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Depression subtypes

Song Jung, Dayoung Lee, Seongjun Park, Hyun Ju Hong
OBJECTIVE: This study intended to classify subtypes of Korean adolescents with suicidal ideation based on mental health problems and to explore the relationship between such subtypes and individual-, school- and community-level factors. METHOD: Data from high school freshmen who participated in the 2013 school-based mental health screening test and data about school and community variables obtained from public sources were combined and analyzed. A multilevel latent profile analysis using mental health issues as class indicators that included several predictors was conducted...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Martinus P G Broen, A F G Leentjens, J T Hinkle, A J H Moonen, M L Kuijf, N M Fischer, K Perepezko, A Bakker, G M Pontone
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate marker profiles for proposed anxiety subtypes in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We used the persistent anxiety, episodic anxiety, and avoidance behavior subscales of the Parkinson Anxiety Scale as dependent variables in multivariable linear regression analyses using a cross-sectional data set of 311 patients with PD. Independent variables consisted of a range of demographic, psychiatric, and disease-specific markers...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
E M Veltman, F Lamers, H C Comijs, M L Stek, R C van der Mast, D Rhebergen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that inflammatory and cortisol dysregulation are underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the aetiology of major depressive disorder, particularly in younger adults. However, findings of biological disturbances in late-life depression have been divergent, probably due to the even greater heterogeneity of depression in older adults with aging processes influencing biological factors. Using empirically derived subtypes may enable the identification of biological disturbances underlying depression in older adults...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
P Singh, R Surana, S Soni, A Agnihotri, V Ahuja, G K Makharia, K Staller, B Kuo
BACKGROUND: Despite potential differences in patient perception of chronic constipation (CC) in geographically and culturally distinct regions, head-to-head studies comparing the clinical profile, constipation severity, impact on quality of life (QOL) and economic impact are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting with CC to tertiary care centers in the USA and India. Standardized instruments were used to assess constipation subtype, disease severity, disease-specific QOL, somatization, and psychiatric comorbidities...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Jian Wang, Yuanfang Li, Zhen Huang, Wenbing Wan, Yong Zhang, Changpeng Wang, Xiaoqin Cheng, Fang Ye, Kai Liu, Guoqiang Fei, Mengsu Zeng, Lirong Jin
BACKGROUND: Neuromelanin of the brainstem, which is considered a marker of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), can be detected by T1-weighted neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI). We aimed to investigate the NM-MRI features of de novo PD and to determine whether these features are associated with motor and non-motor symptoms in de novo PD patients. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with de novo PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2) and 28 healthy controls were recruited...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Simon Cervenka
The dopamine (DA) system is considered to be centrally involved in the pathophysiology of several major psychiatric disorders. Using positron emission tomography (PET), aberrations in dopamine D2/D3-receptors (D2-R) levels and uptake of the DA precursor FDOPA have been shown for schizophrenia, substance abuse and depression. Radioligands for the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R) have been available for more than three decades, however this receptor subtype has received much less attention in psychiatry research. Here, studies investigating D1-R in psychiatric patients in comparison to healthy control subjects are summarized...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Panos Zanos, Scott M Thompson, Ronald S Duman, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
Traditional pharmacological treatments for depression have a delayed therapeutic onset, ranging from several weeks to months, and there is a high percentage of individuals who never respond to treatment. In contrast, ketamine produces rapid-onset antidepressant, anti-suicidal, and anti-anhedonic actions following a single administration to patients with depression. Proposed mechanisms of the antidepressant action of ketamine include N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulation, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron disinhibition, and direct actions of its hydroxynorketamine (HNK) metabolites...
March 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
Jan Hoffmann, Andrew Charles
There is substantial evidence indicating a role for glutamate in migraine. Levels of glutamate are higher in the brain and possibly also in the peripheral circulation in migraine patients, particularly during attacks. Altered blood levels of kynurenines, endogenous modulators of glutamate receptors, have been reported in migraine patients. Population genetic studies implicate genes that are involved with glutamate signaling in migraine, and gene mutations responsible for familial hemiplegic migraine and other familial migraine syndromes may influence glutamate signaling...
March 5, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Jessica A Cooper, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Michael T Treadway
Anhedonia is a severe condition that describes a near-complete absence of enjoyment, motivation, and interest. A core feature of depression, clinical manifestations of anhedonia can include deficits in experiencing pleasure, approach-related motivated behavior, and learning how to match expectations to the environment. To date, the precise neurobiological mechanisms of anhedonia in major depression are still poorly understood. We have previously argued that contradictory findings and the inability to identify specific neurobiological substrates for anhedonic symptoms may result from sample heterogeneity, suboptimal methods of assessment, and the challenge of dissociating between different components of anhedonia...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Richard Musil, Florian Seemüller, Sebastian Meyer, Ilja Spellmann, Mazda Adli, Michael Bauer, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Peter Brieger, Gerd Laux, Wolfram Bender, Isabella Heuser, Robert Fisher, Wolfgang Gaebel, Rebecca Schennach, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Michael Riedel
Subtyping depression is important in order to further delineate biological causes of depressive syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and outcome characteristics of distinct subtypes of depression and to assess proportion and features of patients fulfilling criteria for more than one subtype. Melancholic, atypical and anxious subtypes of depression were assessed in a naturalistic sample of 833 inpatients using DSM-IV specifiers based on operationalized criteria. Baseline characteristics and outcome criteria at discharge were compared between distinct subtypes and their overlap...
March 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Alena Randáková, Vladimír Rudajev, Vladimír Doležal, John Boulos, Jan Jakubík
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop potent and long-acting antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 4-hexyloxy and 4-butyloxy derivatives of 1-[2-(4-oxidobenzoyloxy)ethyl]-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-ium were synthesized and tested for biological activity. Antagonists with long- residence time at receptors are therapeutic targets for the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric human diseases. Their long acting effects allow for reduced daily doses and adverse effects...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Brigitte Ramsauer, Sandra Achtergarde
BACKGROUND: Maternal postpartum psychoses pose a serious risk to the mother-infant interaction. It is unclear how different subtypes of postpartum psychosis, including acute and chronic, might differentially affect the mother-infant interaction. METHOD: A systematic search of electronic journal databases was performed. RESULTS: This systematic review yielded 17 studies with adequate overall study quality. They focused on child custody and involvement of social services as indirect indicators of the mother-infant interaction, observed mother-infant interactions as direct indicators, or potential transitional mechanisms, including memory processing, mind-mindedness, and affect recognition, that may partially explain the effects of psychotic disorders...
February 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Amber Hamilton, Philip M Boyce, Richard Bryant, Paul B Fitzgerald, Bill Lyndon, Roger Mulder, Greg Murray, Richard J Porter, Ajeet B Singh, Kristina Fritz
In December 2015, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists published a comprehensive set of mood disorder clinical practice guidelines for psychiatrists, psychologists and mental health professionals. This guideline summary, directed broadly at primary care physicians, is an abridged version that focuses on major depression. It emphasises the importance of shared decision making, tailoring personalised care to the individual, and delivering care in the context of a therapeutic relationship...
March 5, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Allison C Nugent, Elizabeth D Ballard, Todd D Gould, Lawrence T Park, Ruin Moaddel, Nancy E Brutsche, Carlos A Zarate
Ketamine's mechanism of action was assessed using gamma power from magnetoencephalography (MEG) as a proxy measure for homeostatic balance in 35 unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 25 healthy controls enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over trial of 0.5 mg/kg ketamine. MDD subjects showed significant improvements in depressive symptoms, and healthy control subjects exhibited modest but significant increases in depressive symptoms for up to 1 day after ketamine administration...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Tau Ming Liew, Junhong Yu, Rathi Mahendran, Tze-Pin Ng, Ee-Heok Kua, Lei Feng
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) have been shown to increase the risk of neurocognitive disorders (NCD), leading to the recently-published criteria of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) to identify pre-dementia using NPS alone. However, MBI drew concerns about over-diagnosing subclinical psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the specificity of NPS in predicting NCD may be improved by considering NPS together with various domains of cognitive deficits...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Suzanne C van Bronswijk, Lotte H J M Lemmens, Marcus J H Huibers, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk P M L Peeters
BACKGROUND: Anxious depression is an important subtype of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) defined by both syndromal (anxiety disorders) and dimensional (anxiety symptoms) criteria. A debated question is how anxiety affects MDD treatment. This study examined the impact of comorbid anxiety disorders and symptoms on the effectiveness of and dropout during Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for MDD. METHODS: Depressed individuals were randomized to CT (n = 76) or IPT (n = 75)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Simon M Rice, John L Oliffe, David Kealy, John S Ogrodniczuk
Assessment of men's externalizing symptoms has been theorized to assist in the identification of those at risk of suicide. A nationally representative sample of Canadian men (N = 1000; mean, 49.63 years) provided data on internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and history of recent suicide planning and attempt (previous 4 weeks). Latent profile analysis indicted three classification subtypes. Robust effects were observed regarding history of recent suicide planning and attempt. Men with a marked externalizing profile (12...
March 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jason D Edgerton, Matthew T Keough, Lance W Roberts
This study examines whether there are multiple joint trajectories of depression and problem gambling co-development in a sample of emerging adults. Data were from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (n = 679), which was collected in 4 waves across 5 years (age 18-20 at baseline). Parallel process latent class growth modeling was used to identified 5 joint trajectory classes: low decreasing gambling, low increasing depression (81%); low stable gambling, moderate decreasing depression (9%); low stable gambling, high decreasing depression (5%); low stable gambling, moderate stable depression (3%); moderate stable problem gambling, no depression (2%)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Réka Szakács
The link between creativity, as the highest expression form of human achievement, and bipolar disorder came into focus of scientific investigations and research. Accomplished writers, composers and visual artists show a substantially higher rate of affective disorders, prodominantly bipolar mood disorders, comparing to the general population. Then again, patients afflicted with bipolar II subtype (hypomania and depression), as well as persons presenting the mildest form of bipolar mood swings (cyclothymia) possess higher creative skills...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
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