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Antipsychotic combination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097730/exposure-to-reactive-intermediate-inducing-drugs-during-pregnancy-and-the-incident-use-of-psychotropic-medications-among-children
#1
Yen-Hao Tran, Henk Groen, Jorieke E H Bergman, Eelko Hak, Bob Wilffert
PURPOSE: Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate (RI)-inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children. METHODS: We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered exposed when they received a prescription of RI-inducing drugs. These drugs could be either used alone (RI+/FAA-) or combined with drugs exhibiting folic acid antagonism (FAA, RI+/FAA+)...
January 18, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094832/l%C3%A3-kemedelsriktlinjer-f%C3%A3-r-bipol%C3%A3-r-sjukdom-f%C3%A3-ljs-i-h%C3%A3-g-utstr%C3%A3-ckning
#2
Charlotte Persson, Mathias Kardell, Alina Karanti, Anniella Isgren, Kristina Annerbrink, Mikael Landen
Prescribed drug use for bipolar disorder type I and II in clinical practice Practice guidelines based on available evidence and clinical consensus are available for the treatment of bipolar disorder. We surveyed to which extent those guidelines are implemented in clinical practice in Sweden. We analysed pharmacological treatment in patients with bipolar disorder in 2015 using the national quality register for bipolar disorder (BipoläR). We compared bipolar disorder type I (BDI) with type bipolar disorder type II (BDII)...
January 10, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069917/dopamine-modulates-the-functional-organization-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#3
Thorsten Kahnt, Philippe N Tobler
: Neuromodulators such as dopamine can alter the intrinsic firing properties of neurons, and may thereby change the configuration of larger functional circuits. The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) receives dopaminergic input from midbrain nuclei, but the role of dopamine in the OFC is still unclear. Here we tested the idea that dopaminergic activity changes the pattern of connectivity between the OFC and the rest of the brain, and thereby reconfigures functional networks in the OFC...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065233/optimal-treatment-strategies-of-clozapine-for-refractory-schizophrenia
#4
Yuan-Yuan Li, Yun-Shu Zhang, Jian Wang, Ke-Qing Li, Hong-Ying Wang
Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy of clozapine combined with other antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and China Biology Medicine databases in both English and Chinese for randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomization controlled trials, and clinical controlled trials concerning the combinations of clozapine with other antipsychotic drugs for refractory schizophrenia. Quality assessment and data extraction were conducted with the Cochrane collaboration's RevMan 5...
December 20, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063918/simultaneous-in-vivo-receptor-occupancy-assays-for-serotonin-1a-2a-and-dopamine-2-receptors-with-the-use-of-non-radiolabelled-tracers-proposed-method-in-screening-antipsychotics
#5
Jagadeesh Babu Thentu, Ramakrishna Nirogi, Gopinadh Bhyrapuneni, Devender Reddy Ajjala, Raghupathi Reddy Aleti, Veera Raghava Choudary Palacharla
INTRODUCTION: Conventionally, receptor occupancy assays employ radiolabelled tracer.However, recent advances with non-radiolabelled tracers brought a revolution in target engagement assays.Non-radiolabelled tracer based receptor occupancy uses LC-MS/MS based quantification.It offers simultaneous quantification of more than one tracer; thus, provides the feasibility of evaluating multiple targets in a single animal.In the present study, we demonstrated simultaneous measurement of serotonin 1A, serotonin 2A, and dopamine 2 receptor occupancy using non-radiolabelled tracers in rats...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063386/attitudes-towards-and-rationale-for-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-among-psychiatrists-in-nigeria-characteristics-associated-with-high-reported-antipsychotic-polypharmacy
#6
B O James, J O Omoaregba, S O Raji, O E Imishue, K M Okonoda, Y I Nyamali, P A Famuyiwa, C U Correll
Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is commonplace despite lacking evidence of its effectiveness. We aimed to identify psychiatrists' rationale for and attitudes towards APP and to determine if attitudes influence antipsychotic polypharmacy prescription rates in a survey of a nationally representative sample of Nigerian psychiatrists (of which a majority were senior trainees: 74.2%). Prescriber characteristics, practices and attitudes were compared in 'high' (>30%) vs. 'low' (≤30%) antipsychotic polypharmacy prescribers and results were adjusted for multiple comparisons...
December 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062232/interactions-between-estradiol-and-haloperidol-on-perseveration-and-reversal-learning-in-amphetamine-sensitized-female-rats
#7
Anne Almey, Lauren Arena, Joshua Oliel, Nada Hafez, Cynthia Mancinelli, Lukas Henning, Aleks Tsanev, Wayne G Brake
There are sex differences associated with schizophrenia, as women exhibit later onset of the disorder, less severe symptomatology, and better response to antipsychotic medications. Estrogens are thought to play a role in these sex differences; estrogens facilitate the effects of antipsychotic medications to reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether estrogens protect against the cognitive symptoms of this disorder. Amphetamine sensitization is used to model some symptoms of schizophrenia in rats, including cognitive deficits like excessive perseveration and slower reversal learning...
January 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062203/semi-mechanistic-computer-simulation-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-with-a-model-of-a-humanized-cortico-striatal-thalamocortical-loop
#8
Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts, Hugo Geerts
Despite new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and clinical trials with highly selective drugs, no new therapeutic breakthroughs have been identified. We present a semi-mechanistic Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) computer model of a biophysically realistic cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical loop. The model incorporates the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia and CNS drug targets that modulate neuronal firing, based on preclinical data about their localization and coupling to voltage-gated ion channels...
January 3, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057524/involvement-of-presynaptic-5-ht1a-receptors-in-the-low-propensity-of-brexpiprazole-to-induce-extrapyramidal-side-effects-in-rats
#9
Cedric Mombereau, Jørn Arnt, Arne Mørk
Previous studies have shown that partial and full 5-HT1A receptor agonists reduce antipsychotic-induced catalepsy. Consequently, some antipsychotics combining balanced efficacy between dopamine (DA) D2 antagonism or partial agonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism have a low propensity to induce extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), as reflected by low cataleptogenic activity in rodents. In the present experiments, we attempted to explore the importance of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonistic properties of brexpiprazole and aripiprazole in the context of neurological side-effect liabilities...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055085/delirium-update-for-postacute-care-and-long-term-care-settings-a-narrative-review
#10
Martin M Forsberg
Advances have been made in our understanding of the neuropathogenesis, recognition, and strategies for reducing the incidence of delirium in acute-care settings. However, relatively little attention has been given to delirium in elderly patients in the postacute care (PAC) and long-term care (LTC) settings. The present article reviews the most relevant current research pertaining to this population. Hospital patients with delirium are often discharged to PAC settings. Delirium that develops in the LTC setting is often more insidious and subtle in presentation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054240/risk-of-adverse-outcomes-for-older-people-with-dementia-prescribed-antipsychotic-medication-a-population-based-e-cohort-study
#11
Michael Dennis, Laura Shine, Ann John, Amanda Marchant, Joanna McGregor, Ronan A Lyons, Sinead Brophy
INTRODUCTION: Over recent years there has been growing evidence of increased risk of mortality associated with antipsychotic use in older people with dementia. Although this concern combined with limited evidence of efficacy has informed guidelines restricting antipsychotic prescription in this population, the use of antipsycotics remains common. Many published studies only report short-term outcomes, are restricted to examining mortality and stroke risk or have other limitations. The aim of this study was to assess adverse outcomes associated with the use of antipsychotics in older people living with dementia in Wales (UK)...
January 4, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041541/-electroconvulsive-therapy-is-efficient-in-treating-cotard-s-syndrome
#12
Tatiana Mamaeva, Ditte Sigaard Christensen, Connie Thurøe Nielsen
Cotard's syndrome is a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by nihilistic delusions in which the patient is convinced that death has occurred or the internal organs have perished. The treatment of Cotard's syndrome requires monotherapy or combination therapy with antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood-stabilizing drugs or electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). We describe a woman with severe depression and Cotard's syndrome who responded well to ECT. This case is not only an example of a patient with Cotard's syndrome, but also an example of how quickly and severely a delirium can develop...
December 19, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035931/psychotropic-polypharmacy-in-patients-with%C3%A2-dementia-prevalence-and-predictors
#13
Ane Nørgaard, Christina Jensen-Dahm, Christiane Gasse, Elsebet Steno Hansen, Gunhild Waldemar
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics and other psychotropics are frequently used to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia, even though the evidence for effect is limited. Concerns have been raised about the safety of antipsychotics, but concomitant use of multiple psychotropic drug classes (psychotropic polypharmacy) may also pose a risk for patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with use of psychotropic polypharmacy in patients with dementia...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025106/effect-of-lysosomotropic-molecules-on-cellular-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Omer F Kuzu, Mesut Toprak, M Anwar Noory, Gavin P Robertson
Weak bases that readily penetrate through the lipid bilayer and accumulate inside the acidic organelles are known as lysosomotropic molecules. Many lysosomotropic compounds exhibit therapeutic activity and are commonly used as antidepressant, antipsychotic, antihistamine, or antimalarial agents. Interestingly, studies also have shown increased sensitivity of cancer cells to certain lysosomotropic agents and suggested their mechanism of action as a promising approach for selective destruction of cancer cells...
December 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008348/do-doctors-agree-on-doses-of-antipsychotic-medications
#15
Johan Schill, Hans Olsson
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the concordance in attitudes of psychiatrists towards the doses of antipsychotics given to stable outpatients with schizophrenia and to examine the psychiatrists' estimates of equally potent doses of haloperidol and olanzapine. METHODS: We asked all 22 doctors serving at the psychiatry department of Jönköping County Hospital if they considered the combined dose of antipsychotics for 20 individual patients to be 'low', 'medium' or 'high'...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004626/treating-mixed-mania-hypomania-a-review-and-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#16
Minoru Takeshima
The DSM-5 incorporates a broad concept of mixed states and captured ≥3 nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite polarity using a "with mixed features" specifier to be applied to manic/hypomanic and major depressive episodes. Pharmacotherapy of mixed states is challenging because of the necessity to treat both manic/hypomanic and depressive symptoms concurrently. High-potency antipsychotics used to treat manic symptoms and antidepressants can potentially deteriorate symptoms of the opposite polarity. This review aimed to provide a synthesis of the current evidence for pharmacotherapy of mixed states with an emphasis on mixed mania/hypomania...
December 22, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004621/augmentation-of-phenelzine-with-aripiprazole-and-quetiapine-in-a-treatment-resistant-patient-with-psychotic-unipolar-depression-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Jonathan M Meyer, Michael A Cummings, George Proctor
Irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressants have significant efficacy in treatment-resistant unipolar depression, but in some instances patients may not achieve remission. Among the adjunctive and augmentation strategies, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have approval for inadequate responders to antidepressant therapy, including aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, and quetiapine, with lurasidone and the olanzapine/fluoxetine combination indicated for bipolar depression. Clinicians may eschew SGA options in part due to the limited literature on SGA-MAOI combinations, with only one published case involving aripiprazole, and none for olanzapine, lurasidone, or brexpiprazole...
December 22, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998326/reward-related-neural-activity-and-structure-predict-future-substance-use-in-dysregulated-youth
#18
M A Bertocci, G Bebko, A Versace, S Iyengar, L Bonar, E E Forbes, J R C Almeida, S B Perlman, C Schirda, M J Travis, M K Gill, V A Diwadkar, J L Sunshine, S K Holland, R A Kowatch, B Birmaher, D A Axelson, T W Frazier, L E Arnold, M A Fristad, E A Youngstrom, S M Horwitz, R L Findling, M L Phillips
BACKGROUND: Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth. METHOD: LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study...
December 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996317/cardiac-arrest-with-clozapine-and-olanzapine-revealing-long-qt-syndrome
#19
Edward Woloszyn, Nishant Whig, Eileen Trigoboff, Jeffery J Grace
The authors describe a rare case of "concealed" congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) Type 3 in a patient with treatment resistant schizophrenia and no known personal or family history of cardiac disease. The patient in this Case Report had a hidden genetic condition revealed only following the essential administration of antipsychotics. As a result, this patient experienced an aborted cardiac arrest and a total of five episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) requiring cardioversion. Successful control of the VT occurred with an Automatic Internal Defibrillator (AID), judicious use of antipsychotic medications, and anti-arrhythmic medications...
December 20, 2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991542/adjunctive-treatment-of-brexpiprazole-with-fluoxetine-shows-a-rapid-antidepressant-effect-in-social-defeat-stress-model-role-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling
#20
Min Ma, Qian Ren, Chun Yang, Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Chao Dong, Yuta Ohgi, Takashi Futamura, Kenji Hashimoto
Addition of low doses of the atypical antipsychotic drug brexpiprazole with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) could promote antidepressant effect in patients with major depressive disorder although the precise mechanisms underlying the action of the combination are unknown. Combination of low dose of brexpiprazole (0.1 mg/kg) and SSRI fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) could promote a rapid antidepressant effect in social defeat stress model although brexpiprazole or fluoxetine alone did not show antidepressant effect...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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