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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721557/the-mystery-of-a-missing-bone-revealing-the-orbitosphenoid-in-basal-epicynodontia-cynodontia-therapsida-through-computed-tomography
#1
Julien Benoit, Sandra C Jasinoski, Vincent Fernandez, Fernando Abdala
The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721326/tension-pneumocephalus-following-bilateral-craniotomies
#2
Fionn Coughlan, Alexander Lam, Stephen Honeybul
Pneumocephalus is defined as a collection of air within the cranial cavity. It is a common finding following head injury with skull base fracture and neurosurgical procedures. Tension pneumocephalus is a rare complication. The diagnosis is clinical and radiological with the characteristic Mount Fuji sign seen on computed tomography (CT). It is a neurosurgical emergency, and early recognition and treatment are vital.
June 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718255/dural-tears-in-patients-with-depressed-skull-fractures
#3
Gul Muhammad, Ahsan Aurangzeb, Shahbaz Ali Khan, Iqbal Hussain, Sudhair Alam, Ehtisham Ahmed Khan Afridi, Baynazir Khan, Sajid Nazir Bhatti
BACKGROUND: The presence of skull fracture in patients sustaining traumatic brain injury is an important risk factor for intracranial lesions. Assessment of integrity of dura in depressed skull fracture is of paramount importance because if dura is torn, lacerated brain matter may be present in the wound which needs proper debridement followed by water tight dural closure to prevent meningitis, cerebral abscess, and pseudomeningocoele formation. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of dural tear in patients with depressed skull fractures...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717092/cerebrospinal-fluid-rhinorrhea-and-subsequent-bacterial-meningitis-due-to-an-atypical-clival-fracture
#4
Rie Tohge, Makio Takahashi
Cases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to clival fracture are rare. We present a case of bacterial meningitis with CSF rhinorrhea after a clival fracture. Heavily T2-weighted images showed a bone flap in the thinned clivus and fluid collection in the sphenoid sinus. CSF rhinorrhea developed at 1 month after mild trauma. The fracture may have been caused by the trauma and/or by the pressure gradient between the intracranial CSF space and the sphenoid sinus. A detailed history to identify trauma and an examination to detect bone defects in the skull base are necessary when patients present with bacterial meningitis and persistent rhinorrhea...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716432/effect-of-frequency-and-focal-spacing-on-transcranial-histotripsy-clot-liquefaction-using-electronic-focal-steering
#5
Tyler Gerhardson, Jonathan R Sukovich, Aditya S Pandey, Timothy L Hall, Charles A Cain, Zhen Xu
This in vitro study investigated the effects of ultrasound frequency and focal spacing on blood clot liquefaction via transcranial histotripsy. Histotripsy pulses were delivered using two 256-element hemispherical transducers of different frequency (250 and 500 kHz) with 30-cm aperture diameters. A 4-cm diameter spherical volume of in vitro blood clot was treated through 3 excised human skullcaps by electronically steering the focus with frequency proportional focal spacing: λ/2, 2 λ/3 and λ with 50 pulses per location...
July 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716213/imaging-of-endoscopic-approaches-to-the-anterior-and-central-skull-base
#6
REVIEW
I M Schmalfuss
Sinonasal endoscopy for treatment of benign sinonasal diseases is a well-established procedure. Recent advances in endoscope technology have substantially expanded its application with many institutions now offering resection of skull base lesions and sinonasal malignancies via the endoscopic approach. Its minimally invasive nature leads to faster recovery time, better cosmetic results, and fewer complications. Unfortunately, not all lesions involving the sinonasal region and skull base are accessible to sinonasal endoscopy...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716164/collagen-matrix-as-an-inlay-in-endoscopic-skull-base-reconstruction
#7
G M Oakley, J M Christensen, M Winder, B P Jonker, A Davidson, T Steel, C Teo, R J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Multi-layer reconstruction has become standard in endoscopic skull base surgery. The inlay component used can vary among autografts, allografts, xenografts and synthetics, primarily based on surgeon preference. The short- and long-term outcomes of collagen matrix in skull base reconstruction are described. METHODS: A case series of patients who underwent endoscopic skull base reconstruction with collagen matrix inlay were assessed. Immediate peri-operative outcomes (cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, ventriculitis, intracranial bleeding, epistaxis, seizures) and delayed complications (delayed healing, meningoencephalocele, prolapse of reconstruction, delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak, ascending meningitis) were examined...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714853/unveiling-the-development-of-intracranial-injury-using-dynamic-brain-eit-an-evaluation-of-current-reconstruction-algorithms
#8
Haoting Li, Rongqing Chen, Canhua Xu, Benyuan Liu, Mengxing Tang, Lin Yang, Xiuzhen Dong, Feng Fu
Dynamic brain EIT is a promising technique for continuous monitoring the development of cerebral injury. While there are many reconstruction algorithms available to brain EIT, there is still a lack of study to compare their performance in the context of dynamic brain monitoring. To address the problem, we develop a framework for evaluating different current algorithms with their ability to correctly identify small intracranial conductivity changes. Firstly, a simulation 3D head phantom with realistic layered structure and impedance distribution were developed...
July 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713744/access-osteotomy-in-the-maxillofacial-skeleton
#9
REVIEW
K Kamalpathey, Maj Gen N K Sahoo, Col P K Chattopadhyay, Maj Yuvraj Issar
Surgical accesses for the facial skeleton are based on the concept of modular osteotomies. Various techniques and combination of osteotomies facilitate access to the most inaccessible tumors of craniomaxillofacial region. Most appropriate surgical access is determined by considering size, location, extension of the tumor, and experience of the surgical team. These are primarily used for tumors in the nasopharynx or the skull base. The aim of this paper is to review surgical accesses that aid in removal of inaccessible tumors of craniomaxillofacial region with series of cases operated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India, between July 2008 and June 2010...
January 2017: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713630/primary-calvarial-tuberculosis
#10
Srihari Sridharan, D Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a very common disease in India. Its prevalence, capacity to affect every other organ, and atypical presentations make it an important part of the differential diagnosis for cases presenting in the rural setup. Primary tuberculous caries of the calvarium is a rare manifestation of this common entity. CASE DESCRIPTION: A young lady presented with headache and discharging sinus of the scalp. Imaging revealed epidural abscess with midline shift...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712070/flow-diverter-in-radiation-induced-skull-base-carotid-blowout-syndrome-do-not-write-it-off
#11
Gopinathan Anil, Junwei Zhang, Yew Kwang Ong, Francis Hui
Post-radiotherapy carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) of the skull base is a rare but often catastrophic complication of head and neck malignancies. The existing literature on the treatment of this condition with flow-diverting devices (FDD) is extremely limited and disappointing. We present a case of impending CBS in a patient previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal cancer that was successfully treated with use of multiple FDDs, adjunctive endonasal packing and delayed reinforcement with pedicled naso-septal flap, yielding an excellent outcome at 14-months follow-up...
July 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711375/the-prevalence-of-orodental-trauma-during-epileptic-seizures-in-terms-of-dental-treatment-survey-study
#12
Dominika Gawlak, Joanna Łuniewska, Wiktoria Stojak, Anahit Hovhannisyan, Anna Stróżyńska, Katarzyna Mańka-Malara, Marcin Adamiec, Andrzej Rysz
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Seizures that occur during attacks may lead to head injuries. It is crucial to establish proper prophylactic management against trauma occurrence, as nowadays prevention is not sufficient. AIM: Assessment of the frequency of head and intraoral trauma during epileptic seizures and to evaluate factors that may predispose to injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire was carried out among 106 patients with epilepsy...
June 29, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710361/the-dental-phenotype-of-hairless-dogs-with-foxi3-haploinsufficiency
#13
Kornelius Kupczik, Alexander Cagan, Silke Brauer, Martin S Fischer
Hairless dog breeds show a form of ectodermal dysplasia characterised by a lack of hair and abnormal tooth morphology. This has been attributed to a semi-dominant 7-base-pair duplication in the first exon of the forkhead box I3 gene (FOXI3) shared by all three breeds. Here, we identified this FOXI3 variant in a historical museum sample of pedigreed hairless dog skulls by using ancient DNA extraction and present the associated dental phenotype. Unlike in the coated wild type dogs, the hairless dogs were characterised in both the mandibular and maxillary dentition by a loss of the permanent canines, premolars and to some extent incisors...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709114/isolated-pachymeningeal-metastasis-from-breast-cancer-clinical-features-and-prognostic-factors
#14
Mi Hwa Heo, Yoo Jin Cho, Hee Kyung Kim, Ji-Yeon Kim, Yeon Hee Park
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features and prognoses of patients with isolated pachymeningeal metastasis (IPM) from breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated from January 2009 to August 2016. Eligibility criteria included diagnosis of pachymeningeal metastasis based on brain magnetic resonance imaging and histologic diagnosis of primary breast cancer. We excluded patients with concomitant parenchymal or leptomeningeal metastases...
July 11, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708915/accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-radiographic-images-for-assessing-crestal-bone-height-of-implants-using-the-precision-implant-x-ray-locator-pixrl-device
#15
Kyle A Malloy, Chandur Wadhwani, Bradley McAllister, Mansen Wang, James A Katancik
PURPOSE: Assessment of crestal bone levels around implants is essential to monitor success and health. This is best accomplished with intraoral radiographs exposed at 90 degrees to the long axis of the implant, but this can be challenging to achieve clinically. Radiographic paralleling devices produce orthogonal radiographs but traditionally have required access to the implant body for each exposure. This study was conducted to determine if use of the Precision Implant X-ray Locator (PIXRL), a radiographic paralleling device that indexes the implant at the time of surgical placement, can produce orthogonal radiographs of dental implants more accurately than traditional radiologic techniques for assessing crestal bone levels...
July 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708652/clinical-application-of-multimodal-neuronavigation-system-in-neuroendoscope-assisted-skull-base-chordoma-resection
#16
Xin Wang, Long Li, Yibao Wang, Jinqu Hu, Jinpeng Zhou, Zhitao Jing, Anhua Wu
Skull base chordoma is a rare tumor arising from embryonic remnants of the notochord with invasive potential. Due to the destruction of osseous landmarks and invasion of surrounding structures, surgical resection is challenging. The authors explored the clinical value of a multimodal neuronavigation system in skull base chordoma resection using a neuroendoscope. Between January 2012 and January 2016, the authors utilized neuroendoscopy to excise skull base chordoma in 93 patients. The authors performed 45 operations assisted by multimodal neuronavigation (neuronavigation group) and 48 without intraoperative imaging guidance (control group)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708650/analysis-of-stress-trajectories-in-human-adult-cleft-skull
#17
Pandurangan Harikrishnan, Vasudevan Balakumaran
The craniofacial skeleton is designed to withstand the functional forces during mastication. Distribution of these forces is along the stress trajectories that can vary in a cleft skull compared with a normal skull. In this study, the authors constructed finite element models of cleft and normal skull and subjected them for occlusal loading in the posterior teeth. The results showed variation in the trajectories between the models and between the cleft and noncleft sides within the cleft model.
July 13, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707807/accuracy-of-computer-assisted-navigation-significant-augmentation-by-facial-recognition-software
#18
Jordan T Glicksman, Christine Reger, Arjun K Parasher, David W Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, image guidance navigation has been used with increasing frequency as an adjunct during sinus and skull base surgery. These devices commonly utilize surface registration, where varying pressure of the registration probe and loss of contact with the face during the skin tracing process can lead to registration inaccuracies, and the number of registration points incorporated is necessarily limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of novel facial recognition software for image guidance registration...
July 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707338/evaluation-of-interthalamic-adhesion-size-as-an-indicator-of-brain-atrophy-in-dogs-with-and-without-cognitive-dysfunction
#19
Daji Noh, Sooyoung Choi, Hojung Choi, Youngwon Lee, Kija Lee
Interthalamic adhesion thickness has been previously described as a parameter for quantifying canine brain atrophy and hypothesized to correlate with brain height or ventricular size. However, studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to compare interthalamic adhesion thickness, interthalamic adhesion thickness/brain height ratio, and interthalamic adhesion thickness/brain height ratio/lateral ventricle to brain height ratio values in dogs with and without cognitive dysfunction...
July 13, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706766/a-case-based-review-of-the-management-of-penetrating-brain-trauma
#20
Jason Milton, Alex Rugino, Kailash Narayan, Chris Karas, Victor Awuor
Principles of penetrating head trauma management were established by Harvey Cushing in relation to the management of penetrating brain injuries of World War One. Cushing radically debrided the scalp and skull and aggressively irrigated wound tracks to remove foreign bodies. He would then obtain water-tight closure. Cushing significantly decreased infection rates which reportedly limited the major cause of mortality due to penetrating head injuries. Many advances have been made by contributions from World War Two, Korean War, Vietnam War, and Iran/Iraq conflicts...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
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