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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079467/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-causes-structural-changes-in-the-jejunum-of-rats-infected-with-different-inoculum-doses
#1
Suellen Laís Vicentino-Vieira, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, Aline Rosa Trevizan, Lainy Leiny de Lima, Elen Paula Leatte, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, João Luiz Garcia, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant'Ana
AIM: To evaluate the mucosal tunic and submucosal plexus of the jejunum of rats infected with different inoculum doses of Toxoplasma gondii. MAIN METHODS: Rats were infected with different inoculum doses (50, 500, 1000 and 5000 oocysts) of the T. gondii for 30days, while a control group (CG) received saline solution. Blood and feces were collected before euthanasia for analysis of blood and fecal leukocytes (LEs). Histological analysis of the mucosa, submucosa, villi, crypts and enterocytes were performed...
October 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063139/dissociable-effects-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-nalfurafine-on-pain-itch-stimulated-and-pain-itch-depressed-behaviors-in-male-rats
#2
Matthew L Lazenka, Megan J Moerke, E Andrew Townsend, Kevin B Freeman, F Ivy Carroll, S Stevens Negus
RATIONALE: Nalfurafine is a G protein signaling-biased kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist approved in Japan for second-line treatment of uremic pruritus. Neither nalfurafine nor any other KOR agonist is currently approved anywhere for treatment of pain, but recent evidence suggests that G protein signaling-biased KOR agonists may have promise as candidate analgesics/antipruritics with reduced side effects compared to nonbiased or ß-arrestin-signaling-biased KOR agonists. OBJECTIVES: This study compared nalfurafine effects in rats using assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior used previously to evaluate other candidate analgesics...
October 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054014/sex-differences-in-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-of-gonadectomy-and-aromatase-inhibition-in-rats
#3
N Kokras, N Pastromas, D Papasava, C de Bournonville, C A Cornil, C Dalla
Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been associated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aromatase inhibition on male and female, sham-operated or gonadectomized adult rats. Three weeks after surgery, rats received chronic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle and were then subjected to the open field test, which assesses general activity...
October 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042433/serotonin-decreases-the-gain-of-visual-responses-in-awake-macaque-v1
#4
Lenka Seillier, Corinna Lorenz, Katsuhisa Kawaguchi, Torben Ott, Andreas Nieder, Paria Pourriahi, Hendrikje Nienborg
Serotonin (5HT) is an important neuromodulator in the brain implicated in affective and cognitive functions but its role even for basic cortical processes is controversial. For example, in the mammalian primary visual cortex heterogenous serotonergic modulation has been observed in anesthetized animals. Here, we combined extracellular single unit recordings with iontophoresis in awake animals. We examined the role of serotonin on well-defined tuning properties (orientation, spatial frequency, contrast and size) in the primary visual cortex (V1) of two male macaque monkeys...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993250/monoaminergic-descending-pathways-contribute-to-modulation-of-neuropathic-pain-by-increasing-intensity-treadmill-exercise-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#5
Victor M Lopez-Alvarez, Maria Puigdomenech, Xavier Navarro, Stefano Cobianchi
This study characterizes the impact of increasing-intensity treadmill exercise (iTR) on noradrenergic (NE) and serotonergic (5HT) modulation of neuropathic pain. Following sciatic nerve transection and repair (SNTR) rats developed significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia that was partially prevented by iTR performed during the first 2weeks after injury. Marked decrease in the expression of 5HT2A and α1A and β-, but not α2A adrenergic receptors in the spinal cord dorsal horn was associated to SNTR and recovered by iTR, particularly in lamina II...
October 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958176/undernutrition-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-increases-the-number-of-fos-cells-in-the-reward-system-in-response-to-a-5-ht6-receptor-agonist-in-male-adolescent-rats
#6
Amanda Alves Marcelino da Silva, Mayara Matias Oliveira, Taisy Cinthia Ferro Cavalcante, Larissa Cavalcanti do Amaral Almeida, Paula Luiza Menezes Cruz, Sandra Lopes de Souza
Undernutrition promotes morphofunctional adaptations in neuroanatomical circuits, leading to behavioural changes. Adolescence is a period of vulnerability for these adaptations, such as the control of food intake and the serotonergic system. The serotonergic system is capable of promoting satiety. However, its role in hedonic control has not been fully elucidated. The involvement of the 5-HT6 receptor in motivational feeding behaviours was recently observed. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT6 receptor agonist on food intake and neuronal activation in areas of the reward system in adolescent rats subjected to perinatal protein undernutrition...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943244/new-5-ht1a-5ht2a-and-5ht2c-receptor-ligands-containing-a-picolinic-nucleus-synthesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacological-evaluation
#7
Ferdinando Fiorino, Elisa Magli, Ewa Kędzierska, Antonio Ciano, Angela Corvino, Beatrice Severino, Elisa Perissutti, Francesco Frecentese, Paola Di Vaio, Irene Saccone, Angelo A Izzo, Raffaele Capasso, Paola Massarelli, Ilaria Rossi, Jolanta Orzelska-Gòrka, Jolanta Helena Kotlińska, Vincenzo Santagada, Giuseppe Caliendo
Picolinamide derivatives, linked to an arylpiperazine moiety, were prepared and their affinity to 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors was evaluated. The combination of structural elements (heterocyclic nucleus, alkyl chain and 4-substituted piperazine), known to play critical roles in affinity for serotoninergic receptors, and the proper selection of substituents led to compounds with high specificity and affinity towards serotoninergic receptors. In binding studies, several molecules showed high affinity in nanomolar and subnanomolar range at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors and moderate or no affinity for other relevant receptors (D1, D2, α1 and α2)...
September 18, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911850/activation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-pathway-by-olanzapine-augments-antidepressant-effects-of-venlafaxine-in-mice
#8
Jaya Thomas, Razia Khanam, Divya Vohora
Recent clinical studies report antipsychotics as a better option to augment the action of antidepressants in treatment resistant cases. However, the proper mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of antipsychotics is still not clear. Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) pathway is considered to be an important pathway in pro-inflammatory cytokine associated stress-induced depression. The present study investigated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine, olanzapine and their combinations in chronic forced-swim stress-induced depression in mice...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827965/ameliorative-effect-of-curcumin-on-olanzapine-induced-obesity-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Subramani Parasuraman, Khor Ming Zhen, Urmila Banik, Parayil Varghese Christapher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for experiments. The animals were divided into six groups, namely, normal control, olanzapine control, betahistine (10 mg/kg), and curcumin 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Except the normal control group, all other animals were administered with olanzapine 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally to induce obesity. The drugs were administered once daily, per oral for 28 days...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783033/musculoskeletal-and-nervous-systems-of-the-attachment-organ-in-three-species-of-diplectanum-monogenea-dactylogyroidea
#10
Anatoly A Petrov, Evgenija V Dmitrieva, Maryana P Popyuk, Pavel I Gerasev, Sergey A Petrov
The taxonomy of Diplectanum Diesing, 1858, a genus of monopisthocotylean monogeneans, remains unsettled and needs to be revised based on new morphological criteria. Recent studies in monopisthocotyleans have shown that the muscle arrangement in the posterior attachment organ (haptor) differs between congeneric species and can be used as an additional criterion in genus-level taxonomy. To explore the possibility of using the haptoral musculature and nervous system in the taxonomy of Diplectanum, we conducted a detailed confocal-microscopy study of three species of Diplectanum (D...
July 11, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738100/multiple-neurotoxic-effects-of-haloperidol-resulting-in-neuronal-death
#11
Henry A Nasrallah, Alexander T Chen
BACKGROUND: Several published studies have reported an association between antipsychotic medications, especially first-generation agents, and a decline in gray matter volume. This prompted us to review the possible neurotoxic mechanisms of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), especially haloperidol, which has been widely used over the past several decades. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted using the keywords haloperidol, antipsychotic, neurotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and neuroplasticity...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714603/variations-in-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-ssri-antidepressant-exposure
#12
REVIEW
Naama Rotem-Kohavi, Tim F Oberlander
Mood disorders and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants during pregnancy are common and both pose neurodevelopmental risks. This often makes the decision to treat prenatal depression with pharmacotherapy (i.e., antidepressants) challenging for clinicians and mothers. SSRIs block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) and given its developmental role, it is not inconceivable that early changes in 5HT signaling could have an impact on early brain development...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687902/decreased-brain-serotonin-turnover-rate-following-administration-of-sharbat-e-ahmed-shah-produces-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-effect-in-rats
#13
Muhammad Ahmed, Aisha Azmat
Sharbat-e-Ahmed Shah (SAS) has usually been used in Traditional Unani Medicine (TUM) for depression and insomnia but still not evaluated for its anti-depressant and Neuropharmacological activity. In the present study, a Human dose of SAS (0.6 ml/kg/d) was administered orally to the rats for 15 consecutive days. Antidepressant and anxiolytic were screened scientifically in rats by using Forced swim test and light and dark box test. At the end of study high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with electrochemical (EC) detector was used for the measurement of blood and brain tryptophan and brain serotonin levels...
July 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623605/cathepsin-c-aggravates-neuroinflammation-involved-in-disturbances-of-behaviour-and-neurochemistry-in-acute-and-chronic-stress-induced-murine-model-of-depression
#14
Yanli Zhang, Kai Fan, Yanna Liu, Gang Liu, Xiaohan Yang, Jianmei Ma
Major depression has been interpreted as an inflammatory disease characterized by cell-mediated immune activation, which is generally triggered by various stresses. Microglia has been thought to be the cellular link between inflammation and depression-like behavioural alterations. The expression of cathepsin C (Cat C), a lysosomal proteinase, is predominantly induced in microglia in neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the role of Cat C in pathophysiology of depression. In the present study, Cat C transgenic mice and wild type mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597098/maximized-complexity-in-miniaturized-brains-morphology-and-distribution-of-octopaminergic-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-parasitic-wasp-trichogramma-evanescens
#15
Emma van der Woude, Hans M Smid
The parasitic wasp, Trichogramma evanescens, is an extremely small insect, with a body length as small as 0.3 mm. To facilitate this miniaturization, their brains may have evolved to contain smaller neural components and/or reduced neural complexity than larger insects. Here, we study whether the size and number of neurons are reduced in the miniaturized brain of T. evanescens, focusing on neurons that express serotonin (5HT), octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA). We provide the first description of the distribution, projection patterns and number of 5HT-, OA- and DA-like immunoreactive cell bodies in T...
June 9, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581025/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-patterns-among-patients-diagnosed-with-cluster-headache-in-u-s-healthcare-claims-data
#16
Casey K Choong, Janet H Ford, Allen W Nyhuis, Shivang G Joshi, Rebecca L Robinson, Sheena K Aurora, James M Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To characterize demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns of patients with cluster headache (CH). BACKGROUND: CH is an uncommon trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia with limited evidence-based treatment options. Patients suffer from extremely painful unilateral headache attacks and autonomic symptoms with episodic and chronic cycles. DESIGN/METHODS: This retrospective analysis used insurance claims from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®) research databases from 2009 to 2014...
October 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546314/chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-associated-with-subregion-selective-serotonin-cell-death-in-the-dorsal-raphe
#17
Reka Natarajan, Laura Forrester, Nicolas L Chiaia, Bryan K Yamamoto
The current study examined the neurochemical mechanisms and neuroanatomical changes underlying coexisting behavioral effects associated with chronic-stress-induced alterations in serotonin (5HT) neurons. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to adult male rats produced depression-like changes with cognitive dysfunction and selective cell death in the interfascicular nucleus of the dorsal raphe (DRif), resulting in decreased 5HTergic innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Twenty-one days of CUS decreased basal plasma levels of corticosterone and produced a shorter latency to immobility and longer durations of immobility in the force-swim test that persisted for 1 month after CUS...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#18
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515375/modified-gas-chromatographic-method-to-determine-monoacylglycerol-and-diacylglycerol-contents-in-edible-fats-and-oils
#19
Chiemi Satou, Hirofumi Goto, Yuya Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi Saitou, Shoji Matsumoto, Ou Takahashi, Yosuke Miyazaki, Keiichi Ikuta, Yosuke Yajima
Monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are minor components of edible fats and oils, and they relate to the quality of these foods. The AOCS official method Cd 11b-91 has been used to determine MAG and DAG contents in fats and oils. There are, however, difficulties in the determination of MAG and DAG using this analytical procedure. Therefore, we improved this method by modifying the trimethylsilyl derivatization procedure and replacing the internal standard (IS) material. In our modified method, TMS-HT (mixture of hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane) was used for derivatization of MAG and DAG, which was followed by liquid-liquid extraction with water and n-hexane solution containing the IS, tricaprin...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499269/identification-of-novel-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-targeting-central-and-allosteric-binding-sites-a-virtual-screening-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-study
#20
Ismail Erol, Busecan Aksoydan, Isik Kantarcioglu, Ramin E Salmas, Serdar Durdagi
The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) transporter (SERT) is a member of neurotransmitter sodium symporter (NSS) family, which maintains neurotransmitter by reuptaking 5HT into synapses. Decrease in serotonin concentrations in synaptic clefts have been reported to cause psychological and neurological disorders. Therefore, inhibition of SERT is a potent strategy for the treatment of related diseases such as depression. In this study, approximately 260,000 small molecules from an available chemical database have been virtually screened both at central and allosteric binding sites of SERT to identify potent novel candidate SERT inhibitors...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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