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Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Brooke N Wolford, Cristen J Willer, Ida Surakka
The combination of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) with genetic data has ushered in the next wave of complex disease genetics. Population-based biobanks and other large cohorts provide sufficient sample sizes to identify novel genetic associations across the hundreds to thousands of phenotypes gleaned from EHRs. In this review we summarize the current state of these EHR-linked biobanks, explore ongoing methods development in the field, and highlight recent discoveries of genetic associations. We enumerate the many existing biobanks with EHRs linked to genetic data, many of which are available to researchers via application and contain sample sizes > 50,000...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ashley A Yttredahl, Erin McRobert, Benjamin Sheler, Brian J Mickey, Tiffany M Love, Scott A Langenecker, Jon-Kar Zubieta, David T Hsu
INTRODUCTION: Responding adaptively to one's social environment is a key factor predicting the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). Socially rejecting events can exacerbate, whereas socially accepting events can ameliorate depressive symptoms. The neural responses to rejection and acceptance in MDD are relatively unexplored. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to romantic rejection and acceptance in women diagnosed with current MDD (n = 19) and a matched group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 19)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Noam Zilberman, Gal Yadid, Yaniv Efrati, Yehuda Neumark, Yuri Rassovsky
Substance-related and behavioral addictions are extremely prevalent and represent a major public health concern. In the ongoing attempt to understand the addictive personality, contradictory results have arisen from studies that have explored personality traits in different addiction populations. The diversity across addiction types suggests that some of these inconsistencies stem from distinct personalities underlying each addiction. The present study compares the personality profiles of several addictions, representing both substance (drugs and alcohol) and behavioral (gambling and sex) subtypes...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
James R Smith, Jaboury Ghazoul, David F R P Burslem, Akira Itoh, Eyen Khoo, Soon Leong Lee, Colin R Maycock, Satoshi Nanami, Kevin Kit Siong Ng, Chris J Kettle
Documenting the scale and intensity of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), and the processes that shape it, is relevant to the sustainable management of genetic resources in timber tree species, particularly where logging or fragmentation might disrupt gene flow. In this study we assessed patterns of FSGS in three species of Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea tomentella, Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia) across four different tropical rain forests in Malaysia using nuclear microsatellite markers. Topographic heterogeneity varied across the sites...
2018: PloS One
Yuval B Simons, Kevin Bullaughey, Richard R Hudson, Guy Sella
Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are revealing the genetic architecture of anthropomorphic and biomedical traits, i.e., the frequencies and effect sizes of variants that contribute to heritable variation in a trait. To interpret these findings, we need to understand how genetic architecture is shaped by basic population genetics processes-notably, by mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Because many quantitative traits are subject to stabilizing selection and because genetic variation that affects one trait often affects many others, we model the genetic architecture of a focal trait that arises under stabilizing selection in a multidimensional trait space...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Ayse Ozkaraman, Özlem Dügüm, Hülya Özen Yılmaz, Öznur Usta Yesilbalkan
BACKGROUND: A cancer diagnosis is a serious stressor that is associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, and inability to fulfill daily routines. Many pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options are available to help patients with cancer manage anxiety. OBJECTIVES: This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of lavender oil aromatherapy on anxiety and sleep quality in patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: 70 patients were randomly assigned to a lavender oil group, a tea tree oil group, and a control group with no oil...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Kay Lucek
The evolution of intrinsic barriers to gene flow is a crucial step in the process of speciation. Chromosomal changes caused by fusion and fission events are one such barrier and are common in several groups of Lepidoptera. However, it remains unclear if and how chromosomal changes have contributed to speciation in this group. I tested for a phylogenetic signal of varying chromosome numbers in Erebia butterflies by combining existing sequence data with karyological information. I also compared different models of trait evolution in order to infer the underlying evolutionary mechanisms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Shilpa B Gaikwad, Eric G Johnson, Todd C Nelson, Oluwaseun I Ambode, Abdulaziz A Albalwi, Ahmad A Alharbi, Noha S Daher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motion sensitivity is a common condition among the general population and may be accompanied by postural instability and anxiety. Preliminary studies suggest that minimal dosage of gaze stability exercises improves postural stability in young adults with chronic motion sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive gaze stability exercises on postural stability, motion sensitivity, and anxiety in healthy young adults with chronic motion sensitivity...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Cristina Martín-Sierra, Santiago Nogué-Xarau, Miguel Ángel Pinillos Echeverría, José Miguel Rey Pecharromán
Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Patricia K Kerig, Crosby A Modrowski
The increasing prevalence of girls in the juvenile justice system suggests the importance of examining whether models of adolescent offending are differentiated by gender. Polyvictimization has emerged as a robust predictor of youth justice involvement, especially for girls, and research exploring mechanisms underlying the link between polyvictimization and offending suggests further gender differences in that callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been implicated in samples of boys whereas borderline personality (BP) traits have been implicated amongst girls...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Mirjana Miskovic, Dragan Ravanic, Dragic Bankovic, Nera Zivlak-Radulovic, Visnja Banjac, Tatjana Dragisic
INTRODUCTION: Cloninger's psychological model of temperament and character confirms that the personality development is influenced by biological and psychological processes. The aim of this study is to examine personality dimensions and to determine which variable separates the healthy from the ill in the best way and could be a possible psychological marker for the presence of the illness. METHODS: This research included 152 subjects, 76 patients with schizophrenia and 76 healthy controls, selected on the basis of medical interviews, random population sampling model from a wider social community using the independent T-Tests...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Ivana Glavina Jelaš, Ivan Dević, Dalibor Karlović
BACKGROUND: the objective of this study was to examine the associations between Cloninger temperament and character dimensions with the DAT1 VNTR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 101 subjects, consisting of students of the Police College in Zagreb and staff of the Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital in Zagreb. The Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to test personality traits. RESULTS: A main effect of the DAT1 VNTR polymorphism was found on the subscale self-directedness - SD2 (F=5...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Naiding Yang, Jintao Lu, Jinfu Ye
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that individual job characteristics have a significant impact on job burnout, and the process is subject to the regulation of demographic variables. However, the influence path of job characteristics on job burnout is still a "black box". SUBJECTS AND METHODS: On the basis of a systematic literature review by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "Job burnout", "Emotion regulation", "Personality traits", and "Psychological stress", in this study, an improved mine rescue workers-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model was put forward...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Christian U Krägeloh, Oleg N Medvedev, Erin M Hill, Craig S Webster, Roger J Booth, Marcus A Henning
Measuring competitiveness is necessary to fully understand variables affecting student learning. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index has become a widely used measure to assess trait competitiveness. The current study reports on a Rasch analysis to investigate the psychometric properties of the Revised Competitiveness Index and to improve its precision for international comparisons. Students were recruited from medical studies at a university in New Zealand, undergraduate health sciences courses at another New Zealand university, and a psychology undergraduate class at a university in the United States...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Zoë W Hawks, Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Previous research has suggested that behavioral comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in autism. The present study aimed to trace the respective origins of autistic and general psychopathologic traits-and their association-to infancy. Measurements of autistic traits and early liability for general psychopathology were assessed in 314 twins at 18 months, ascertained from the general population using birth records. 222 twins were re-evaluated at 36 months. Standardized ratings of variation in social communication at 18 months were highly heritable and strongly predicted autistic trait scores at 36 months...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Arthur Bob Karnuah, Gregory Dunga, Arthur Wennah, Walter T Wiles, Edmond Greaves, Roland Varkpeh, Richard Osei-Amponsah, Paul Boettcher
Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources (AnGR) involves identification of distinct breed populations, describing their external and production characteristics in a given environment and management, and taking into account the social and economic factors that affect them. A survey involving 346 livestock farmers was conducted in the 15 counties of Liberia to collect data on production practices and phenotypic characteristics of beef cattle. A pre-tested structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were utilized in data collection...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shiguang Wang, Bingtian Ma, Qiang Gao, Guojing Jiang, Lei Zhou, Bin Tu, Peng Qin, Xueqin Tan, Peixiong Liu, Yunhai Kang, Yuping Wang, Weilan Chen, Chengzhi Liang, Shigui Li
Shuhui498 (R498) is an elite parent of heavy panicle hybrid rice by pyramiding the rare gn1a and null gs3 alleles. This finding reveals the genetic basis and great potential application in future breeding of R498. The heavy panicle trait, defined as 5 g or more of grain weight per panicle, is one of the target traits in super-high-yield rice breeding programs. The use of heavy panicle-type hybrid rice has been shown to be a successful strategy for super-high-yield breeding programs, particularly under the environmental conditions of high humidity and deficient solar radiation in southwestern China...
March 15, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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