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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783976/possible-multiple-system-atrophy-with-predominant-parkinsonism-in-a-patient-with-chronic-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#1
Hiroshi Komatsu, Masaaki Kato, Teiko Kinpara, Takashi Ono, Yoshihisa Kakuto
BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset, rare, and progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a varying combination of autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism. MSA is categorized as MSA-P with predominant parkinsonism, and as MSA-C with predominant cerebellar features. The prevalence of MSA has been reported to be between 1.86 and 4.9 cases per 100,000 individuals. In contrast, approximately 1% of the population is affected by schizophrenia during their lifetime; therefore, MSA-P comorbidity is very rare in schizophrenic patients...
May 21, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776316/a-systematic-review-and-combined-analysis-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-studies-for-oral-paliperidone
#2
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Edoardo Spina, Christoph Hiemke, Jose de Leon
This article includes a combined analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies and a review of the marketer's data on pharmacological mechanisms. Areas covered: An article search led to the inclusion of 21 paliperidone studies in the systematic review plus 2 case reports. Paliperidone clearance was calculated from: 1) steady-state studies using concentration/dose (C/D) ratios, and 2) single-dose studies describing 24-hour area under the curve calculations. The marketed extended-release formulation has 28% bioavailability...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775565/a-role-of-neuropeptide-cart-in-hyperphagia-and-weight-gain-induced-by-olanzapine-treatment-in-rats
#3
Kartik T Nakhate, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although olanzapine is highly efficacious and most widely used second generation antipsychotic drug, the success of treatment has been hampered by its propensity to induce weight gain. While the underlying neuronal mechanisms are unclear, their elucidation may help to target alternative pathways regulating energy balance. The present study was undertaken to define the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), a well-known anorexic peptide, in olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and body weight gain in rats...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768038/use-and-characteristics-of-antipsychotic-methylphenidate-combination-therapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-a-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Oliver Scholle, Tobias Banaschewski, Dirk Enders, Edeltraut Garbe, Oliver Riedel
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have comorbidities that are potential indications for antipsychotics (APs). Some studies have suggested that the combined use of methylphenidate (MPH) and APs is increasing in this population group. Longitudinal analyses and in-depth investigations on the substance level are lacking. This study aimed to estimate the cumulative proportion of concomitant AP/MPH use in children and adolescents with ADHD over a follow-up of up to 9 years and to describe patient characteristics stratified by specific AP drug...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763637/neurosteroid-pregnenolone-sulfate-alone-and-as-augmentation-of-lurasidone-or-tandospirone-rescues-phencyclidine-induced-deficits-in-cognitive-function-and-social-interaction
#5
L Rajagopal, D Soni, H Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), an endogenous neurosteroid, which negatively and positively modulates gamma amino butyric acid subunit A (GABAA ) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (R) respectively, among other potential neuroplastic changes on synaptic processes, has shown some beneficial effects on treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and negative symptoms. Lurasidone (Lur), an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD), and tandospirone (Tan), a 5-HT1A  R partial agonist, have also been reported to improve cognitive or negative symptoms, or both, in some schizophrenia patients...
May 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761577/polypharmacy-and-psychotropic-drug-loading-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-asian-countries-the-reap-ap4-study
#6
Shu-Yu Yang, Lian-Yu Chen, Eunice Najoan, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, Kittisak Viboonma, Ruzita Jamaluddin, Afzal Javed, Duong Thi Quynh Hoa, Hitoshi Iida, Kang Sim, Thiha Swe, Yan-Ling He, Yongchon Park, Helal Uddin Ahmed, Angelo De Alwis, Helen Fung-Kum Chiu, Norman Sartorius, Chay-Hoon Tan, Mian-Yoon Chong, Naotaka Shinfuku, Shih-Ku Lin
AIM: The aim of the present study was to survey the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and combined medication use across 15 Asian countries and areas in 2016. METHODS: By using the results from the fourth survey of Research on Asian Prescription Patterns on antipsychotics (REAP-AP4), the rates of polypharmacy and combined medication use in each country were analyzed. Daily medications prescribed for the treatment of inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, including antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antiparkinson agents, were collected...
May 14, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736018/evaluation-of-fronto-striatal-networks-during-cognitive-control-in-unmedicated-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-the-effect-of-antipsychotic-medication
#7
Elyse J Cadena, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Adrienne C Lahti
To understand the mechanism of cognitive control dysfunction in schizophrenia, it is critical to characterize brain function without the confounding effect of medication. It is also important to establish the extent to which antipsychotic medication restores brain function and whether those changes are related to psychosis improvement. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia, initially unmedicated and after a 6-week course of risperidone, and 20 healthy controls (HC) studied twice, 6 weeks apart, performed an fMRI task...
May 7, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735155/abnormal-trajectory-of-intracortical-myelination-in-schizophrenia-implicates-white-matter-in-disease-pathophysiology-and-the-therapeutic-mechanism-of-action-of-antipsychotics
#8
Todd A Tishler, George Bartzokis, Po H Lu, Erika P Raven, Mher Khanoyan, Chandra J Kirkpatrick, Meghan H Pyle, J Pablo Villablanca, Lori L Altshuler, Jim Mintz, Joseph Ventura, Laurie R Casaus, Kenneth L Subotnik, Keith H Nuechterlein, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Postmortem and imaging studies provide converging evidence that the frontal lobe myelination trajectory is dysregulated in schizophrenia (SZ) and suggest that early in treatment, antipsychotic medications increase intracortical myelin (ICM). We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ICM trajectory in SZ is dysregulated and altered by antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: We examined 93 subjects with SZ (64 men and 29 women) taking second-generation oral antipsychotics with medication exposures of 0-333 months in conjunction with 80 healthy control subjects (52 men and 28 women)...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712643/the-lesser-of-two-evils-a-qualitative-study-of-quetiapine-prescribing-by-family-physicians
#9
Martina Kelly, Tim Dornan, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Quetiapine is an antipsychotic that is widely prescribed off-label by family physicians despite evidence that safer alternatives exist. The aim of this research was to explore, in-depth, family physicians' reasons for this behaviour. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 15 urban family physicians in Alberta between October 2015 and April 2016. Participants were purposively selected based on sex, years of experience and practice type. Interviews explored participants' experiences prescribing quetiapine...
April 30, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710317/association-of-substance-use-disorders-with-conversion-from-schizotypal-disorder-to-schizophrenia
#10
Carsten Hjorthøj, Nikolai Albert, Merete Nordentoft
Importance: Understanding the role of substance use disorders in conversion from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia may provide physicians and psychiatrists with important tools for prevention or early detection of schizophrenia. Objective: To investigate whether substance use disorders, in particular cannabis use disorder, are associated with conversion to schizophrenia in individuals with schizotypal disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included a population-based sample of all individuals born in Denmark from January 1, 1981, through August 10, 2014, with an incident diagnosis of schizotypal disorder and without a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705022/comorbid-thyroid-disease-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-results-from-the-european-group-for-the-study-of-resistant-depression-gsrd
#11
Gernot Fugger, Markus Dold, Lucie Bartova, Alexander Kautzky, Daniel Souery, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti, Joseph Zohar, Stuart Montgomery, Richard Frey, Siegfried Kasper
This multicenter study of the European Group for the Study of Resistant Depression (GSRD) aimed to explore the association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid thyroid disease. A total number of 1410 patients` characteristics in terms of demographic and clinical information were compared between MDD subjects with and without concurrent thyroid disease using descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and binary logistic regression analyses. We determined a point prevalence rate for comorbid hypothyroidism of 13...
April 25, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702137/reduced-clearance-of-venlafaxine-in-a-combined-treatment-with-quetiapine
#12
Michael Paulzen, Georgios Schoretsanitis, Christoph Hiemke, Gerhard Gründer, Ekkehard Haen, Marc Augustin
Venlafaxine and the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine are often administered concomitantly. Both drugs share several metabolic hepatic pathways. However, pharmacokinetic interactions between venlafaxine and quetiapine have not been studied yet. A therapeutic drug monitoring database containing serum concentrations of venlafaxine (VEN) and its active metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODVEN) was analyzed. Two groups of patients were compared: venlafaxine monotherapy V0 (n = 153) and co-medication with quetiapine, VQUE (n = 71)...
April 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701957/a-novel-m1-pam-vu0486846-exerts-efficacy-in-cognition-models-without-displaying-agonist-activity-or-cholinergic-toxicity
#13
Jerri M Rook, Jeanette L Bertron, Hyekyung P Cho, Pedro M Garcia-Barrantes, Sean P Moran, James T Maksymetz, Kellie D Nance, Jonathan W Dickerson, Daniel H Remke, Sichen Chang, Joel Harp, Anna L Blobaum, Colleen M Niswender, Carrie K Jones, Shaun R Stauffer, P Jeffrey Conn, Craig W Lindsley
Selective activation of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M1, leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impairs cognitive function, induces behavioral convulsions, and results in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs)...
April 27, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701157/pharmacological-treatment-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#14
Kevin Hong, Vera Nezgovorova, Genoveva Uzunova, Danya Schlussel, Eric Hollander
Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy...
April 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697804/clozapine-and-long-term-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-lasting-1-1-12-5-years
#15
Jentien M Vermeulen, Geeske van Rooijen, Marita P J van de Kerkhof, Arjen L Sutterland, Christoph U Correll, Lieuwe de Haan
Introduction: Patients with schizophrenia have an elevated mortality risk compared to the general population, with cardiovascular-related deaths being the leading cause. The role of clozapine use in the long-term mortality risk is unclear. While clozapine treatment may increase the risk for cardiovascular mortality, it may have protective effects regarding suicidal behavior. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO and reviewed studies that used a long-term follow-up (ie, >52 weeks) and reported on mortality in adults diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who had received clozapine treatment...
April 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690558/abuse-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-context-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676942/pharmacotherapy-for-schizophrenia-in-postmenopausal-women
#17
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Mary V Seeman
Reduced estrogen levels at menopause mean a loss of the neuroprotection that is conferred, from puberty until menopause, on women with schizophrenia. The postmenopausal stage of schizophrenia requires therapeutic attention because women with this diagnosis almost invariably experience increased symptoms and increased side effects at this time. So far, few targeted therapies have been successfully developed. Areas covered: This non-systematic, narrative review is based on the relevant published literature indexed in PubMed...
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674240/the-impact-of-antipsychotics-as-a-risk-factor-for-thromboembolism
#18
REVIEW
Ewa A Ogłodek, Marek J Just, Anna D Grzesińska, Aleksander Araszkiewicz, Adam R Szromek
Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed toward developing cardiovascular disease. Although neuroleptics affect the cardiovascular system, it is also important to consider the consequences of the disease itself such as lower physical activity due to living on disability pension, inadequate nutrition, and/or nicotine addiction, being more common among patients with schizophrenia versus the general population. All these factors combined lead to an increased risk of death caused by cardiovascular conditions in schizophrenic patients...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670200/effectiveness-of-traditional-chinese-medicineas-as-an-adjunct-therapy-for-refractory-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Yan-Yan Wei, Wan-Fu Lin, Tian-Hong Zhang, Yun-Xiang Tang, Ji-Jun Wang, Mao-Feng Zhong
Although recent studies focused on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia have reported that it may be beneficial, there is still lack of convincing evidence and critical meta-analytic work regarding its effectiveness as an adjunctive therapy. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of TCM in combination with antipsychotics for refractory schizophrenia. Fourteen articles involving 1725 patients published as of December 2016 were included which compared antipsychotic therapies to either TCM alone, or TCM as an adjunctive therapy...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623634/a-review-of-clinical-and-economic-evaluations-applied-to-psychotropic-therapies-used-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-in-argentina
#20
REVIEW
Gisela Paula González, Nebel Silvana Moscoso, Fernando Pablo Lago
Schizophrenia is considered a serious mental disorder that affects over 21 million people worldwide, and is associated with disability that frequently affects the patient's educational and working performance. In Argentina, two of the most widely used antipsychotics in the treatment of this disorder are haloperidol and risperidone. Both are provided free to patients without health coverage in public healthcare facilities. In this paper we seek to review the clinical and economic benefits of prescribing psychotropic therapies based on haloperidol (a first-generation antipsychotic that is part of the butyrophenone group of drugs) versus risperidone [an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drug] in adult patients who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia...
October 23, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
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