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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743059/altered-connectivity-within-and-between-the-default-mode-central-executive-and-salience-networks-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Jie Fan, Mingtian Zhong, Jun Gan, Wanting Liu, Chaoyang Niu, Haiyan Liao, Hongchun Zhang, Jinyao Yi, Raymond C K Chan, Changlian Tan, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN) and salience network (SN) are the three most important intrinsic networks of the human brain. Recent studies emphasized the importance of the "triple-network model" which illustrated the interactions within and between DMN, CEN and SN in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. However, previous studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) just explored the altered connectivity within these networks while neglected the coupling between them...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743038/physiological-vascular-and-nanomechanical-assessment-of-hybrid-poplar-leaf-traits-in-micropropagated-plants-and-plants-propagated-from-root-cuttings-a-contribution-to-breeding-programs
#2
Jaroslav Ďurkovič, Hana Husárová, Lucia Javoříková, Ingrid Čaňová, Miriama Šuleková, Monika Kardošová, Ivan Lukáčik, Miroslava Mamoňová, Rastislav Lagaňa
Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival...
July 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742938/sexes-in-gynodioecious-geranium-sylvaticum-do-not-differ-in-their-isotopic-signature-or-photosynthetic-capacity
#3
Sandra Varga, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
In gynodioecious plants, females are expected to produce more or better seeds than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained within the same population. Even though rarely measured, higher seed production can be achieved through differences in physiology. In this work, we measured sexual dimorphism in several physiological traits in the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductivity, transpiration rate, water use efficiency and isotopic signatures were measured in plants growing in two habitats differing in light availability...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742928/shotgun-mitogenomics-across-body-size-classes-in-a-local-assemblage-of-tropical-diptera-phylogeny-species-diversity-and-mitochondrial-abundance-spectrum
#4
Le Qin Choo, Alex Crampton-Platt, Alfried P Vogler
Mitochondrial genomes can be assembled readily from shotgun sequenced DNA mixtures of mass-trapped arthropods ('mitochondrial metagenomics'), speeding up the taxonomic characterization. Bulk sequencing was conducted on some 800 individuals of Diptera obtained by canopy-fogging of a single tree in Borneo dominated by small (<1.5 mm) individuals. Specimens were split into five body-size classes for DNA extraction, to equalize read numbers across specimens and to study how body size, a key ecological trait, interacts with species and phylogenetic diversity...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742868/combining-ability-of-highland-tropic-adapted-potato-for-tuber-yield-and-yield-components-under-drought
#5
Betaw Hirut, Hussein Shimelis, Mengistu Fentahun, Merideth Bonierbale, Manuel Gastelo, Asrat Asfaw
Recurrent drought and late blight disease are the major factors limiting potato productivity in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. Incorporating drought tolerance and late blight resistance in the same genotypes will enable the development of cultivars with high and stable yield potential under erratic rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to assess combining ability effects and gene action for tuber yield and traits related to drought tolerance in the International Potato Centre's (CIP's) advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population B group 'B3C2' and to identify promising parents and families for cultivar development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742865/a-novel-mitochondrial-genome-of-arborophila-and-new-insight-into-arborophila-evolutionary-history
#6
Chaochao Yan, Biqin Mou, Yang Meng, Feiyun Tu, Zhenxin Fan, Megan Price, Bisong Yue, Xiuyue Zhang
The lineage of the Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus) was investigated to determine the phylogenetic relationships within Arborophila as the species is centrally distributed within an area covered by the distributions of 22 South-east Asian hill partridge species. The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. brunneopectus was determined and compared with four other hill partridge species mitogenomes. NADH subunit genes are radical in hill partridge mitogenomes and contain the most potential positive selective sites around where variable sites are abundant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742846/endophytic-fungal-communities-of-polygonum-acuminatum-and-aeschynomene-fluminensis-are-influenced-by-soil-mercury-contamination
#7
William Pietro-Souza, Ivani Souza Mello, Suzana Junges Vendruscullo, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Cátia Nunes da Cunha, James Francis White, Marcos Antônio Soares
The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742585/genetics-of-endometriosis
#8
Kavitha Krishnamoorthy, Alan H Decherney
Endometriosis is a complex, puzzling disease in women of reproductive age. The exact cause of the disease is unknown; however, different genetic and environmental factors contribute to the evolution of the disorder. Further investigation has led to the discovery of inheritance as a complex genetic trait. Candidate genes were identified to isolate regions of genes that affect disease risk. Additional linkage studies have been performed to map specific genes along the entire genome. Recent advances to determine the genetic component of endometriosis include genome-wide association studies...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742485/a-new-morphological-trait-in-forensic-identification-middle-phalangeal-hair-mph
#9
Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Middle phalangeal hairs (MPH) are present on the dorsal aspect of the middle phalange of the fingers except for the thumb. The MPH have been of interest to anthropologists, human biologists, clinicians, geneticists and anatomists in the past as a morphological trait of the human body. The anthropological value of MPH is well established in studying population variations, with implications for age, ancestry and sex differences. We are of the opinion that MPH may be used significantly for forensic identification purposes along with other morphological characteristics of the human body...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742162/trajectories-of-anxiety-and-health-related-quality-of-life-during-pregnancy
#10
K Oliver Schubert, Tracy Air, Scott R Clark, Luke E Grzeskowiak, Edward Miller, Gustaaf A Dekker, Bernhard T Baune, Vicki L Clifton
Anxiety and health related Quality of Life (HRQoL) have emerged as important mental health measures in obstetric care. Few studies have systematically examined the longitudinal trajectories of anxiety and HRQoL in pregnancy. Using a linear growth modeling strategy, we analyzed the course of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)- and Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) scores between the 12th and the 36th week of gestation, in a sample of 355 women. We additionally analyzed the impact of depressive symptoms and a chronic medical condition (asthma), on STAI and SF-36 trajectory curves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742122/main-predictors-of-periphyton-species-richness-depend-on-adherence-strategy-and-cell-size
#11
Vanessa Majewski Algarte, Tadeu Siqueira, Victor Lemes Landeiro, Liliana Rodrigues, Claudia Costa Bonecker, Luzia Cleide Rodrigues, Natália Fernanda Santana, Sidinei Magela Thomaz, Luis Mauricio Bini
Periphytic algae are important components of aquatic ecosystems. However, the factors driving periphyton species richness variation remain largely unexplored. Here, we used data from a subtropical floodplain (Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil) to quantify the influence of environmental variables (total suspended matter, temperature, conductivity, nutrient concentrations, hydrology, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species richness, aquatic macrophyte species richness and zooplankton density) on overall periphytic algal species richness and on the richness of different algal groups defined by morphological traits (cell size and adherence strategy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742119/doestrare-a-statistical-test-to-identify-local-enrichments-in-rare-genomic-variants-associated-with-disease
#12
Elodie Persyn, Matilde Karakachoff, Solena Le Scouarnec, Camille Le Clézio, Dominique Campion, French Exome Consortium, Jean-Jacques Schott, Richard Redon, Lise Bellanger, Christian Dina
Next-generation sequencing technologies made it possible to assay the effect of rare variants on complex diseases. As an extension of the "common disease-common variant" paradigm, rare variant studies are necessary to get a more complete insight into the genetic architecture of human traits. Association studies of these rare variations show new challenges in terms of statistical analysis. Due to their low frequency, rare variants must be tested by groups. This approach is then hindered by the fact that an unknown proportion of the variants could be neutral...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742107/analyzing-the-locomotory-gaitprint-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-on-the-basis-of-empirical-mode-decomposition
#13
Li-Chun Lin, Han-Sheng Chuang
The locomotory gait analysis of the microswimmer, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a commonly adopted approach for strain recognition and examination of phenotypic defects. Gait is also a visible behavioral expression of worms under external stimuli. This study developed an adaptive data analysis method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to reveal the biological cues behind intricate motion. The method was used to classify the strains of worms according to their gaitprints (i.e., phenotypic traits of locomotion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742106/epidemiology-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-infections-and-associated-outcomes-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#14
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Richard L Guerrant, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Jessica C Seidman, Benjamin J J McCormick, Sudhir Babji, Dinesh Hariraju, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Jasmin Shrestha, Japhat Anania, Athanasia Maro, Amidou Samie, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Shahida Qureshi, Mustafa Mahfuz, Pascal O Bessong, Margaret N Kosek, Tahmeed Ahmed, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Eric R Houpt, Aldo A M Lima
BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) have been associated with mildly inflammatory diarrhea in outbreaks and in travelers and have been increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens in young children with and without overt diarrhea. We examined the risk factors for EAEC infections and their associations with environmental enteropathy biomarkers and growth outcomes over the first two years of life in eight low-resource settings of the MAL-ED study. METHODS: EAEC infections were detected by PCR gene probes for aatA and aaiC virulence traits in 27,094 non-diarrheal surveillance stools and 7,692 diarrheal stools from 2,092 children in the MAL-ED birth cohort...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742084/systematic-tissue-specific-functional-annotation-of-the-human-genome-highlights-immune-related-dna-elements-for-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Qiongshi Lu, Ryan L Powles, Sarah Abdallah, Derek Ou, Qian Wang, Yiming Hu, Yisi Lu, Wei Liu, Boyang Li, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Paul K Crane, Hongyu Zhao
Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742077/mediation-by-anxiety-of-the-relationship-between-amygdala-activity-during-emotion-processing-and-poor-quality-of-life-in-young-adults
#16
T Greenberg, M A Bertocci, H W Chase, R Stiffler, H A Aslam, S Graur, G Bebko, J C Lockovich, M L Phillips
Young adults often experience psychological distress and poor quality of life (QoL). Yet, there are no objective neural markers to accurately guide interventions to help improve these measures. We thus aimed to identify directional relationships between frontoamygdala emotional regulation circuitry activity during emotion processing, personality traits, and symptoms associated with psychological distress, and QoL. One hundred twenty 18-25-year olds, n=51 psychologically distressed and n=69 healthy individuals, completed a face emotion-processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, clinical and behavioral measures, and QoL assessment...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742075/are-individuals-with-higher-psychopathic-traits-better-learners-at-lying-behavioural-and-neural-evidence
#17
R Shao, T M C Lee
High psychopathy is characterized by untruthfulness and manipulativeness. However, existing evidence on higher propensity or capacity to lie among non-incarcerated high-psychopathic individuals is equivocal. Of particular importance, no research has investigated whether greater psychopathic tendency is associated with better 'trainability' of lying. An understanding of whether the neurobehavioral processes of lying are modifiable through practice offers significant theoretical and practical implications. By employing a longitudinal design involving university students with varying degrees of psychopathic traits, we successfully demonstrate that the performance speed of lying about face familiarity significantly improved following two sessions of practice, which occurred only among those with higher, but not lower, levels of psychopathic traits...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742023/genome-wide-identification-of-lineage-and-locus-specific-variation-associated-with-pneumococcal-carriage-duration
#18
John A Lees, Nicholas J Croucher, David Goldblatt, François Nosten, Julian Parkhill, Claudia Turner, Paul Turner, Stephen D Bentley
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of invasive disease in infants, especially in low-income settings. Asymptomatic carriage in the nasopharynx is a prerequisite for disease, but variability in its duration is currently only understood at the serotype level. Here we developed a model to calculate the duration of carriage episodes from longitudinal swab data, and combined these results with whole genome sequence data. We estimated that pneumococcal genomic variation accounted for 63% of the phenotype variation, whereas the host traits considered here (age and previous carriage) accounted for less than 5%...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741731/the-evolutionary-history-of-the-dmrt3-gait-keeper-haplotype
#19
E A Staiger, M S Almén, M Promerová, S Brooks, E G Cothran, F Imsland, K Jäderkvist Fegraeus, G Lindgren, H Mehrabani Yeganeh, S Mikko, J L Vega-Pla, T Tozaki, C J Rubin, L Andersson
A previous study revealed a strong association between the DMRT3:Ser301STOP mutation in horses and alternate gaits as well as performance in harness racing. Several follow-up studies have confirmed a high frequency of the mutation in gaited horse breeds and an effect on gait quality. The aim of this study was to determine when and where the mutation arose, to identify additional potential causal mutations and to determine the coalescence time for contemporary haplotypes carrying the stop mutation. We utilized sequences from 89 horses representing 26 breeds to identify 102 SNPs encompassing the DMRT3 gene that are in strong linkage disequilibrium with the stop mutation...
July 25, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741711/diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-multiple-sclerosis-at-different-final-outcomes
#20
O Andersen, A Hildeman, M Longfils, H Tedeholm, B Skoog, W Tian, J Zhong, S Ekholm, L Novakova, B Runmarker, O Nerman, S E Maier
OBJECTIVES: Methods to evaluate the relative contributions of demyelination vs axonal degeneration over the long-term course of MS are urgently needed. We used magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to estimate degrees of demyelination and axonal degeneration in the corpus callosum (CC) in cases of MS with different final outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined DTI measures mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivities in the CC of 31 MS patients, of whom 13 presented a secondary progressive course, 11 a non-progressive course, and seven a monophasic course...
July 25, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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