy has whipped up the interest in targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies for its potential efficiency. However, cetuximab, as one of the first-line targeted drugs in the treatment of CRC, has drug resistance and poor prognosis in clinic. To address this, a novel bispecific protein with CRC targeting and natural killer (NK) cell triggering was used for treatment. NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance is normally activated by the activating receptor natural killer cell receptor NK group 2, member D (NKG2D), which binds its key ligand major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related chain A (MICA) expressed on the tumor cells...
April 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Payal Dhar, Jennifer D Wu
NKG2D is an activating immune receptor expressed by NK and effector T cells. Induced expression of NKG2D ligand on tumor cell surface during oncogenic insults renders cancer cells susceptible to immune destruction. In advanced human cancers, tumor cells shed NKG2D ligand to produce an immune soluble form as a means of immune evasion. Soluble NKG2D ligands have been associated with poor clinical prognosis in cancer patients. Harnessing NKG2D pathway is considered a viable avenue in cancer immunotherapy over recent years...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
C Campos-Silva, M K Kramer, M Valés-Gómez
NKG2D is a key receptor for the activation of immune effector cells, mainly Natural Killer cells and T lymphocytes, in infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Since the detection of ligands for NKG2D in sera of cancer patients is, in many human models, indicative of prognosis, a large number of studies have been undertaken to improve understanding of the biology regulating this receptor and its ligands, with the aim of translating this knowledge into clinical practice. Although it is becoming clear that the NKG2D system can be used as a tool for diagnosis and manipulated for therapy, some questions remain open due to the complexity associated with the existence of a large number of ligands, each one of them displaying distinct biological properties...
March 9, 2018: HLA
Young Shin Lee, Woong Heo, Jiho Nam, Young Hwa Jeung, Jaeho Bae
Bortezomib, which is a potent proteasome inhibitor, has been used as a first-line drugs to treat multiple myeloma for a few decades, and radiotherapy has frequently been applied to manage acute bone lesions in the patients. Therefore, it was necessary to investigate what the benefits might be if the two therapies were applied simultaneously in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Since it was known that radiotherapy and proteasome inhibitors could increase the expression of NKG2D ligands through induction of protein synthesis and suppression of protein degradation of NKG2D ligands, respectively, we supposed that the combined treatment might further enhance the expression of NKG2D ligands...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Yu-Mei Dai, Hai-Ying Liu, Yun-Feng Liu, Yuan Zhang, Wei He
The engagement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced protein ligands in γδ T cell-mediated anti-EBV immunity especially in EBV associated B cell malignancies has not been fully elucidated. Previously we reported the overexpression of human MutS homologue 2(hMSH2), a stress inducible protein ligand for human γδ T cells, on EBV-transformed B lymphoblastic cell lines (B-LCLs). In this study, we first generated EBV-transformed B-LCLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers with B95-8 cellular supernatant and cyclosporine A...
March 7, 2018: Immunology
Hiromichi Dansako, Hirotaka Imai, Youki Ueda, Shinya Satoh, Takaji Wakita, Nobuyuki Kato
Natural killer (NK) cells through their NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) receptors recognize NKG2D ligands such as UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) on virus-infected cells and subsequently trigger the host innate immune response. In the present study, we demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced the cell surface expression of ULBP1 in human immortalized hepatocyte PH5CH8 cells and human hepatoma HuH-7 cell-derived RSc cells. Interestingly, NK cell line NK-92 induced cytotoxicity and interferon-γ mRNA expression and subsequently reduced the levels of HCV RNA replication during co-culture with HCV-infected RSc cells...
March 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Andrew P Trembath, Neekun Sharma, Saravanan Raju, Bojan Polić, Mary A Markiewicz
The NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) immune receptor is implicated in both human and mouse autoimmune diabetes. However, the significance of NKG2D in diabetes pathogenesis has been unclear due to conflicting reports as to the importance of this receptor in the NOD mouse model. In this study we demonstrate that NKG2D expression affects NOD diabetes development by at least two previously undescribed, and opposing, mechanisms. First, we demonstrate that the NKG2D ligand H60a is induced on activated NOD T cells, and that NKG2D-H60a interaction during CD8+ T cell differentiation into CTLs generally decreases the subsequent CTL effector cytokine response...
November 1, 2017: ImmunoHorizons
Andrew P Trembath, Mary A Markiewicz
The activating immune receptor natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D), which is expressed by natural killer cells and T cell subsets, recognizes a number of ligands expressed by "stressed" or damaged cells. NKG2D has been extensively studied for its role in tumor immunosurveillance and antiviral immunity. To date, the majority of studies have focused on NKG2D-mediated killing of target cells expressing NKG2D ligands. However, with a number of reports describing expression of NKG2D ligands by cells that are not generally considered stressed, it is becoming clear that some healthy cells also express NKG2D ligands...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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