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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088672/using-discrete-multi-physics-for-detailed-exploration-of-hydrodynamics-in-an-in-vitro-colon-system
#1
A Alexiadis, K Stamatopoulos, W Wen, H K Batchelor, S Bakalis, M Barigou, M J H Simmons
We developed a mathematical model that describes the motion of viscous fluids in the partially-filled colon caused by the periodic contractions of flexible walls (peristalsis). In-vitro data are used to validate the model. The model is then used to identify two fundamental mechanisms of mass transport: the surfing mode and the pouring mode. The first mechanism is faster, but only involves the surface of the liquid. The second mechanism causes deeper mixing, and appears to be the main transport mechanism. Based on the gained understanding, we propose a series of measures that can improve the reliability of in-vitro models...
January 9, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078762/competence-in-the-use-of-supraglottic-airways-by-australian-surf-lifesavers-for-cardiac-arrest-ventilation-in-a-manikin
#2
Lachlan Holbery-Morgan, Cara Angel, Michelle Murphy, James Carew, Finn Douglas, Robert Murphy, Natalie Hood, Andrew Rechtman, Christopher Scarff, Nicholas Simpson, Andrew Stewardson, Daniel Steinfort, Sam Radford, Ned Douglas, Douglas Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Lifesavers in Australia are taught to use pocket mask (PM) rescue breathing and bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation, despite evidence that first responders might struggle with these devices. Novices have successfully used the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Supreme and iGel devices previously, but there has been no previous comparison of the ability to train lifesavers to use the supraglottic airways compared to standard techniques for cardiac arrest ventilation. METHODS: The study is a prospective educational intervention whereby 113 lifesavers were trained to use the LMA and iGel supraglottic airways...
January 11, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073530/variation-in-the-abundance-of-pseudo-nitzschia-and-domoic-acid-with-surf-zone-type
#3
Alan L Shanks, Steven G Morgan, Jamie MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Raphael Kudela, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown, Atsushi Fujimura, Lisa Ziccarelli, Chris Griesemer
Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrodynamics. During two 30-day periods, we sampled Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid (pDA) in and offshore of a more dissipative surf zone at Sand City, California (2010) and sampled Pseudo-nitzschia in and out of reflective surf zones at a beach and rocky shores at Carmel River State Beach, California (2011)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026795/transfer-boosting-with-synthetic-instances-for-class-imbalanced-object-recognition
#4
Xuesong Zhang, Yan Zhuang, Wei Wang, Witold Pedrycz
A challenging problem in object recognition is to train a robust classifier with small and imbalanced data set. In such cases, the learned classifier tends to overfit the training data and has low prediction accuracy on the minority class. In this paper, we address the problem of class imbalanced object recognition by combining synthetic minorities over-sampling technique (SMOTE) and instance-based transfer boosting to rebalance the skewed class distribution. We present ways of generating synthetic instances under the learning framework of transfer Adaboost...
December 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012460/a-new-high-resolution-3-d-quantitative-method-for-identifying-bone-surface-modifications-with-implications-for-the-early-stone-age-archaeological-record
#5
Michael C Pante, Matthew V Muttart, Trevor L Keevil, Robert J Blumenschine, Jackson K Njau, Stephen R Merritt
Bone surface modifications have become important indicators of hominin behavior and ecology at prehistoric archaeological sites. However, the method by which we identify and interpret these marks remains largely unchanged despite decades of research, relying on qualitative criteria and lacking standardization between analysts. Recently, zooarchaeologists have begun using new technologies capable of capturing 3-D data from bone surface modifications to advance our knowledge of these informative traces. However, an important step in this research has been overlooked and after years of work, we lack both a universal and replicable protocol and an understanding of the precision of these techniques...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012408/corrigendum-to-a-water-soluble-and-biocompatible-polymeric-nanolabel-based-on-naphthalimide-grafted-poly-acrylic-acid-for-the-two-photon-fluorescence-imaging-of-living-cells-and-c-elegans-colloids-surf-b-biointerfaces-148-2016-293-298
#6
Shucai Liang, Yongmei Liu, Ting Fu, Fan Yang, Xiaohui Chen, Guoping Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991439/augmenting-atlas-based-liver-segmentation-for-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-by-incorporating-image-features-proximal-to-the-atlas-contours
#7
Dengwang Li, Li Liu, Jinhu Chen, Hongsheng Li, Yong Yin, Bulat Ibragimov, Lei Xing
Atlas-based segmentation utilizes a library of previously delineated contours of similar cases to facilitate automatic segmentation. The problem, however, remains challenging because of limited information carried by the contours in the library. In this studying, we developed a narrow-shell strategy to enhance the information of each contour in the library and to improve the accuracy of the exiting atlas-based approach. This study presented a new concept of atlas based segmentation method. Instead of using the complete volume of the target organs, only information along the organ contours from the atlas images was used for guiding segmentation of the new image...
January 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983896/how-often-people-google-for-vaccination-qualitative-and-quantitative-insights-from-a-systematic-search-of-the-web-based-activities-using-google-trends
#8
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Ilaria Barberis, Roberto Rosselli, Vincenza Gianfredi, Daniele Nucci, Massimo Moretti, Tania Salvatori, Gianfranco Martucci, Mariano Martini
Nowadays, more and more people surf the Internet seeking health-related information. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can represent an important opportunities in the field of Public Health and vaccinology. The aim of our current research was to investigate a) how often people search the Internet for vaccination-related information, b) if this search is spontaneous or induced by media, and c) which kind of information is in particular searched. We used Google Trends (GT) for monitoring the interest for preventable infections and related vaccines...
December 16, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956164/the-cost-effectiveness-of-radiofrequency-ablation-for-barrett-s-esophagus-with-low-grade-dysplasia-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-surf-trial
#9
K N Phoa, W D Rosmolen, B L A M Weusten, R Bisschops, E J Schoon, S Das, K Ragunath, G Fullarton, M DiPietro, N Ravi, J G P Tijssen, M G W Dijkgraaf, J J G H M Bergman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Surveillance versus RadioFrequency ablation (SURF)-trial randomized 136 patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) containing low-grade dysplasia (LGD), to receive radiofrequency ablation (ablation, n=68) or endoscopic surveillance (control, n=68). Ablation reduced the risk of neoplastic progression to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) by 25% over 3 years (1.5% for ablation vs 26.5% for control). We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis from a provider perspective alongside this trial...
December 9, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939395/do-microplastic-loads-reflect-the-population-demographics-along-the-southern-african-coastline
#10
Holly Astrid Nel, Jeffrey William Hean, Xavier Siwe Noundou, Pierre William Froneman
Plastic pollution is a major anthropogenic contaminant effecting the marine environment and is often associated with high human population densities and industrial activities. The microplastic (63 to 5000μm) burden of beach sediment and surf-zone water was investigated at selected sites along the entire length of the South African coastline. It was predicted that samples collected in areas of high population density, would contain a higher microplastic burden than those along coasts that demonstrate very low population densities...
December 6, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914718/surfing-amongst-oil-tankers-connecting-emerging-research-fields-to-the-current-international-landscape
#11
Bénédicte Charrier, Juliet C Coates, Ioanna Stavridou
The COST Action Phycomorph (FA1406) was initiated in 2015 from a handful of academic researchers, and now joins together 19 European countries and nine international partners. Phycomorph's goal is to coordinate and develop research on developmental biology in macroalgae. This is an ambitious project, as the related scientific community is small, the concepts are complex, and there is currently limited knowledge of these organisms and there are few technologies to study them. Here we report the first step in achieving this enterprise, the creation of the Phycomorph network...
January 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912000/green-wave-tracking-by-large-herbivores-an-experimental-approach
#12
Inger Maren Rivrud, Marco Heurich, Philipp Krupczynski, Jörg Müller, Atle Mysterud
The forage maturation hypothesis (FMH) states that herbivores should follow the onset of growth in spring to obtain access to forage of higher quality and quantity, the so-called "green wave surfing." Several studies have found correlative evidence in support of this by associating animal movement with plant phenology. However, experimental manipulation of vast natural systems determining causes of large herbivore movement is usually beyond reach. The unique management system involving winter enclosures for wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Germany facilitated an opportunity for an experimental approach...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905905/prevalence-and-co-occurrence-of-compulsive-buying-problematic-internet-and-mobile-phone-use-in-college-students-in-yantai-china-relevance-of-self-traits
#13
Zhaocai Jiang, Mingyan Shi
BACKGROUND: Until now, most research in the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) has been developed from samples in western developed countries, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence and co-morbidities of CB, problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) in college students in Yantai, China. Moreover, based on the lack of research focusing on differences between CB and addiction, we will explore whether CB and PIU/PMPU individuals are characterized by the same self-traits (i...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875948/prevalence-incidence-risk-and-protective-factors-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-the-elderly-in-shanghai
#14
Tao Wang, Shifu Xiao, Kewei Chen, Cece Yang, Shuhui Dong, Yan Cheng, Xia Li, Jinghua Wang, Minjie Zhu, Fuzhong Yang, Guanjun Li, Ning Su, Yuanyuan Liu, Jing Dai, Mingyuan Zhang
Amnestic MCI (aMCI) has notably increased in Shanghai, China. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence and incidence rates of aMCI and to determine the risk and protective factors for aMCI among persons ≥ 60 years-old in Shanghai communities. This 1-year longitudinal study, which surveyed a random sample of 1,302 individuals ≥ 60 years-old, collected baseline data about lifestyle through self-reports, and vascular and comorbid conditions from medical records and a physical examination. We also analyzed a subgroup of individuals ≥ 70 years-old...
November 21, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858457/surfing-the-high-energy-output-branch-of-nonlinear-energy-harvesters
#15
D Mallick, A Amann, S Roy
Hysteresis and multistability are fundamental phenomena of driven nonlinear oscillators, which, however, restrict many applications such as mechanical energy harvesting. We introduce an electrical control mechanism to switch from the low to the high energy output branch of a nonlinear energy harvester by exploiting the strong interplay between its electrical and mechanical degrees of freedom. This method improves the energy conversion efficiency over a wide bandwidth in a frequency-amplitude-varying environment using only a small energy budget...
November 4, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826665/respiratory-problems-associated-with-surfing-in-coastal-waters
#16
Chris O'Halloran, Mary W Silver, Maureen Lahiff, John Colford
A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results...
November 8, 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806014/a-performance-analysis-of-a-stand-up-paddle-board-marathon-race
#17
AProf Ben Schram, Prof Wayne Hing, AProf Mike Climstein, AProf James Furness
Stand up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity in which little scientific research exists. A review of the literature failed to identify a single article pertaining to the physiological demands of SUP competition. The purpose of this study was to conduct a performance analysis of a national level SUP marathon race. Ten elite SUP athletes (6 male, 4 female) were recruited from the Stand Up Paddle Surfing Association of Australia to have their race performance in the Australian Titles analyzed...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802929/safety-and-effectiveness-of-the-surfing-technique-to-cross-septal-collateral-channels-during-retrograde-chronic-total-occlusion-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#18
Rustem Dautov, Marina Urena, Can Manh Nguyen, Claire Gibrat, Stéphane Rinfret
AIMS: Septal surfing and distal tip injections are two techniques used for septal crossing in retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). We examined for the first time the safety and feasibility of the septal surfing technique. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 470 consecutive CTO PCIs performed between 01/2010 and 12/2015, 240 (51%) involved a retrograde attempt. In the septal crossing subgroup, we evaluated if the Werner collateral channel (CC) classification, CTO location, tortuosity, and number of large septal CCs influenced retrograde crossing success, time, perforation...
November 2, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787783/a-two-step-approach-for-longitudinal-registration-of-retinal-images
#19
Sajib Kumar Saha, Di Xiao, Shaun Frost, Yogesan Kanagasingam
This paper presents a novel two step approach for longitudinal (over time) registration of retinal images. Longitudinal registration is an important preliminary step to analyse longitudinal changes on the retina including disease progression. While potential overlap and minimal geometric distortion are likely in longitudinal images, identification of reliable features over time is a potential challenge for longitudinal registration. Relying on the widely accepted phenomenon that retinal vessels are more reliable over time, the proposed method aims to accurately match bifurcation and cross-over points between different timestamp images...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783485/transport-of-fecal-indicators-from-beach-sand-to-the-surf-zone-by-recirculating-seawater-laboratory-experiments-and-numerical-modeling
#20
Kendra I Brown, Alexandria B Boehm
Recirculating seawater is an important component of submarine groundwater discharge, yet its role in transporting microbial contaminants from beach sand to coastal water is unknown. This study investigated the extent to which recirculating seawater carries fecal indicators, Enterococcus and bird-associated Catellicoccus, through the beach subsurface. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were performed to characterize the transport of fecal indicators suspended in seawater through medium-grained beach sand under transient and saturated flow conditions...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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