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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931155/host-recognition-responses-of-western-family-chrysomelidae-corn-rootworm-larvae-to-rna-interference-and-bt-corn
#1
Sarah N Zukoff, Anthony L Zukoff
Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931092/the-genome-wide-associated-candidate-gene-znf804a-and-psychosis-proneness-evidence-of-sex-modulated-association
#2
Marta de Castro-Catala, Aurea Mora-Solano, Thomas R Kwapil, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Tamara Sheinbaum, Anna Racioppi, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Araceli Rosa
BACKGROUND: The Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) is a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia and the broader psychosis phenotype that emerged from genome-wide association studies. It is related to neurodevelopment and associated to severe symptoms of schizophrenia and alterations in brain structure, as well as positive schizotypal personality traits in non-clinical samples. Moreover, a female-specific association has been observed between ZNF804A and schizophrenia. AIM: The present study examined the association of two ZNF804A polymorphisms (rs1344706 and rs7597593) with the positive dimension of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in a sample of 808 non-clinical subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931081/female-reproductive-success-and-calf-survival-in-a-north-sea-coastal-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-population
#3
Kevin P Robinson, Texa M C Sim, Ross M Culloch, Thomas S Bean, Isabel Cordoba Aguilar, Sonja M Eisfeld, Miranda Filan, Gary N Haskins, Genevieve Williams, Graham J Pierce
Between-female variation in reproductive output provides a strong measure of individual fitness and a quantifiable measure of the health of a population which may be highly informative to management. In the present study, we examined reproductive traits in female bottlenose dolphins from the east coast of Scotland using longitudinal sightings data collected over twenty years. From a total of 102 females identified between 1997 and 2016, 74 mothers produced a collective total of 193 calves. Females gave birth from 6 to 13 years of age with a mean age of 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931074/genetic-and-phenotypic-effects-of-chromosome-segments-introgressed-from-gossypium-barbadense-into-gossypium-hirsutum
#4
Weiwu Song, Mi Wang, Wei Su, Quanwei Lu, Xianghui Xiao, Juan Cai, Zhen Zhang, Shaoqi Li, Pengtao Li, Juwu Gong, Wankui Gong, Haihong Shang, Aiying Liu, Junwen Li, Tingting Chen, Qun Ge, Yuzhen Shi, Youlu Yuan
MBI9915 is an introgression cotton line with excellent fiber quality. It was obtained by advanced backcrossing and continuous inbreeding from an interspecific cross between the upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivar CCRI36 as the recurrent parent and the sea island cotton (G. barbadense) cultivar Hai1, as the donor parent. To study the genetic effects of the introgressed chromosome segments in G. hirsutum, an F2 secondary segregating population of 1537 individuals was created by crossing MBI9915 and CCRI36, and an F2:3 population was created by randomly selecting 347 individuals from the F2 generation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931038/hostile-and-energetic-anger-is-predicted-by-low-agreeableness-and-high-energetic-arousal
#5
Marcin Zajenkowski
A hypothesis that anger is related to high energetic arousal (EA), but only at a low level of agreeableness was tested. In the first two studies, the association between trait anger, agreeableness, and EA was explored. In the next two studies, the interactions of agreeableness with constructs conceptually and empirically close to EA, in predicting anger were tested. Study 3 revealed that anger was predicted by a low level of agreeableness and a high level of positive affect. In study 4 task engagement (construct containing an energetic component) was included in the context of cognitive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930683/differential-mechanisms-for-shp2-binding-and-activation-are-exploited-by-geographically-distinct-helicobacter-pylori-caga-oncoproteins
#6
Takeru Hayashi, Miki Senda, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Hiroko Nishikawa, Chi Ben, Chao Tang, Lisa Nagase, Kaori Inoue, Toshiya Senda, Masanori Hatakeyama
Helicobacter pylori East Asian CagA is more closely associated with gastric cancer than Western CagA. Here we show that, upon tyrosine phosphorylation, the East Asian CagA-specific EPIYA-D segment binds to the N-SH2 domain of pro-oncogenic SHP2 phosphatase two orders of magnitude greater than Western CagA-specific EPIYA-C. This high-affinity binding is achieved via cryptic interaction between Phe at the +5 position from phosphotyrosine in EPIYA-D and a hollow on the N-SH2 phosphopeptide-binding floor. Also, duplication of EPIYA-C in Western CagA, which increases gastric cancer risk, enables divalent high-affinity binding with SHP2 via N-SH2 and C-SH2...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930668/aspects-of-sexual-precocity-and-morphometry-of-uterus-placenta-and-embryos-fetuses-in-piau-breed-and-commercial-line-gilts
#7
José Carlos Montes, Jurandy Mauro Penitente-Filho, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Breno Soares Camilo, Hugo Hideki Shiomi, Daniel Araújo Lima, Rogério Oliveira Pinho, Jhonata Vieira Tavares do Nascimento Pereira, Denise Silva Okano, Karine Assis Costa, José Domingos Guimarães
In view of the importance of the genetic material of local breeds in the swine industry and the lack of information about reproductive performance of Piau females, two experiments were conducted to evaluate puberty and sexual maturity as well as the morphometry of embryos/fetuses, placenta and uterus during the first 90 days of gestation in Piau breed and Commercial line gilts. In experiment I, 37 Piau and 25 commercial line gilts were used. From the 120 days of age, detection of estrus was performed using mature boars from the first to third estrus of each gilt...
September 12, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930579/using-comparative-genomics-to-decode-the-genetics-of-acaricide-resistance
#8
Janice P Van Zee, Catherine A Hill
The availability of genome assemblies and other genomic resources is facilitating investigations of complex genetic traits for several species of ticks. Understanding the genetics of acaricide resistance is a priority for tick and tick-borne disease control. The synaptic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (ACE) is recognized as the target of organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates, and mutations in ACE have been tied to resistance. Multiple studies support three ACE (ace) loci in R. microplus but the molecular basis of OP-resistance in this tick remains elusive...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930570/gut-microbiota-architects-of-small-intestinal-capillaries
#9
Avinash Khandagale, Christoph Reinhardt
The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930528/biotechnological-improvement-of-nutritional-and-therapeutic-value-of-cultivated-potato
#10
Deepak Singh Bagri, Devanshi Chandel Upadhyay, Subodh Kumar Jain, Chandrama Prakash Upadhyay
Genetic engineering is recognized as a powerful tool for altering the genetic characteristic of crop plants. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential in developing improved potato varieties with desired agronomic traits and has been utilized for improvement of several crop plants including potato to enhance essential amino acid, protein and lipids/carbohydrates contents as well to improve stress tolerance. The pathway engineering of amino acid revealed dramatic changes in essential amino acid content and protein quality...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930428/ion-transport-in-confined-geometries-below-the-nanoscale-access-resistance-dominates-protein-channel-conductance-in-diluted-solutions
#11
Antonio Alcaraz, M Lidón López, María Queralt-Martín, Vicente M Aguilella
Synthetic nanopores and mesoscopic protein channels have common traits like the importance of electrostatic interactions between the permeating ions and the nanochannel. Ion transport at the nanoscale occurs under confinement conditions so that the usual assumptions made in microfluidics are challenged, among others, by interfacial effects such as access resistance (AR). Here we show that a sound interpretation of electrophysiological measurements in terms of channel ion selective properties requires the consideration of interfacial effects, up to the point that they dominate protein channel conductance in diluted solutions...
September 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930288/trans-oceanic-genomic-divergence-of-atlantic-cod-ecotypes-is-associated-with-large-inversions
#12
P R Berg, B Star, C Pampoulie, I R Bradbury, P Bentzen, J A Hutchings, S Jentoft, K S Jakobsen
Chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions can play a crucial role in maintaining polymorphism underlying complex traits and contribute to the process of speciation. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), inversions of several megabases have been identified that dominate genomic differentiation between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes in the Northeast Atlantic. Here, we show that the same genomic regions display elevated divergence and contribute to ecotype divergence in the Northwest Atlantic as well. The occurrence of these inversions on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean reveals a common evolutionary origin, predating the >100 000-year-old trans-Atlantic separation of Atlantic cod...
September 20, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930157/getting-more-power-from-your-flowers-multi-functional-flower-strips-enhance-pollinators-and-pest-control-agents-in-apple-orchards
#13
Alistair John Campbell, Andrew Wilby, Peter Sutton, Felix Wäckers
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i...
September 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929983/genetic-perspective-of-milk-yield-persistency-in-the-first-three-lactations-of-iranian-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#14
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Abdol Ahad Shadparvar
The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for different measures of persistency (PM) for milk yield in Iranian buffaloes using a random regression test day model. Test day records of the first three lactations of buffaloes within 715 herds comprising 43 014, 38 941 and 33 937 records, respectively, were obtained from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran during 1992 to 2012. Legendre polynomial functions were chosen to fit the lactation curves in the framework of a random regression test day model for estimating (co)variance components...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929975/trait-and-facet-level-predictors-of-first-onset-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-in-a-community-sample-of-adolescent-girls
#15
Brandon L Goldstein, Roman Kotov, Greg Perlman, David Watson, Daniel N Klein
BACKGROUND: Individual differences in neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness are associated with, and may predict onset of, internalizing disorders. These general traits can be parsed into facets, but there is a surprising paucity of research on facet risk for internalizing disorders. We examined general traits and facets of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness in predicting first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: A community sample of 550 adolescent females completed general and facet-level personality measures and diagnostic interviews...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929839/capturing-ecology-in-modeling-approaches-applied-to-environmental-risk-assessment-of-endocrine-active-chemicals-in-fish
#16
Kate S Mintram, A Ross Brown, Samuel K Maynard, Pernille Thorbek, Charles R Tyler
Endocrine active chemicals (EACs) are widespread in freshwater environments and both laboratory and field based studies have shown reproductive effects in fish at environmentally relevant exposures. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) seeks to protect wildlife populations and prospective assessments rely on extrapolation from individual-level effects established for laboratory fish species to populations of wild fish using arbitrary safety factors. Population susceptibility to chemical effects, however, depends on exposure risk, physiological susceptibility, and population resilience, each of which can differ widely between fish species...
September 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929788/the-familial-and-the-familiar-locating-relatedness-in-colombian-donor-conception
#17
Malissa Kay Shaw
In this article, I explore how women undergoing in-vitro fertilization with familial or anonymous egg donors located relatedness with a donor-conceived child through familial and social identities. Recognizing gametes as substances that contain biological and sociocultural/behavioral traits, shaped women's narratives around interconnected notions of the familial and familiar, or the social understanding of biological and social inheritance, and knowledge of the genetic materials involved. Women's narratives of relatedness reflect their relationships with family and society and their desire to reproduce these relationships in their child(ren), a process that reproduces prevailing Colombian social values and notions of ideal citizens...
September 20, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929649/-rationality-of-commodity-criteria-and-traditional-breeding-of-polygala-tenuifolia-based-on-agronomic-traits-and-determination-of-chemical-components
#18
Dan-Dan Wang, Lu Bai, Xiao-Shuang Xu, Fu-Sheng Zhang, Jie Xing, Jin-Ping Jia, Hong-Ling Tian, Xue-Mei Qin
The agronomic traits (plant height, root diameter, root length, first lateral root height, lateral root amount, root weight) of 18 Polygala tenuifolia samples with different agronomic traits were analyzed, respectively. HPLC was used to analyze three main characteristic components including tenuifolin, polygalaxanthone Ⅲ, and 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose. At last, the correlation between six agronomic traits and three main characteristic components were analyzed by scatter plot. We found no significant correlation between root diameter and three main characteristic components...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929574/metabolite-and-transcript-markers-for-the-prediction-of-potato-drought-tolerance
#19
Heike Sprenger, Alexander Erban, Sylvia Seddig, Katharina Rudack, Anja Thalhammer, Mai Q Le, Dirk Walther, Ellen Zuther, Karin I Köhl, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Current potato varieties are highly susceptible to drought stress. In view of global climate change, selection of cultivars with improved drought tolerance and high yield potential is of paramount importance. Drought tolerance breeding of potato is currently based on direct selection according to yield and phenotypic traits and requires multiple trials under drought conditions. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is cheaper, faster and reduces classification errors caused by non-controlled environmental effects...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929399/prioritisation-of-native-legume-species-for-further-evaluation-as-potential-forage-crops-in-water-limited-agricultural-systems-in-south-africa
#20
Francuois L Müller, Lincoln M Raitt, Samson B M Chimphango, M Igshaan Samuels, Clement F Cupido, J Stephen Boatwright, Richard Knight, Marike Trytsman
In the face of climate change, identification of forage species suitable for dryland farming under low rainfall conditions in South Africa is needed. Currently, there are only a limited number of forage species suitable for dryland farming under such conditions. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritise native legume species that could potentially be used in dryland farming systems in water-limited agro-ecosystems in South Africa. Using a combination of ecological niche modelling techniques, plant functional traits, and indigenous knowledge, 18 perennial herbaceous or stem-woody legume species were prioritised for further evaluation as potential fodder species within water-limited agricultural areas...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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