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Depression subtypes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632809/acquired-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-occurring-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#1
Jill K Henley, Eric W Hossler
Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) is a rare condition occurring in patients with depressed cellular immunity, particularly individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Acquired EDV is less commonly reported in recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplantation. This condition typically manifests within 5 years of initial immunosuppression and can present as multiple hypopigmented to red, tinea versicolor-like macules or as multiple verrucous, flat-topped papules distributed over the trunk, arms, and legs...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630404/activation-of-d1r-pka-mtor-signaling-cascade-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-underlying-the-antidepressant-effects-of-l-spd
#2
Bing Zhang, Fei Guo, Yuqin Ma, Yingcai Song, Rong Lin, Fu-Yi Shen, Guo-Zhang Jin, Yang Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by diverse symptoms. Although several antidepressants can influence dopamine system in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but the role of D1R or D2R subtypes of dopamine receptor during anti-depression process is still vague in PFC region. To address this question, we investigate the antidepressant effect of levo-stepholidine (l-SPD), an antipsychotic medication with unique pharmacological profile of D1R agonism and D2R antagonism, and clarified its molecular mechanisms in the mPFC...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628769/complex-psychotropic-polypharmacy-in-bipolar-disorder-across-varying-mood-polarities-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-2712-inpatients
#3
Julia C Golden, John W Goethe, Stephen B Woolley
BACKGROUND: It is common for patients with bipolar disorder (BP) to receive multiple psychotropics, but few studies have assessed demographic and clinical features associated with risk for receiving complex psychotropic polypharmacy. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study examined 2712 inpatients with a DSM-IV clinical diagnosis of BP to assess associations between complex polypharmacy (defined as ≥4 psychotropics) and demographic and clinical features; associations with risk of rehospitalization were also examined...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625216/symptom-rating-scales-for-schizophrenia-and-other-primary-psychotic-disorders-in-icd-11
#4
J W Keeley, W Gaebel
The subtype system for categorising presentations of schizophrenia will be removed from International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision. In its place will be a system for rating six domains of psychotic disorder pathology: positive symptoms, negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, manic symptoms, psychomotor symptoms and cognitive symptoms. This paper outlines the rationale and description of the proposed symptom rating scale, including current controversies. In particular, the scale could adopt either a 4-point severity rating or a 2-point presence/absence rating...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#5
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615993/resveratrol-protects-against-icv-collagenase-induced-neurobehavioral-and-biochemical-deficits
#6
Navdeep Singh, Yashika Bansal, Ranjana Bhandari, Lovish Marwaha, Raghunath Singh, Kanwaljit Chopra, Anurag Kuhad
BACKGROUND: Indeed, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) account for only 15% of all strokes but it is one of the most devastating subtype of stroke associated with behavioral, cognitive and neurological deficits. The primary cause of neurological deficits in ICH is the hematoma growth, generation of free radicals, inflammatory cytokines and exhausting endogenous anti-oxidant machinery. It has been found that neuroinflammation following ICH leads to exaggeration of hallmarks of ICH. With this background, the study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) in intracerebroventricular (ICV) collagenase (COL) induced neurological deficits in rats...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615640/differential-depression-of-neuronal-network-activity-by-midazolam-and-its-main-metabolite-1-hydroxymidazolam-in-cultured-neocortical-slices
#7
Monika Balk, Harald Hentschke, Uwe Rudolph, Bernd Antkowiak, Berthold Drexler
The benzodiazepine midazolam is widely used in critical care medicine. Midazolam has a clinically active metabolite, 1-hydroxymidazolam. The contribution of 1-hydroxymidazolam to the effects of midazolam is controversial. The aim of the current study was to compare the actions of midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam on network activity of cortical neurons. Midazolam depressed neuronal activity at a low concentration of 5 nM. When midazolam concentration was increased, it depressed neuronal discharge rates in a biphasic manner...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612328/antidepressant-actions-of-ketamine-mediated-by-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-nitric-oxide-and-rheb
#8
REVIEW
Maged M Harraz, Solomon H Snyder
The weeks/months it takes for traditional antidepressants to act pose an obstacle in the management of depression. Ketamine's prompt and sustained antidepressant effects constitute a major advance. Multiple studies implicate glutamatergic signaling to protein synthesis machinery and synapse formation in ketamine's antidepressant effects. Here we review evidence linking ketamine to glutamate receptor subtypes and protein homeostasis. We describe a signaling cascade wherein nitric oxide drives the formation of a ternary protein complex comprised of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, seven in absentia homolog 1, and Ras homolog enriched in brain downstream of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor...
June 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610592/xenon-in-the-treatment-of-panic-disorder-an-open-label-study
#9
Alexander Dobrovolsky, Thomas E Ichim, Daqing Ma, Santosh Kesari, Vladimir Bogin
BACKGROUND: Current treatments of panic disorder (PD) are limited by adverse effects, poor efficacy, and need for chronic administration. The established safety profile of subanesthetic concentrations of xenon gas, which is known to act as a glutamate subtype NMDA receptor antagonist, coupled with preclinical studies demonstrating its effects in other anxiety related conditions, prompted us to evaluate its feasibility and efficacy in treatment of patients with PD. METHODS: An open-label clinical trial of xenon-oxygen mixture was conducted in 81 patients with PD; group 1 consisting of patients only with PD (N = 42); and group 2 patients with PD and other comorbidities (N = 39)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606495/personality-traits-in-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-and-psychogenic-movement-disorder-pmd-neuroticism-and-perfectionism
#10
Vindhya Ekanayake, Sarah Kranick, Kathrin LaFaver, Arshi Naz, Anne Frank Webb, W Curt LaFrance, Mark Hallett, Valerie Voon
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic movement disorder (PMD) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are two subtypes of conversion disorder (CD). In this case-control study, we asked whether these subtypes varied as a function of personality and history of childhood abuse. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with PMD from the Human Motor Control Section Clinic at the National Institutes of Health, 43 patients with PNES from the Rhode Island Hospital Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology Division, and 26 healthy volunteers (HC) received a battery of neurological, psychiatric and psychological assessments, including the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606490/illuminating-the-clinical-significance-of-alexithymia-subtypes-a-cluster-analysis-of-alexithymic-traits-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#11
J Kajanoja, N M Scheinin, L Karlsson, H Karlsson, M Karukivi
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a personality construct involving difficulties identifying and verbalizing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. There is preliminary evidence for alexithymia subtypes that may carry different risk profiles for psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to gain support for the existence of alexithymia subtypes and further characterize their clinical relevance. METHODS: To identify possible subtypes, a cluster analysis was conducted for individuals with high alexithymic traits (N=113)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604059/gender-effects-on-components-of-burden-and-depression-among-dementia-caregivers
#12
Sarah Pillemer, Jennifer Davis, Geoffrey Tremont
OBJECTIVE: Previous literature has examined burden and depression predominately as unitary constructs in relation to dementia caregiving. No studies thus far have examined gender differences in the specific components of burden and depression in dementia caregivers. The current study examined whether empirically validated dimensions of caregiver burden differed by gender for dementia caregivers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 211 dementia caregivers enrolled in a longitudinal intervention study...
June 12, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593691/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-psychotic-mania-and-psychotic-bipolar-depression-compared-to-non-psychotic-mania-and-non-psychotic-bipolar-depression
#13
Louise B Bjørklund, Henriette T Horsdal, Ole Mors, Christiane Gasse, Søren D Østergaard
OBJECTIVES: An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice...
June 8, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589967/in-vivo-fiber-photometry-reveals-signature-of-future-stress-susceptibility-in-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Jessie Muir, Zachary S Lorsch, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Erin S Calipari, Rosemary C Bagot
Recognizing why chronic stress causes only a subset of individuals to become depressed is critical to understanding depression on a basic level and, also to developing treatments that increase resilience. Stress-induced alterations in the activity of reward-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), are linked to the pathophysiology of depression. However, it has been difficult to determine if differences in stress susceptibility are pre-existing or merely an effect of chronic stress. The NAc consists largely of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), distinguished by their predominant expression of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587819/prodepressant-and-anxiogenic-like-effects-of-serotonin-selective-but-not-noradrenaline-selective-antidepressant-agents-in-mice-lacking-%C3%AE-2-containing-gabaa-receptors
#15
Rebecca S Benham, Nishani B Hewage, Raymond F Suckow, Elif Engin, Uwe Rudolph
Deficits in neuronal inhibition via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder and the therapeutic effects of current antidepressant treatments, however, the relevant GABAA-R subtype as defined by its alpha subunit is still unknown. We previously reported anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in alpha2+/- and alpha2-/- mice, respectively (Vollenweider, 2011). We sought to determine whether this phenotype could be reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment...
June 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581537/clinical-significance-of-psychotic-like-experiences-in-children-and-adolescents
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Remberk
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are subtle, subclinical hallucinations and delusions which are quite common in general population. In children and youth prevalence rate is probably age-dependent with higher rate in younger population. PLEs are suggested to be a form of extended psychosis phenotype. Similar demographic, genetic and environmental risk factors observed for PLEs and schizophrenia support this hypothesis. Other mental health problems associated with PLEs include depression, suicidality, low functioning and psychiatric comorbidity...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559998/a-novel-relationship-for-schizophrenia-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorder-part-5-a-hint-from-chromosome-5-high-density-association-screen
#17
Xing Chen, Feng Long, Bin Cai, Xiaohong Chen, Gang Chen
Familial clustering of schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) was systematically reported (Aukes, M. F. Genet Med 2012, 14, 338-341) and any two or even three of these disorders could co-exist in some families. In addition, evidence from symptomatology and psychopharmacology also imply that there are intrinsic connections between these three major disorders. A total of 56,569 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on chromosome 5 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558129/somatostatin-depresses-the-excitability-of-subicular-bursting-cells-roles-of-inward-rectifier-k-channels-kcnq-channels-and-epac
#18
Binqi Hu, Nicholas I Cilz, Saobo Lei
The hippocampus is a crucial component for cognitive and emotional processing. The subiculum provides much of the output for this structure but the modulation and function of this region is surprisingly under-studied. The neuromodulator somatostatin (SST) interacts with five subtypes of SST receptors (sst1 to sst5 ) and each of these SST receptor subtypes is coupled to Gi proteins resulting in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and decreased level of intracellular cAMP. SST modulates many physiological functions including cognition, emotion, autonomic responses and locomotion...
May 30, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555338/the-affective-and-somatic-side-of-depression-subtypes-of-depressive-symptoms-show-diametrically-opposed-associations-with-glycemic-control-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Dominic Ehrmann, Andreas Schmitt, André Reimer, Thomas Haak, Bernhard Kulzer, Norbert Hermanns
AIMS: While depression has been linked to serious adverse outcomes in diabetes, associations with glycemic control are not conclusive. Inconsistencies could be due to the complex symptomatology of depression. Aim of this study was to analyze the associations of depressive subtypes with glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale which comprises affective, somatic, and anhedonic symptoms...
May 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554154/admixture-analysis-of-age-of-onset-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#20
Didi Rhebergen, Idan M Aderka, Ira M van der Steenstraten, Anton J L M van Balkom, Patricia van Oppen, Max L Stek, Hannie C Comijs, Neeltje M Batelaan
Age of onset is a marker of clinically relevant subtypes in various medical and psychiatric disorders. Past research has also reported that age of onset in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is clinically significant; but, in research to date, arbitrary cut-off ages have been used. In the present study, admixture analysis was used to determine the best fitting model for age of onset distribution in GAD. Data were derived from 459 adults with a diagnosis of GAD who took part in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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