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Sex differences, animals, depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932080/vitamin-c-impacts-anxiety-like-behavior-and-stress-induced-anorexia-relative-to-social-environment-in-smp30-gnl-knockout-mice
#1
Miwako Koizumi, Yoshitaka Kondo, Ayumi Isaka, Akihito Ishigami, Emiko Suzuki
The role of endogenous vitamin C (VC) in emotion and psychiatric measures has long been uncertain. We aimed to investigate how an individual's VC status impacts his or her mental health. Our hypothesis is that body VC levels modulate anxiety, anorexia, and depressive phenotypes under the influence of psychosocial rearing environments and sex. The VC status of senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice, which lack the ability to synthesize VC, were continuously shifted from adequate (VC+) to depleted (VC-) by providing a water with or without VC...
November 17, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917785/dipyrone-ameliorates-behavioural-changes-induced-by-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-gender-differences
#2
Olcay E Kiroğlu, Kübra E Demirkol, Fatih Berktaş, Arash A Yegani, Ayşegül Kirpik, Erkan Maytalman, Mahmut Ünverdi, Fazilet Aksu
PURPOSE: Antidepressant effects of analgesics have been investigate in both clinical and experimental studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the analgesic-antipyretic drug, dipyrone, also had antidepressant-like effects. METHODS: Depression-like effects were investigated in an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model in both male and female mice. Cage changes, light-dark cycle reversal, cage tilting, wet floor, empty cage, foreign material on the floor and predator sounds were used to induce light stress at different times for six weeks...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894930/sex-dependent-influence-of-chronic-mild-stress-cms-on-voluntary-alcohol-consumption-study-of-neurobiological-consequences
#3
Eva M Marco, Javier Antonio Ballesta, Carlos Irala, María-Donina Hernández, María Elisa Serrano, Virginia Mela, Meritxell López-Gallardo, María-Paz Viveros
Alcohol use disorder and depression are highly comorbid, and both conditions exhibit important sexual dimorphisms. Here, we aimed to investigate voluntary alcohol consumption after 6weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) in Wistar rats - employed as an animal model of depression. Male and female rats were investigated, and changes in several molecular markers were analysed in frontal cortex (FCx) and hippocampal formation (HF). CMS induced depressive-like responses in the forced swimming test - increased immobility time - in male and female animals, without affecting anhedonia (sucrose preference test) nor motor activity (holeboard); body weight gain and food intake were diminished only among CMS males...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870451/preclinical-sex-differences-in-depression-and-antidepressant-response-implications-for-clinical-research
#4
REVIEW
Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla
Women suffer from depression and anxiety disorders more often than men, and as a result they receive antidepressants to a greater extent. Sex differences in antidepressant response in humans have been modestly studied, and results have been controversial. At the same time, preclinical studies on animal models of depression and antidepressant response have provided insights with regard to sex differences that could be useful for the design and interpretation of future clinical trials. This Mini-Review discusses such sex-differentiated findings with regard to the presentation of depression, endophenotypes, and antidepressant response...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870419/sex-differences-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-and-functions
#5
REVIEW
Chi Bun Chan, Keqiang Ye
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family that plays a critical role in numerous neuronal activities. Recent studies have indicated that some functions or action mechanisms of BDNF vary in a sex-dependent manner. In particular, BDNF content in some brain parts and the tendency to develop BDNF deficiency-related diseases such as depression are greater in female animals. With the support of relevant studies, it has been suggested that sex hormones or steroids can modulate the activities of BDNF, which may account for its functional discrepancy in different sexes...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746208/analysis-of-inflammation-induced-depression-of-home-cage-wheel-running-in-rats-reveals-the-difference-between-opioid-antinociception-and-restoration-of-function
#6
Ram Kandasamy, Jonas J Calsbeek, Michael M Morgan
Opioids are effective at inhibiting responses to noxious stimuli in rodents, but have limited efficacy and many side effects in chronic pain patients. One reason for this disconnect is that nociception is typically assessed using withdrawal from noxious stimuli in animals, whereas chronic pain patients suffer from abnormal pain that disrupts normal activity. We hypothesized that assessment of home cage wheel running in rats would provide a much more clinically relevant method to assess opioid efficacy to restore normal behavior...
January 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742580/mechanical-allodynia-corresponds-to-oprm1-downregulation-within-the-descending-pain-network-of-male-and-female-rats-exposed-to-neonatal-immune-challenge
#7
Siyang Yan, Amanda C Kentner
Exposure to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sensitivity towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to mild inflammatory mediators during the neonatal period can induce similar pain responses in both adolescent and adult rats. Therefore, we sought to profile changes in the expression of several genes across brain areas involved in the active modulation of nociception and neuropathic pain using a well-recognized model of neonatal inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696737/highly-polygenic-architecture-of-antidepressant-treatment-response-comparative-analysis-of-ssri-and-nri-treatment-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#8
Karim Malki, Maria Grazia Tosto, Héctor Mouriño-Talín, Sabela Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Oliver Pain, Irfan Jumhaboy, Tina Liu, Panos Parpas, Stuart Newman, Artem Malykh, Lucia Carboni, Rudolf Uher, Peter McGuffin, Leonard C Schalkwyk, Kevin Bryson, Mark Herbster
Response to antidepressant (AD) treatment may be a more polygenic trait than previously hypothesized, with many genetic variants interacting in yet unclear ways. In this study we used methods that can automatically learn to detect patterns of statistical regularity from a sparsely distributed signal across hippocampal transcriptome measurements in a large-scale animal pharmacogenomic study to uncover genomic variations associated with AD. The study used four inbred mouse strains of both sexes, two drug treatments, and a control group (escitalopram, nortriptyline, and saline)...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567117/short-and-long-term-effects-of-stress-during-adolescence-on-emotionality-and-hpa-function-of-animals-exposed-to-alcohol-prenatally
#9
Charlis Raineki, Leanne Chew, Perry Mok, Linda Ellis, Joanne Weinberg
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with extremely high rates of psychopathologies, which may be mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation observed in exposed individuals. Of relevance, PAE carries an increased risk of exposure to stressful environments throughout life. Importantly, stressful experiences during adolescence increase vulnerability to psychopathologies. However, little is known about how adolescent stressful experiences in the context of PAE-induced HPA dysregulation may further alter the developmental trajectory and potentially contribute to the disproportionally high rate of psychopathologies observed in this population...
August 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375045/sex-differences-in-the-effects-of-social-defeat-on-brain-and-behavior-in-the-california-mouse-insights-from-a-monogamous-rodent
#10
Michael Q Steinman, Brian C Trainor
Women are nearly twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, yet the use of female animal models in studying the biological basis of depression lags behind that of males. The social defeat model uses social stress to generate depression-like symptoms in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms. In general, social defeat is difficult to apply in female rodents. However, male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) are territorial. This allows defeat to be studied in both sexes...
June 30, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343805/differential-effects-of-photoperiod-length-on-depression-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-female-and-male-diurnal-spiny-mice
#11
Miriam Ben-Hamo, Katy Tal, Rotem Paz-Cohen, Noga Kronfeld-Schor, Haim Einat
The relationships between biological rhythms and affective disorders are known but their underlying biology not clear. There is difficulty in studying circadian rhythms in humans and appropriate animal models are hard to identify or develop. Some studies show that diurnal rodents can be advantageous model animals for the study of interactions between biological rhythms and affective disorders but previous studies did not include females whereas in humans there are sex differences in affective disorders. The present study tested the effects of short photoperiods in both males and females of the diurnal golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus)...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312532/alterations-in-the-threshold-of-the-potassium-concentration-to-evoke-cortical-spreading-depression-during-the-natural-estrous-cycle-in-mice
#12
Taeko Ebine, Haruki Toriumi, Toshihiko Shimizu, Miyuki Unekawa, Tsubasa Takizawa, Yohei Kayama, Mamoru Shibata, Norihiro Suzuki
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. However, the relationship between serum sex hormones and susceptibility to the development of CSD in naturally estrous cycling female animals is largely unknown. The natural estrous cycle of mice consists of four stages, namely, proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. We measured the serum concentration of estradiol and progesterone in estrus and diestrus and compared the minimum potassium concentrations necessary to evoke CSD in each stage and in males...
June 13, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180166/sex-specific-effects-of-early-life-stress-on-social-interaction-and-prefrontal-cortex-dendritic-morphology-in-young-rats
#13
M R Farrell, F H Holland, R M Shansky, H C Brenhouse
Early life stress has been linked to depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in adolescence and adulthood. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in stress-related psychopathology, is a target for stress hormones, and mediates social behavior. The present study investigated sex differences in early-life stress effects on juvenile social interaction and adolescent mPFC dendritic morphology in rats using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm. Half of the rat pups of each sex were separated from their mother for 4h a day between postnatal days 2 and 21, while the other half remained with their mother in the animal facilities and were exposed to minimal handling...
September 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165125/sex-differences-in-the-serum-level-of-endogenous-ligands-for-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-the-elderly-population
#14
Miyuki Kobayashi, Nobuhiro Sugiyama, Daimei Sasayama, Hidehiko Sasamoto, Yoshimichi Miyashiro, Kunimasa Arima, Shinsuke Washizuka
Animal studies suggest that estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-agonists, but not ERα-agonists, are antidepressants. Several endogenous ligands for ERβ have been proposed, including 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol), Androstenediol (Δ5-diol), and 7α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (7α-OH-DHEA). The aim of this study was to determine the serum and salivary levels of natural ERβ ligands in men and women with and without past depressive episodes in the elderly population. DHEA (a precursor of 3βAdiol, Δ5-diol, and 7α-OH-DHEA), 17β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) were also measured...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901205/cognitive-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-translational-review-in-animal-models-of-the-disease
#15
REVIEW
Flavie Darcet, Alain M Gardier, Raphael Gaillard, Denis J David, Jean-Philippe Guilloux
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the well-defined depressive symptoms, patients suffering from MDD consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Among cognitive symptoms, impairments in attention, working memory, learning and memory or executive functions are often reported. However, available data about the heterogeneity of MDD patients and magnitude of cognitive symptoms through the different phases of MDD remain difficult to summarize...
2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898326/sex-and-age-specific-effects-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-during-the-periadolescent-period-in-the-rat-the-unique-susceptibility-of-the-prepubescent-animal
#16
Lindsay Silva, Rita Black, Michael Michaelides, Yasmin L Hurd, Diana Dow-Edwards
Adolescents who use marijuana are more likely to exhibit anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders, including psychotic-like symptoms. Additionally, the age at onset of use and the stress history of the individual can affect responses to cannabis. To examine the effect of early life experience on adolescent Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure, we exposed adolescent (postnatal day (P) 29-38) male and female rats, either shipped from a supplier or born in our vivarium, to once daily injections of 3mg/kg THC...
February 16, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26868968/sex-differences-in-the-outcome-of-juvenile-social-isolation-on-hpa-axis-function-in-rats
#17
M G Pisu, A Garau, G Boero, F Biggio, V Pibiri, R Dore, V Locci, E Paci, P Porcu, M Serra
Women are more likely than men to suffer from anxiety disorders and major depression. These disorders share hyperresponsiveness to stress as an etiological factor. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by chronic stress may account for the increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Social isolation is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. Here we investigated the sex difference in the effects of post-weaning social isolation on acute stress sensitivity and behavior in rats...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26781876/opposite-sex-contact-and-isolation-a-novel-depression-anxiety-model
#18
Liu Yang, Li-Jun Shi, Bei Tang, Qiu-Qin Han, Jin Yu, Gen-Cheng Wu, Yu-Qiu Zhang
To mimic human mood disorders, traditional chronic stresses and social defeat stress have been developed and widely applied. However, these active stresses do not mimic the emotional flaws induced by stresses, and their input levels vary greatly. Also, emotional stresses resulting from social unobtainability remain largely elusive due to the lack of useful animal models. In this study, we developed a mouse model named "opposite sex contact and isolation" (OSCI) and found that OSCI induced significant social avoidance, anhedonia, and anxiety...
February 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
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