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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#2
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776561/circulating-micrornas-as-emerging-cardiac-biomarkers-responsive-to-acute-exercise
#3
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Alberto Dávalos, Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, Laura Amado-Rodríguez, Susana Díaz-Coto, Cristina Tomás-Zapico, Ana Montero, Ángela García-González, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés, Maria Eugenia Heras, Araceli Boraita Pérez, Ángel E Díaz-Martínez, Natalia Úbeda, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are mediators of intercellular communication with great potential as cardiac biomarkers. The analysis of c-miRNAs in response to physiological stress, such as exercise, would provide valuable information for clinical practice and a deeper understanding of the molecular response to physical activity. Here, we analysed for the first time the acute exercise response of c-miRNAs reported as biomarkers of cardiac disease in a well-characterized cohort of healthy active adults...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776531/an-evaluation-of-a-college-campus-emergency-preparedness-intervention
#4
Christofer Skurka, Brian L Quick, Tobias Reynolds-Tylus, Todd Short, Ann L Bryan
INTRODUCTION: Given the range of emergencies that beset postsecondary institutions, university administrators must take a multimodal approach to prepare campus stakeholders for safety threats. One such strategy is emergency preparedness communication. METHODS: In the present investigation, we tested the efficacy of a professionally produced video that uses the federally endorsed slogan, Run-Hide-Fight(r). Undergraduate students participated in a quasi-experiment with a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest control group design...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776425/combined-application-of-latissimus-dorsi-myocutaneous-flap-and-iliac-bone-flap-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-osteomyelitis-of-the-lower-extremity
#5
Jihui Ju, Lei Li, Rong Zhou, Ruixing Hou
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (stage I) combined with iliac bone flap (stage II) in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity. METHODS: Clinical data of 18 patients undergoing latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in combination with iliac bone flap grafting were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 2 patients developed chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the femur, 4 were diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis of the tibial plateau, and 12 with chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the tibia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775800/insertion-and-presence-of-fine-wire-intramuscular-electrodes-to-the-lumbar-paraspinal-muscles-do-not-affect-muscle-performance-and-activation-during-high-exertion-spinal-extension-activities
#6
Szu-Ping Lee, Jo Armour Smith, Matthew Kimber, Kelsey Houk
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is commonly associated with paraspinal muscle dysfunctions. A method to study deep lumbar paraspinal (i.e. multifidus) muscle function and neuromuscular activation pattern is intramuscular electromyography (EMG). Previous studies have shown that the procedure does not significantly impact muscle function during activities involving low-level muscle contractions. However, it is currently unknown how muscular function and activation are affected during high-exertion contractions...
May 15, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775483/ldha-gene-is-associated-with-pigeon-survivability-during-racing-competitions
#7
Sherif Ramadan, Takeshi Miyake, Junichi Yamaura, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Pigeon racing is a popular sport worldwide. Pigeons are under continuous selection to improve speed, spatial orientation, and endurance during long flights. However, numerous genetic and non-genetic factors affect survivability and homing ability, making such traits difficult for breeders to control. Polymorphisms in the lactate dehydrogenase A gene (LDHA) likely affects pigeon racing and homing abilities, due to its role in physical and mental performance. Additionally, the adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 gene (ADCYAP1) has been associated with physiological and behavioral shifts that occur during avian migration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775379/decision-to-return-to-sport-participation-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-part-ii-self-reported-and-functional-performance-outcomes
#8
Jennifer L Werner, Julie P Burland, Carl G Mattacola, Jenny Toonstra, Robert A English, Jennifer S Howard
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is the most commonly used method for helping athletes regain function and return to preinjury activity levels after ACL injury. Outcomes after ACLR have suggested that athletes return to a level of function that would support a return to sport participation; however, in a recent meta-analysis, pooled return rates were only 55%. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is a result of functional impairments. OBJECTIVE:   To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs), dynamic balance, dynamic functional performance, strength, and muscular endurance in athletes who have returned to sport (RTS) and athletes who have not returned to sport (NRTS) after ACLR...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774612/elastic-fiber-supercapacitors-for-wearable-energy-storage
#9
REVIEW
Si Qin, Shayan Seyedin, Jizhen Zhang, Zhiyu Wang, Fangli Yang, Yuqing Liu, Jun Chen, Joselito M Razal
The development of wearable devices such as smart watches, intelligent garments, and wearable health-monitoring devices calls for suitable energy storage devices which have matching mechanical properties and can provide sufficient power for a reasonable duration. Stretchable fiber-based supercapacitors are emerging as a promising candidates for this purpose because they are lightweight, flexible, have high energy and power density, and the potential for easy integration into traditional textile processes. An important characteristic that is oftentimes ignored is stretchability-fiber supercapacitors should be able to accommodate large elongation during use, endure a range of bending motions, and then revert to its original form without compromising electrical and electrochemical performance...
May 17, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773412/athlete-s-heart-is-the-morganroth-hypothesis-obsolete
#10
Mark J Haykowsky, T Jake Samuel, Michael D Nelson, Andre La Gerche
In 1975, Morganroth and colleagues reported that the increased left ventricular (LV) mass in highly trained endurance athletes versus nonathletes was primarily due to increased end-diastolic volume while the increased LV mass in resistance trained athletes was solely due to an increased LV wall thickness. Based on the divergent remodelling patterns observed, Morganroth and colleagues hypothesised that the increased "volume" load during endurance exercise may be similar to that which occurs in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation while the "pressure" load associated with performing a Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) during resistance exercise may mimic the stress imposed on the heart by systemic hypertension or aortic stenosis...
May 1, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772483/the-influence-of-deployment-stress-and-life-stress-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-diagnosis-among-military-personnel
#11
Janeese A Brownlow, Gerard A Zitnik, Carmen P McLean, Philip R Gehrman
There is increasing recognition that traumatic stress encountered throughout life, including those prior to military service, can put individuals at increased risk for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of both traumatic stress encountered during deployment, and traumatic stress over one's lifetime on probable PTSD diagnosis. Probable PTSD diagnosis was compared between military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF; N = 21,499) and those who have recently enlisted (N = 55,814), using data obtained from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770993/direct-evidence-of-lithium-ion-migration-in-resistive-switching-of-lithium-cobalt-oxide-nanobatteries
#12
Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Marcelo J Rozenberg, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, François Jomard, John Giapintzakis, Cristian N Mihailescu, Evripides Kyriakides, Pavan Nukala, Thomas Maroutian, Guillaume Agnus, Philippe Lecoeur, Silvia Matzen, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, David Alamarguy, Brahim Dkhil, Pascal Chrétien, Olivier Schneegans
Lithium cobalt oxide nanobatteries offer exciting prospects in the field of nonvolatile memories and neuromorphic circuits. However, the precise underlying resistive switching (RS) mechanism remains a matter of debate in two-terminal cells. Herein, intriguing results, obtained by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) 3D imaging, clearly demonstrate that the RS mechanism corresponds to lithium migration toward the outside of the Lix CoO2 layer. These observations are very well correlated with the observed insulator-to-metal transition of the oxide...
May 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769820/multivariate-relationships-among-morphology-fitness-and-motor-coordination-in-prepubertal-girls
#13
Leonardo G O Luz, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, João P Duarte, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Aristides Machado-Rodrigues, André Seabra, Bruno C M Carmo, Roel Vaeyens, Renaat M Philippaerts, Sean P Cumming, Robert M Malina
Motor coordination and physical fitness are multidimensional concepts which cannot be reduced to a single variable. This study evaluated multivariate relationships among morphology, physical fitness and motor coordination in 74 pre-pubertal girls 8.0-8.9 years of age. Data included body dimensions, eight fitness items and four motor coordination tasks (KTK battery). Maturity status was estimated as percentage of predicted mature stature attained at the time of observation. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between multivariate domains...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769816/the-effect-of-two-different-concurrent-training-programs-on-strength-and-power-gains-in-highly-trained-individuals
#14
Henrik Petré, Pontus Löfving, Niklas Psilander
The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT) are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO2max ) or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO2max ), on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767544/the-aerobic-resistance-inspiratory-muscle-training-hypothesis-in-heart-failure
#15
Ioannis D Laoutaris
Evidence from large multicentre exercise intervention trials in heart failure patients, investigating both moderate continuous aerobic training and high intensity interval training, indicates that the 'crème de la crème' exercise programme for this population remains to be found. The 'aerobic/resistance/inspiratory (ARIS) muscle training hypothesis in heart failure' is introduced, suggesting that combined ARIS muscle training may result in maximal exercise pathophysiological and functional benefits in heart failure patients...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767228/whiplash-injury-results-in-sustained-impairments-of-cervical-muscle-function-a-one-year-prospective-controlled-study
#16
Søren Krogh, Helge Kasch
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal development of neck muscle function following whiplash injuries. DESIGN: A 1-year prospective, controlled observational study. SUBJECTS: A total of 141 individuals exposed to whiplash injury due to rear-end vehicle collisions and 40 age- and sex-matched controls with acute ankle distortion. METHODS: Neck muscle strength and endurance during cervical flexion and extension were measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after injury...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767189/covalent-layer-by-layer-films-chemistry-design-and-multidisciplinary-applications
#17
REVIEW
Qi An, Tao Huang, Feng Shi
Covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a powerful method used to construct functional ultrathin films that enables nanoscopic structural precision, componential diversity, and flexible design. Compared with conventional LbL films built using multiple noncovalent interactions, LbL films prepared using covalent crosslinking offer the following distinctive characteristics: (i) enhanced film endurance or rigidity; (ii) improved componential diversity when uncharged species or small molecules are stably built into the films by forming covalent bonds; and (iii) increased structural diversity when covalent crosslinking is employed in componential, spacial, or temporal (labile bonds) selective manners...
May 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765698/the-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-pakistan-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#18
Zaina Al Kanaani, Sarwat Mahmud, Silva P Kouyoumjian, Laith J Abu-Raddad
To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology in Pakistan and estimate the pooled mean HCV antibody prevalence in different risk populations, we systematically reviewed all available records of HCV incidence and/or prevalence from 1989 to 2016, as informed by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. This systematic review was reported following the PRISMA guidelines. Populations were classified into six categories based on the risk of exposure to HCV infection. Meta-analyses were performed using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models with inverse variance weighting...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765670/family-ties-the-multilevel-effects-of-households-and-kinship-on-the-networks-of-individuals
#19
Jeremy Koster
Among social mammals, humans uniquely organize themselves into communities of households that are centred around enduring, predominantly monogamous unions of men and women. As a consequence of this social organization, individuals maintain social relationships both within and across households, and potentially there is conflict among household members about which social ties to prioritize or de-emphasize. Extending the logic of structural balance theory, I predict that there will be considerable overlap in the social networks of individual household members, resulting in a pattern of group-level reciprocity...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765327/cardiovascular-adaptive-homeostasis-in-exercise
#20
Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive Homeostasis has been defined as, "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events." (Davies, 2016). I propose that one of the most significant examples of adaptive homeostasis may be the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to exercise training. In particular, endurance type training involves the generation of increased levels of free radicals such as ubisemiquinone, superoxide, nitric oxide, and other (non-radical) reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), in a repetitive manner, typically several times per week...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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