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Xing Chen, Detlef Wolf, Juliane Siebourg-Polster, Christian Czech, Ulrike Bonati, Dirk Fischer, Omar Khwaja, Martin Strahm
Progressive and irreversible muscle atrophy characterizes Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and other similar muscle disorder diseases. Objective assessment of muscle functions is an essential and important, although challenging, prerequisite for successful clinical trials. Current clinical rating scales restrain the movement abnormalities to certain predefined coarse-grained individual items. The Kinect 3-D sensor has emerged as a low-cost and portable motion sensing technology used to capture and track people's movement in many medical and research fields...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Axel Pressler, Leonie Förschner, Jana Hummel, Bernhard Haller, Jeffrey W Christle, Martin Halle
Background Increased exercise capacity favourably influences clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. In our SPORT:TAVI randomised pilot trial, eight weeks of endurance and resistance training (training group, TG) shortly after transcatheter aortic valve implantation resulted in significantly improved exercise capacity, muscular strength and quality of life compared to usual care (UC). However, the long-term clinical benefits of such an intervention are unknown. Design A randomised controlled trial...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
In Yae Cheong, So Yeon An, Won Chul Cha, Mi Yong Rha, Seung Tae Kim, Dong Kyung Chang, Ji Hye Hwang
BACKGROUND: The use of a mobile health care application, the delivery of health care or health care-related services through the use of portable devices, to manage functional loss, treatment-related toxicities, and impaired quality of life in cancer patients during chemotherapy through supervised self-management has been increasing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of comprehensive mobile health care using a tailored rehabilitation program for colorectal cancer patients undergoing active chemotherapy...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Michael R Deschenes, Shuhan Li, Matthew A Adan, Jane J Oh, Hailey C Ramsey
BACKGROUND: This project aimed to determine the adaptability of the neuromuscular system to the stimuli of exercise training, and aging. METHODS: Young adult, and aged male rats were randomly assigned to either exercise training, or sedentary control groups. Exercise training featured an 8 week program of treadmill running. At the end of the intervention period, neuromuscular function was quantified with ex vivo stimulation procedures on isolated soleus muscles...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Yanmao Wang, Yu Zhu, Shengdi Lu, Chengfang Hu, Wanrun Zhong, Yimin Chai
Osteoporosis is linked to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) as a major risk factor for fragility fractures. Recent studies indicated an association between BMD and abnormally elevated lipid levels in blood as common indicators for hyperlipidemia. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of paeoniflorin, a phytochemical compound with multiple pharmacological activities, against hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (HCHF). The special diet-fed rats were subjected to an 8-week treatment with either paeoniflorin (20 mg/kg, daily) or vehicle...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tae Beom Kim, Young Sup Shim, Sang Min Lee, Eun Suk Son, Jung Woo Shim, Sang Pyo Lee
Post-orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) is a very rare disease characterized by local allergic symptoms and transient flu-like illness that nearly always occur after masturbation, coitus, or spontaneous ejaculation and last for 2 to 7 days. In a previous case report, 2 patients with POIS received hyposensitization therapy composed of multiple subcutaneous injections of autologous semen that resulted in a gradual decrease of symptoms. However, this procedure requires patients to endure pain and discomfort during frequent subcutaneous injections and preceding masturbations to obtain the autologous semen used for therapy...
March 14, 2018: Sexual Medicine
Stephanie S Bauerfeind, Jesper G Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke, David Berger, E Dale Broder, Madeleine Geiger, Manuela Ferrari, Wolf U Blanckenhorn
Climatic conditions can be very heterogeneous even over small geographic scales, and are believed to be major determinants of the abundance and distribution of species and populations. Organisms are expected to evolve in response to the frequency and magnitude of local thermal extremes, resulting in local adaptation. Using replicate yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations from cold (northern Europe) and warm climates (southern Europe), we compared 1) responses to short-term heat and cold shocks in both sexes, 2) heat shock protein (Hsp70) expression in adults and eggs, and 3) female reproductive traits when facing short-term heat stress during egg maturation...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Chris Chin Wah Chen, Avigail T Erlich, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: Parkin is a ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. This process is termed mitophagy and can assist in mitochondrial quality control. Endurance training can produce adaptations in skeletal muscle toward a more oxidative phenotype, an outcome of enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. It remains unknown whether Parkin-mediated mitophagy is involved in training-induced increases in mitochondrial content and function. Our purpose was to determine a role for Parkin in maintaining mitochondrial turnover in muscle, and its requirement in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance exercise training...
March 17, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Mark Waldron, Francesca Knight, Jamie Tallent, Stephen Patterson, Owen Jeffries
This study investigated the effects of taurine on repeated sprint exercise, performed after fixed incremental ramp exercise to exhaustion at isokinetic high (90 r/min) or low (50 r/min) cadences. In a double-blind, repeated measures design, nine females completed an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion, followed by 2 min active recovery and 6 × 10 s sprints on a cycle ergometer, in one of four conditions: high cadence (90 r/min) + taurine (50 mg/kg body mass); high cadence + placebo (3 mg/kg body mass maltodextrin); low cadence (50 r/min) + taurine; low cadence + placebo...
March 17, 2018: Amino Acids
O O Ojuri, F O Ayodele, O E Oluwatuyi
Management of the ever-increasing generated solid waste had been a difficulty for state governments in Nigeria. The high costs connected to this waste management which had encumbered the state budget, ignorance or lack of understanding of resourceful waste management and insensitivity to environmental concerns may have led to partial neglect of this sector. This research paper is aimed at evaluating the rehabilitation potential and the risk level of Igbatoro dumpsite, an Ondo state-managed waste dumpsite which predominantly receives the waste of Akure and its environs...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
Rami O Tadros, Alex Sher, Martin Kang, Ageliki Vouyouka, Windsor Ting, Daniel Han, Michael Marin, Peter Faries
OBJECTIVE: The ideal treatment option for patients with complex aneurysm morphology remains highly debated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with active fixation on outcomes in patients with complex aneurysm morphology. METHODS: There were 340 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR using active fixation devices, 234 with active infrarenal fixation (AIF; Gore Excluder; W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) and 106 with active suprarenal fixation (ASF; 85 Medtronic Endurant [Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif] and 21 Cook Zenith [Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind])...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
K L Colman, M C L Janssen, K E Stull, R R van Rijn, R J Oostra, H H de Boer, A E van der Merwe
Sex estimation techniques are frequently applied in forensic anthropological analyses of unidentified human skeletal remains. While morphological sex estimation methods are able to endure population differences, the classification accuracy of metric sex estimation methods are population-specific. No metric sex estimation method currently exists for the Dutch population. The purpose of this study is to create Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae by means of osteometric analyses of the proximal femur...
December 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
Laura Miller, Gerardo J Pacheco, Jud C Janak, Rose C Grimm, Nicole A Dierschke, Janice Baker, Jean A Orman
Background: Military working dogs (MWDs) are a major asset in the theater of operations. Their unique abilities make them ideal for tasks such as tracking, patrol, and scent detection. MWDs deployed to a war zone are exposed to harsh environments and battlefield dangers that increase their risk of disease, injuries, and death. Although canines have been used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), no published studies have reported detailed causes of death among MWDs deployed to these conflicts...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Yun Bai, Chuan Liu, Lei Fu, Xiaoshan Gong, Ce Dou, Zhen Cao, Hongyu Quan, Jianmei Li, Fei Kang, Jingjin Dai, Chunrong Zhao, Shiwu Dong
Endochondral ossification is crucial for bone formation in both adult bone repair process and embryo long-bone development. In endochondral ossification, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) first differentiate to chondrocyte, BMSC-derived chondrocyte then endure a hypertrophic process to generate new bone. Endochondral ossification-based bone repair is a promising strategy to cure massive bone defect, which is a major clinical issue in orthopedics. However, challenges still remain for this novel strategy...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jules Gellaerts, Evgeny Bogdanov, Farzin Dadashi, Benoit Mariani
Ski Mountaineering (SkiMo) is a fast growing sport requiring both endurance and technical skills. It involves different types of locomotion with and without the skis. The aim of this study is to develop and validate in the snowfield a novel inertial-based system for analysing cycle parameters and classifying movement in SkiMo in real-time. The study was divided into two parts, one focused on real-time parameters estimation (cadence, distance from strides, stride duration, stride length, number of strides, slope gradient, and power) and, second, on transition detection (kickturns, skin on, skin off, ski on and off backpack) in order to classify between the different types of locomotion...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Tory P Johnson, Avindra Nath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immune system serves a critical role in protecting the host against various pathogens. However, under circumstances, once triggered by the infectious process, it may be detrimental to the host. This may be as a result of nonspecific immune activation or due to a targeted immune response to a specific host antigen. In this opinion piece, we discuss the underlying mechanisms that lead to such an inflammatory or autoimmune syndrome affecting the nervous system. We examine these hypotheses in the context of recent emerging infections to provide mechanistic insight into the clinical manifestations and rationale for immunomodulatory therapy...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Mark Waldron, Stephen David Patterson, Jamie Tallent, Owen Jeffries
BACKGROUND: Taurine is central to many physiological processes, some of which are augmented by exogenous supply and have the potential to facilitate endurance performance; however, its independent effects on performance have not been systematically analysed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of isolated oral taurine ingestion on endurance performance and to assess the contribution of (1) the dose and (2) the supplementation period to the ergogenic effect. METHODS: A search was performed using various databases in September 2017...
March 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
Amelia Swanson, Jessica Geller, Kelly DeMartini, Anne Fernandez, Dwain Fehon
Without a transplant, end-stage liver disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant candidates endure physical and psychological stress while awaiting surgery, yet little is known about the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience during the wait-list period. This study examined predictors of psychological resilience and mediators of the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience in liver transplant candidates. Wait-listed candidates (N = 120) from a single Northeast transplant center completed assessments of physical functioning, coping, perceived social support, and resilience...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Mariya E Skube, Quinn Mallery, Elizabeth Lusczek, Joel Elterman, Mary A Spott, Greg J Beilman
Introduction: Although there are multiple studies regarding the management and outcomes of colonic injuries incurred in combat, the literature is limited with regard to small bowel injuries. This study seeks to provide the largest reported review of the characteristics of combat-associated small bowel injuries. Materials and Methods: The Department of Defense Trauma Registry was queried for U.S. Armed Forces members who sustained hollow viscus injuries in the years 2007-2012 during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
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