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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769642/high-resolution-imaging-of-myeloperoxidase-activity-sensors-in-human-cerebrovascular-disease
#1
Youssef Z Wadghiri, Dung Minh Hoang, Anita Leporati, Matthew J Gounis, Aurora Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mary L Mazzanti, John P Weaver, Ajay K Wakhloo, Peter Caravan, Alexei A Bogdanov
Progress in clinical development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substrate-sensors of enzymatic activity has been slow partly due to the lack of human efficacy data. We report here a strategy that may serve as a shortcut from bench to bedside. We tested ultra high-resolution 7T MRI (µMRI) of human surgical histology sections in a 3-year IRB approved, HIPAA compliant study of surgically clipped brain aneurysms. µMRI was used for assessing the efficacy of MRI substrate-sensors that detect myeloperoxidase activity in inflammation...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752984/antinociceptive-effects-of-the-antidepressant-phenelzine-are-mediated-by-context-dependent-inhibition-of-neuronal-responses-in-the-dorsal-horn
#2
Liam E Potter, Suzanne Doolen, Katherine Mifflin, Gustavo Tenorio, Glen Baker, Bradley K Taylor, Bradley J Kerr
The putative strong anti-nociceptive properties of the antidepressant phenelzine (PLZ) have not been widely explored as a treatment for pain. Antinociceptive effects of PLZ were identified in the formalin model of tonic pain (Mifflin et al. 2016) and in allodynia associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, (EAE) a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (Potter et al. 2016). Here, we further clarify the specific types of stimuli and contexts in which PLZ modulates nociceptive sensitivity. Our findings indicate that PLZ selectively inhibits ongoing inflammatory pain while sparing transient reflexive and acute nociception...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751998/does-somatostatin-have-a-role-to-play-in-migraine-headache
#3
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Lambert, Alessandro S Zagami
Migraine is a condition without apparent pathology. Its cardinal symptom is the prolonged excruciating headache. Theories about this pain have posited pathologies which run the gamut from neural to vascular to neurovascular, but no observations have detected a plausible pathology. We believe that no pathology can be found for migraine headache because none exists. Migraine is not driven by pathology - it is driven by neural events produced by triggers - or simply by neural noise- noise that has crossed a critical threshold...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738870/comparison-of-transitional-vs-surgical-menopause-on-monoamine-and-amino-acid-levels-in-the-rat-brain
#4
Tao Long, Jeffrey K Yao, Junyi Li, Ziv Z Kirshner, Doug Nelson, George G Dougherty, Robert B Gibbs
Loss of ovarian function has important effects on neurotransmitter production and release with corresponding effects on cognitive performance. To date, there has been little direct comparison of the effects of surgical and transitional menopause on neurotransmitter pathways in the brain. In this study, effects on monoamines, monoamine metabolites, and the amino acids tryptophan (TRP) and tyrosine (TYR) were evaluated in adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats and in rats that underwent selective and gradual ovarian follicle depletion by daily injection of 4-vinylcyclohexene-diepoxide (VCD)...
May 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729247/ionic-plasticity-and-pain-the-loss-of-descending-serotonergic-fibers-after-spinal-cord-injury-transforms-how-gaba-affects-pain
#5
Yung-Jen Huang, James W Grau
Activation of pain (nociceptive) fibers can sensitize neural circuits within the spinal cord, inducing an increase in excitability (central sensitization) that can foster chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. In adult animals, the co-transporter KCC2 maintains a low intracellular concentration of the anion Cl- . As a result, when the GABA-A receptor is engaged, Cl- flows in the neuron which has a hyperpolarizing (inhibitory) effect...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709878/genetic-polymorphisms-of-the-5ht-receptors-are-not-related-with-depression-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-caused-by-hippocampal-sclerosis
#6
Silvia Vincentiis, Juliana Alcantara, Patricia Rzezak, Daniel S Kerr, Wagner F Gattaz, Helio van der Linden, Bernardo Dos Santos, Sebastiao E Melo-Souza, Francisco Arruda, Paulo Ragazzo, Tiffany Chaim-Avancini, Mauricio H Serpa, Fernando Fernandes, Ricardo A Moreno, Geraldo Busatto, Ruda Alessi, Renata Demarque, Kette D Valente
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) is the most frequent form of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults. Mood disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidities observed in these patients. Common pathophysiological mechanisms of epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities include abnormalities in the serotonin pathway. The primary goal of this study was to determine the possible association between polymorphisms of genes encoding the serotonin receptors 5HT1A (rs6295), 5HT1B (rs6296), and 5HT2C (rs6318) and the presence of mood disorders in patients with TLE-HS...
April 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701794/effects-of-grazing-different-ergovaline-concentrations-on-vasoactivity-of-bovine-lateral-saphenous-vein
#7
J L Klotz, G E Aiken, A M Egert-McLean, F N Schrick, N Chattopadhyay, D L Harmon
Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate contractility of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from mixed breed steers following a 87- to 101-d grazing period on 3-ha pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon; n = 5 steers; BW = 340 ±9 kg), or toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) that was not treated (n = 5 steers; BW = 300 ±6; 0...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680617/a-novel-highly-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-serotonin-based-on-ag-polypyrrole-cu-2-o-nanocomposite-modified-glassy-carbon-electrode
#8
S Selvarajan, A Suganthi, M Rajarajan
A silver/polypyrrole/copper oxide (Ag/PPy/Cu2 O) ternary nanocomposite was prepared by sonochemical and oxidative polymerization simple way, in which Cu2 O was decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and covered by polyprrole (PPy) layer. The as prepared materials was characterized by UV-vis-spectroscopy (UV-vis), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649585/effects-of-different-serotonin-receptor-subtype-antagonists-on-the-development-of-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-in-murine-aortic-allografts
#9
Annika Gocht, Jörg H W Distler, Bernd Spriewald, Martina Ramsperger-Gleixner, Michael Weyand, Stephan M Ensminger, Christian Heim
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the main obstacle for long-term survival after heart transplantation. Alloimmune mediated chronic vascular rejection results in several mechanisms like platelet activation, immigration of inflammatory cells through the endothelial layer and proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Serotonin (5-HT) promotes these processes via activation of 5-HT2 receptors. We hypothesized that inhibiting 5-HT2 receptors ameliorates the development of CAV...
April 9, 2018: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621775/association-of-polymorphisms-of-serotonin-transporter-5httlpr-and-5-ht2c-receptor-genes-with-criminal-behavior-in-russian-criminal-offenders
#10
Valentina A Toshchakova, Yalda Bakhtiari, Alexander V Kulikov, Sergey I Gusev, Marina V Trofimova, Olga Yu Fedorenko, Ekaterina V Mikhalitskaya, Nina K Popova, Nikolay A Bokhan, Johannes E Hovens, Anton J M Loonen, Bob Wilffert, Svetlana A Ivanova
BACKGROUND: Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of aggression to aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission. We determined possible associations between 6 serotonergic neurotransmission-related gene variants and severe criminal offenses...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615907/suppression-of-cisplatin-induced-vomiting-by-cannabis-sativa-in-pigeons-neurochemical-evidences
#11
Ihsan Ullah, Fazal Subhan, Javaid Alam, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Ayaz
Cannabis sativa ( CS , family Cannabinaceae ) has been reported for its anti-emetic activity against cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. The current study was designed to investigate CS for potential effectiveness to attenuate cisplatin-induced vomiting in healthy pigeons and to study the impact on neurotransmitters involved centrally and peripherally in the act of vomiting. High-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector was used for the quantification of neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), dopamine (DA) and their metabolites; Di-hydroxy Phenyl Acetic acid (Dopac), Homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5HIAA) centrally in specific brain areas (area postrema and brain stem) while, peripherally in small intestine...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560580/presynaptic-regulation-of-tonic-inhibition-by-neuromodulatory-transmitters-in-the-basal-amygdala
#12
S Meis, T Endres, T Munsch, V Lessmann
Tonic inhibition mediated by ambient levels of GABA that activate extrasynaptic GABAA receptors emerges as an essential factor that tunes neuronal network excitability in vitro and shapes behavioral responses in vivo. To address the role of neuromodulatory transmitter systems on this type of inhibition, we employed patch clamp recordings in mouse amygdala slice preparations. Our results show that the current amplitude of tonic inhibition (Itonic ) in projection neurons of the basal amygdala (BA) is increased by preincubation with the neurosteroid THDOC, while the benzodiazepine diazepam is ineffective...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543349/corticosterone-and-serotonin-similarly-influence-gabaergic-and-purinergic-pathways-to-affect-cortical-inhibitory-networks
#13
Caitlin A Wotton, Elizabeth F Quon, Ashley C Palmer, Lane K Bekar
Both serotonin (5HT) and stress exert changes in cortical inhibitory tone to shape activity of cortical networks. As astrocytes are also known to affect inhibition through established purinergic pathways, we assessed the role of GABA and purinergic pathways in rapid corticosterone (CORT) and 5HT effects on cortical inhibition. We used a paired-pulse paradigm (P1 & P2) in acutely isolated mouse brain slices to evaluate changes in cortical evoked inhibition. Normally, 5HT decreases amplitude of the first pulse P1, while increasing the amplitude of P2 (increase frequency transmission)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495549/prorocentrolide-a-from-cultured-prorocentrum-lima-dinoflagellates-collected-in-japan-blocks-sub-types-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#14
Muriel Amar, Rómulo Aráoz, Bogdan I Iorga, Takeshi Yasumoto, Denis Servent, Jordi Molgó
Prorocentrolides are members of the cyclic imine phycotoxins family. Their chemical structure includes a 26-membered carbo-macrocycle and a 28-membered macrocyclic lactone arranged around a hexahydroisoquinoline that incorporates the characteristic cyclic imine group. Six prorocentrolides are already known. However, their mode of action remains undetermined. The aim of the present work was to explore whether prorocentrolide A acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), using competition-binding assays and electrophysiological techniques...
February 28, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477299/serotonin-5-ht-3-receptor-antagonism-potentiates-the-antidepressant-activity-of-citalopram
#15
Blanca Perez-Palomar, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Esther Berrocoso, J Javier Meana, Jorge E Ortega
Activation of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor (5HT3R) in the locus coeruleus (LC), the principal somatodendritic noradrenergic area, decreases LC firing activity and noradrenaline (NA) release in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Blockade of 5HT3R in coadministration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been proposed as a potential strategy to accelerate the onset of action of SSRIs. Dual-probe microdialysis in rats was used to evaluate the involvement of 5HT3R in the in vivo effect exerted by the SSRI citalopram on NA release...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475221/effects-of-5ht1a-activation-on-gating-profile-following-5ht-depletion-in-rats-lacking-social-attachment-since-weanling
#16
Yueh-Ming Tai, Chih-Yuan Ko, Chen-Cheng Lin, Yu-Yue Wan, Jing-Yi Chung, Yia-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: Central 5-HT1A receptor is involved in the modulation of sensorimotor gating function. However, its precise role is not clearly defined in developmentally social deprived (isolation rearing, IR) rats featured with impaired sensorimotor gating ability. We therefore aimed to examine the effects of 5HT1A activation on acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) in IR rats in a condition of compromised presynaptic 5-HT functions. METHODS: Social control (SOC) and IR rats received an intracerebraoventricular (ICV) injection of 5-HT depletor, 5,7-DHT...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448118/calcium-channel-blockers-as-drug-repurposing-candidates-for-gestational-diabetes-mining-large-scale-genomic-and-electronic-health-records-data-to-repurpose-medications
#17
Jeffery A Goldstein, Lisa A Bastarache, Joshua C Denny, Dan M Roden, Jill M Pulley, David M Aronoff
New therapeutic approaches are needed for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but must show safety and efficacy in a historically understudied population. We studied associations between electronic medical record (EMR) phenotypes and genetic variants to uncover drugs currently considered safe in pregnancy that could treat or prevent GDM. We identified 129 systemically active drugs considered safe in pregnancy targeting the proteins produced from 196 genes. We tested for associations between GDM and/or type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 306 SNPs in 130 genes represented on the Illumina Infinium Human Exome Bead Chip (DM2 was included due to shared pathophysiological features with GDM)...
April 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424302/the-role-of-5-ht1a-receptor-in-the-cancer-as-a-new-opportunity-in-medicinal-chemistry
#18
Angela Corvino, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Irene Saccone, Francesco Frecentese, Elisa Perissutti, Paola Di Vaio, Vincenzo Santagada, Giuseppe Caliendo, Elisa Magli
The 5-HT1A receptor is a pharmacologically well characterized serotonin receptor subtype and it has long been investigated because of its involvement in several physio-pathological mechanisms and treatment of neurological diseases like ansia and depression. Serotonin (5-HT) also shows many non-neural functions such as essential hypertension, embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behavior. Moreover it exerts a growth factor function on different types of non-tumoral cells, and it was also found to be related to oncogenes...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369737/pharmacology-of-serotonin-receptors-causing-contraction-of-isolated-bovine-posterior-ciliary-arteries-role-in-ocular-blood-flow
#19
Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye, Jenaye Robinson, Leah Mitchell-Bush, Marshalyn Mckoy, Catherine A Opere, Sunny E Ohia, Naj Sharif
PURPOSE: To determine the serotonergic (5HT) receptor subtype mediating the contraction of bovine posterior ciliary arteries (BPCAs) in vitro. METHODS: Longitudinal isometric tension was measured in BPCA strips (4-5 mm) mounted in 25 mL organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37°C. Cumulative contractile concentration-response (C-R) curves were generated for various 5-HT agonists to assess their potencies and maximal degrees of contraction. Multiple agonist C-R curves were also constructed in the presence and absence of receptor-selective antagonists to determine antagonist potencies using Schild plots...
January 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367407/an-interaction-between-serotonin-receptor-signaling-and-dopamine-enhances-goal-directed-vigor-and-persistence-in-mice
#20
Matthew R Bailey, Olivia Goldman, Estefanía P Bello, Muhammad O Chohan, Nuri Jeong, Vanessa Winiger, Eileen Chun, Elke Schipani, Abigail Kalmbach, Joseph F Cheer, Peter D Balsam, Eleanor H Simpson
The functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand SB242084 can increase motivation and have rapid onset anti-depressant-like effects. We sought to identify the specific behavioral effects of SB242084 treatment and elucidate the mechanism in female and male mice. Using a quantitative behavioral approach, we determined that SB242084 increases the vigor and persistence of goal-directed activity across different types of physical work, particularly when work requirements are demanding. We found this influence of SB242084 on effort, rather than reward to be reflected in striatal DA measured during behavior...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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