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Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Steven F Grieco, Dmitry Velmeshev, Marco Magistri, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Mohammad A Faghihi, Richard S Jope, Eleonore Beurel
OBJECTIVES: We examined mechanisms that contribute to the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine in mice that is dependent on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibition. METHODS: We measured serotonergic (5HT)-2C-receptor (5HTR2C) cluster microRNA (miRNA) levels in mouse hippocampus after administering an antidepressant dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) in wild-type and GSK3 knockin mice, after GSK3 inhibition with L803-mts, and in learned helpless mice. RESULTS: Ketamine up-regulated cluster miRNAs 448-3p, 764-5p, 1264-3p, 1298-5p and 1912-3p (2- to 11-fold)...
October 10, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Ruth A Morgan, John A Keen, Brian R Walker, Patrick W F Hadoke
Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited...
2016: PloS One
Joy Ardill, Brian T Johnston, David R McCance, Martin Eatock
A fifty two year old lady presented with a history of occasional, severe abdominal cramps, post-prandial diarrhoea and weight loss. After routine GI investigations she was diagnosed with IBS. Over six months she developed occasional facial flushing prompting assessment of neuroendocrine tumour markers. Urinary 5HIAA, 5HT, chromogranin A (CGA) and Neurokinin A (NKA) were significantly elevated. Scans showed extensive hepatic metastases but no location of a primary tumour.Somatostatin analogue therapy (SST) was commenced but despite increasing doses, symptoms increased and biomarkers rose dramatically...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
William T Gunning, Beverly L Karabin, Thomas M Blomquist, Blair P Grubb
Mechanisms have been postulated to explain postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), however, the etiology of this often debilitating disorder remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 181 POTS patients who exhibited/reported bleeding symptoms for a specific platelet (PL) dysfunction disorder, delta granule storage pool deficiency (δ-SPD).Patients were included only if results of blood tests for δ-SPD were available. Electron microscopy was utilized to diagnose δ-SPD. An ELISA assay was used to determine serotonin (5HT) concentration in PLs and medical record review was employed to collect patients' clinical symptoms...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hye-Yeon Park, Young-Kyoung Ryu, Jun Go, Eunjung Son, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Mee Ree Kim
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
M F Lazenka, J A Suyama, C T Bauer, M L Banks, S S Negus
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substrate for the dopamine (DA), norepinephrine and serotonin (5HT) transporters that produces greater pharmacological effects on certain endpoints in females than males in both clinical and rodent preclinical studies. To evaluate potential for sex differences in abuse-related MDMA effects, the present study compared MDMA effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and on in vivo microdialysis measurements of DA or 5HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 23, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Aurélie Couesnon, Rómulo Aráoz, Bogdan I Iorga, Evelyne Benoit, Morgane Reynaud, Denis Servent, Jordi Molgó
The cyclic imine toxin 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meSPX-G), produced by the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii/Alexandrium peruvianum, has been previously reported to contaminate shellfish in various European coastal locations, as revealed by mouse toxicity bioassay. The aim of the present study was to determine its toxicological profile and its molecular target selectivity. 20-meSPX-G blocked nerve-evoked isometric contractions in isolated mouse neuromuscular preparations, while it had no action on contractions elicited by direct electrical stimulation, and reduced reversibly nerve-evoked compound muscle action potential amplitudes in anesthetized mice...
2016: Toxins
Ľudmila Pašková, Viera Kuncírová, Silvester Poništ, Danica Mihálová, Radomír Nosáľ, Juraj Harmatha, Iveta Hrádková, Tomáš Čavojský, František Bilka, Katarína Šišková, Ingrid Paulíková, Lýdia Bezáková, Katarína Bauerová
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, leading to progressive destruction of joints and extra-articular tissues, including organs such as liver and spleen. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a potential immunomodulator, natural polyphenol N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT), with methotrexate (MTX), the standard in RA therapy, in the chronic phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in male Lewis rats. The experiment included healthy controls (CO), arthritic animals (AA), AA given N-f-5HT (AA-N-f-5HT), and AA given MTX (AA-MTX)...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Isabella Salzer, Enkhbileg Gantumur, Arsalan Yousuf, Stefan Boehm
Serotonin (5HT) is a constituent of the so-called "inflammatory soup" that sensitizes nociceptors during inflammation. Nevertheless, receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate an excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by 5HT remained controversial. Therefore, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons dissociated from rat DRGs were used to investigate effects of 5HT on membrane excitability and currents through ligand- as well as voltage-gated ion channels. In 58% of the neurons tested, 5HT increased action potential firing, an effect that was abolished by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, but not by the 5HT3 antagonist tropisetron...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
Jun Zhao, Dara Bree, Michael G Harrington, Andrew M Strassman, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND: Application of inflammatory mediators to the cranial dura has been used as a method to activate and sensitize neurons in the meningeal sensory pathway in preclinical behavioral studies of headache mechanisms. However, the relatively high concentrations and volumes used in these studies raise the question of whether the applied agents might pass through the dura to act directly on central neurons, thus bypassing the dural afferent pathway. METHODS: We used a radiolabeling approach to quantify the meningeal permeability of two of the inflammatory mediators, 5-HT and PGE2, when applied to the cranial dura as part of an inflammatory mixture used in preclinical headache models...
August 4, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Samira Gholami, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar, Nadia Akvan
UV-Vis absorption data of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5HT) in BLG complex were examined and analyzed using chemometrics method. Analysis of the spectral data matrices by using the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm resulted to the pure concentration calculation and spectral profiles resolution of the chemical constituents and the values of (6.433±0.019)×10(4)M(-1), (4.532±0.007)×10(4)M(-1), (3.364±0.010)×10(4)M(-1) and (2.977±0.013)×10(4)M(-1) as estimated equilibrium constants at 288, 293, 298 and 303K, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Elias Patetsos, Emilia Horjales-Araujo
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a major role in both nociception and mood regulation. Alterations in the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HT) system have been reported in chronic pain patients. In recent years, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been suggested as an alternative treatment for chronic pain due to the fact that they are better tolerated presenting less secondary effects than other antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants. Although several clinical trials have been published, the effectiveness of SSRI as treatment for pain conditions is inconclusive...
2016: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Samuel J Erb, Jeffrey M Schappi, Mark M Rasenick
Depression is a significant public health problem for which currently available medications, if effective, require weeks to months of treatment before patients respond. Previous studies have shown that the G protein responsible for increasing cAMP (Gαs) is increasingly localized to lipid rafts in depressed subjects and that chronic antidepressant treatment translocates Gαs from lipid rafts. Translocation of Gαs, which shows delayed onset after chronic antidepressant treatment of rats or of C6 glioma cells, tracks with the delayed onset of therapeutic action of antidepressants...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Faezeh Monji, P Ganesan Adaikan, Lang Chu Lau, Baharudin Bin Said, Yinhan Gong, Huey Min Tan, Mahesh Choolani
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In folklore medicine Ananas comosus (pineapple) is reputed to act as an abortifacient and in expectant women as a means of inducing labor. Several reports have claimed abortifacient property of A. comosus fruit (ripe or unripe). Ripe fruit has been used orally as traditional medicine in inducing abortion in Kerala state of India while the juice of unripe fruit was used for abortion in Bangladesh. However, scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of pineapple extracts in inducing uterine contractions is clearly lacking...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ursula Werneke, Fariba Jamshidi, David M Taylor, Michael Ott
BACKGROUND: Serotonin syndrome is a toxic state, caused by serotonin (5HT) excess in the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome's main feature is neuro-muscular hyperexcitability, which in many cases is mild but in some cases can become life-threatening. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome remains challenging since it can only be made on clinical grounds. Three diagnostic criteria systems, Sternbach, Radomski and Hunter classifications, are available. Here we test the validity of four assumptions that have become widely accepted: (1) The Hunter classification performs clinically better than the Sternbach and Radomski criteria; (2) in contrast to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, the onset of serotonin syndrome is usually rapid; (3) hyperthermia is a hallmark of severe serotonin syndrome; and (4) serotonin syndrome can readily be distinguished from neuroleptic malignant syndrome on clinical grounds and on the basis of medication history...
2016: BMC Neurology
Olivia M Farr, Jagriti Upadhyay, Anna Gavrieli, Michelle Camp, Nikolaos Spyrou, Harper Kaye, Hannah Mathew, Maria Vamvini, Anastasia Koniaris, Holly Kilim, Alexandra Srnka, Alexandra Migdal, Christos S Mantzoros
Lorcaserin is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2c receptor agonist effective in treating obesity. Studies in rodents have shown that lorcaserin acts in the brain to exert its weight-reducing effects, but this has not yet been studied in humans. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with 48 obese participants and used functional MRI to study the effects of lorcaserin on the brain. Subjects taking lorcaserin had decreased brain activations in the attention-related parietal and visual cortices in response to highly palatable food cues at 1 week in the fasting state and in the parietal cortex in response to any food cues at 4 weeks in the fed state...
October 2016: Diabetes
L R Cataldo, M L Mizgier, D Busso, P Olmos, J E Galgani, R Valenzuela, D Mezzano, E Aranda, V A Cortés, J L Santos
High circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) concentration, often reported in diabetes, leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through not yet well-defined mechanisms. Serotonin and dopamine might contribute to NEFA-dependent β-cell dysfunction, since extracellular signal of these monoamines decreases GSIS. Moreover, palmitate-treated β-cells may enhance the expression of the serotonin receptor Htr2c, affecting insulin secretion. Additionally, the expression of monoamine-oxidase type B (Maob) seems to be lower in islets from humans and mice with diabetes compared to nondiabetic islets, which may lead to increased monoamine concentrations...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Kentaro Nishida, Teruyo Kubota, Saki Matsumoto, Junki Kato, Yu Watanabe, Atsuko Yamamoto, Mari Furui, Akihiro Ohishi, Kazuki Nagasawa
ATP and its metabolites are important for taste signaling in taste buds, and thus a clearance system for them would play critical roles in maintenance of gustatory function. A previous report revealed that mRNAs for ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were expressed by taste cells of taste buds, and NT5E-immunoreactivity was detected in taste cells. However, there was no information on PAP-immunoreactivity in taste buds. In this study, we examined the expression profile of PAP in rat taste buds...
2016: PloS One
Hideki Katow, Tomoko Katow, Hiromi Yoshida, Masato Kiyomoto, Isao Uemura
BACKGROUND: The swimming activity of sea urchin larvae is dependent on the ciliary band (CB) on the larval surface and is regulated by several neurotransmitters, including serotonin (5HT), dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). However, the CB signal transmission mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the structural relationship between the CB and external signal receptors by immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic analyses of sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, larvae...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
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