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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911850/activation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-pathway-by-olanzapine-augments-antidepressant-effects-of-venlafaxine-in-mice
#1
Jaya Thomas, Razia Khanam, Divya Vohora
Recent clinical studies report antipsychotics as a better option to augment the action of antidepressants in treatment resistant cases. However, the proper mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of antipsychotics is still not clear. Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) pathway is considered to be an important pathway in pro-inflammatory cytokine associated stress-induced depression. The present study investigated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine, olanzapine and their combinations in chronic forced-swim stress-induced depression in mice...
August 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827965/ameliorative-effect-of-curcumin-on-olanzapine-induced-obesity-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Subramani Parasuraman, Khor Ming Zhen, Urmila Banik, Parayil Varghese Christapher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for experiments. The animals were divided into six groups, namely, normal control, olanzapine control, betahistine (10 mg/kg), and curcumin 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Except the normal control group, all other animals were administered with olanzapine 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally to induce obesity. The drugs were administered once daily, per oral for 28 days...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783033/musculoskeletal-and-nervous-systems-of-the-attachment-organ-in-three-species-of-diplectanum-monogenea-dactylogyroidea
#3
Anatoly A Petrov, Evgenija V Dmitrieva, Maryana P Popyuk, Pavel I Gerasev, Sergey A Petrov
The taxonomy of Diplectanum Diesing, 1858, a genus of monopisthocotylean monogeneans, remains unsettled and needs to be revised based on new morphological criteria. Recent studies in monopisthocotyleans have shown that the muscle arrangement in the posterior attachment organ (haptor) differs between congeneric species and can be used as an additional criterion in genus-level taxonomy. To explore the possibility of using the haptoral musculature and nervous system in the taxonomy of Diplectanum, we conducted a detailed confocal-microscopy study of three species of Diplectanum (D...
July 11, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738100/multiple-neurotoxic-effects-of-haloperidol-resulting-in-neuronal-death
#4
Henry A Nasrallah, Alexander T Chen
BACKGROUND: Several published studies have reported an association between antipsychotic medications, especially first-generation agents, and a decline in gray matter volume. This prompted us to review the possible neurotoxic mechanisms of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), especially haloperidol, which has been widely used over the past several decades. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted using the keywords haloperidol, antipsychotic, neurotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and neuroplasticity...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714603/variations-in-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-ssri-antidepressant-exposure
#5
REVIEW
Naama Rotem-Kohavi, Tim F Oberlander
Mood disorders and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants during pregnancy are common and both pose neurodevelopmental risks. This often makes the decision to treat prenatal depression with pharmacotherapy (i.e., antidepressants) challenging for clinicians and mothers. SSRIs block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) and given its developmental role, it is not inconceivable that early changes in 5HT signaling could have an impact on early brain development...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687902/decreased-brain-serotonin-turnover-rate-following-administration-of-sharbat-e-ahmed-shah-produces-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-effect-in-rats
#6
Muhammad Ahmed, Aisha Azmat
Sharbat-e-Ahmed Shah (SAS) has usually been used in Traditional Unani Medicine (TUM) for depression and insomnia but still not evaluated for its anti-depressant and Neuropharmacological activity. In the present study, a Human dose of SAS (0.6 ml/kg/d) was administered orally to the rats for 15 consecutive days. Antidepressant and anxiolytic were screened scientifically in rats by using Forced swim test and light and dark box test. At the end of study high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with electrochemical (EC) detector was used for the measurement of blood and brain tryptophan and brain serotonin levels...
July 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623605/cathepsin-c-aggravates-neuroinflammation-involved-in-disturbances-of-behaviour-and-neurochemistry-in-acute-and-chronic-stress-induced-murine-model-of-depression
#7
Yanli Zhang, Kai Fan, Yanna Liu, Gang Liu, Xiaohan Yang, Jianmei Ma
Major depression has been interpreted as an inflammatory disease characterized by cell-mediated immune activation, which is generally triggered by various stresses. Microglia has been thought to be the cellular link between inflammation and depression-like behavioural alterations. The expression of cathepsin C (Cat C), a lysosomal proteinase, is predominantly induced in microglia in neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the role of Cat C in pathophysiology of depression. In the present study, Cat C transgenic mice and wild type mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597098/maximized-complexity-in-miniaturized-brains-morphology-and-distribution-of-octopaminergic-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-parasitic-wasp-trichogramma-evanescens
#8
Emma van der Woude, Hans M Smid
The parasitic wasp, Trichogramma evanescens, is an extremely small insect, with a body length as small as 0.3 mm. To facilitate this miniaturization, their brains may have evolved to contain smaller neural components and/or reduced neural complexity than larger insects. Here, we study whether the size and number of neurons are reduced in the miniaturized brain of T. evanescens, focusing on neurons that express serotonin (5HT), octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA). We provide the first description of the distribution, projection patterns and number of 5HT-, OA- and DA-like immunoreactive cell bodies in T...
June 9, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581025/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-patterns-among-patients-diagnosed-with-cluster-headache-in-u-s-healthcare-claims-data
#9
Casey K Choong, Janet H Ford, Allen W Nyhuis, Shivang G Joshi, Rebecca L Robinson, Sheena K Aurora, James M Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To characterize demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns of patients with cluster headache (CH). BACKGROUND: CH is an uncommon trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia with limited evidence-based treatment options. Patients suffer from extremely painful unilateral headache attacks and autonomic symptoms with episodic and chronic cycles. DESIGN/METHODS: This retrospective analysis used insurance claims from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®) research databases from 2009 to 2014...
June 5, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546314/chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-associated-with-subregion-selective-serotonin-cell-death-in-the-dorsal-raphe
#10
Reka Natarajan, Laura Forrester, Nicolas L Chiaia, Bryan K Yamamoto
The current study examined the neurochemical mechanisms and neuroanatomical changes underlying coexisting behavioral effects associated with chronic-stress-induced alterations in serotonin (5HT) neurons. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to adult male rats produced depression-like changes with cognitive dysfunction and selective cell death in the interfascicular nucleus of the dorsal raphe (DRif), resulting in decreased 5HTergic innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Twenty-one days of CUS decreased basal plasma levels of corticosterone and produced a shorter latency to immobility and longer durations of immobility in the force-swim test that persisted for 1 month after CUS...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#11
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515375/modified-gas-chromatographic-method-to-determine-monoacylglycerol-and-diacylglycerol-contents-in-edible-fats-and-oils
#12
Chiemi Satou, Hirofumi Goto, Yuya Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi Saitou, Shoji Matsumoto, Ou Takahashi, Yosuke Miyazaki, Keiichi Ikuta, Yosuke Yajima
Monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are minor components of edible fats and oils, and they relate to the quality of these foods. The AOCS official method Cd 11b-91 has been used to determine MAG and DAG contents in fats and oils. There are, however, difficulties in the determination of MAG and DAG using this analytical procedure. Therefore, we improved this method by modifying the trimethylsilyl derivatization procedure and replacing the internal standard (IS) material. In our modified method, TMS-HT (mixture of hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane) was used for derivatization of MAG and DAG, which was followed by liquid-liquid extraction with water and n-hexane solution containing the IS, tricaprin...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499269/identification-of-novel-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-targeting-central-and-allosteric-binding-sites-a-virtual-screening-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-study
#13
Ismail Erol, Busecan Aksoydan, Isik Kantarcioglu, Ramin E Salmas, Serdar Durdagi
The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) transporter (SERT) is a member of neurotransmitter sodium symporter (NSS) family, which maintains neurotransmitter by reuptaking 5HT into synapses. Decrease in serotonin concentrations in synaptic clefts have been reported to cause psychological and neurological disorders. Therefore, inhibition of SERT is a potent strategy for the treatment of related diseases such as depression. In this study, approximately 260,000 small molecules from an available chemical database have been virtually screened both at central and allosteric binding sites of SERT to identify potent novel candidate SERT inhibitors...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479792/platelet-serotonin-level-and-impulsivity-in-human-self-destructive-behavior-a-biological-and-psychological-study
#14
S Era Dutta, Sriniwas Gupta, M S V K Raju, Abhishek Kumar, Alka Pawar
CONTEXT: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT]) system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. AIMS: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB)...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460173/a-visible-light-sensitive-caged-serotonin
#15
Ricardo Cabrera, Oscar Filevich, Beatriz García-Acosta, Jegath Athilingam, Kevin J Bender, Kira E Poskanzer, Roberto Etchenique
Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Deficits in 5HT signaling are responsible for many disabling psychiatric conditions, and its molecular machinery is the target of many pharmaceuticals. We present a new 5HT phototrigger, the compound [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)](2+), where PMe3 is trimethylphosphine. As with other ruthenium-bipyridyl based caged compounds, [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)](2+) presents activity in the visible region of the spectrum...
May 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425871/the-journey-of-the-non-vascular-relief-for-migraine-from-triptans-to-ditans
#16
Alphienes S Xavier, Mageshwaran Lakshmanan, Vikneswaran Gunaseelan
Migraine is a recurrent, disabling, complex and highly prevalent neurological disorder. The mystery behind the cause of migraine is continuously evolving, according to the scientific understanding of the disease. This growing understanding helps to identify novel therapeutic targets for the management of migraine to treat the ailing migraineurs. The role of serotonin (5HT) in migraine is recognized to be the cornerstone for the currently available therapeutic options namely ergot alkaloids and triptans. The role of mediators such as Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide and excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, has been realized and ignited the development of drugs targeting these factors...
2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416039/pig-cognitive-bias-affects-the-conversion-of-muscle-into-meat-by-antioxidant-and-autophagy-mechanisms
#17
Y Potes, M Oliván, A Rubio-González, B de Luxán-Delgado, F Díaz, V Sierra, L Arroyo, R Peña, A Bassols, J González, R Carreras, A Velarde, M Muñoz-Torres, A Coto-Montes
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animal's emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities...
April 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415022/simultaneous-determination-of-tryptophan-and-8-metabolites-in-human-plasma-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Lysiane Boulet, Patrice Faure, Patrice Flore, Julien Montérémal, Véronique Ducros
Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino-acid and the precursor of many biologically active substances such as kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5HT). Its metabolism is involved in different physiopathological states, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, immunomodulation or depression. Hence, the quantification of Trp catabolites, from both KYN and 5HT pathways, might be usefulfor the discovery of novel diagnostic and follow-up biomarkers. We have developed a simple method for quantification of Trp and 8 of its metabolites,involved in both KYN and 5HT pathways, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361821/candidate-genes-for-alcohol-dependence-a-genetic-association-study-from-india
#19
Savita Malhotra, Debasish Basu, Madhu Khullar, Abhishek Ghosh, Neera Chugh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Search for candidate genes for alcohol dependence (AD) has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Moreover, most of the research has been confined to a few specific ethnic groups. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore specific candidate genes for AD in north Indian male population. METHODS: In this clinic-based genetic association study, 210 males with AD and 200 controls matched for age, gender and ethnicity were recruited from the clinic and the general population, respectively...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355384/creation-of-a-list-of-homonyms-in-brazilian-portuguese-for-linguistic-processing-tasks
#20
Suélen Graton Rossi, Maria Mercedes Saraiva Hackerott, Clara Regina Brandão de Avila
Purpose This paper presents procedures and steps to create a list of homonyms, their meanings and representative images. Methods One hundred and three homonyms in Brazilian Portuguese were secluded through searches in text books and dictionaries and the meanings were verified. The homonyms were analyzed and selected according pre-established criteria. Twenty-six homonyms with two meanings were selected and one image was used to represent each meaning. To test the instrument, twenty elementary school children in 4th (n = 10) and 5ht (n = 10) grades were selected from a private school in São Paulo...
2017: CoDAS
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