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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782991/beneficial-and-paradoxical-roles-of-selenium-at-nutritional-levels-of-intake-in-healthspan-and-longevity
#1
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Wen-Hsing Cheng
Accumulation of genome and macromolecule damage is a hallmark of aging, age-associated degeneration, and genome instability syndromes. Although processes of aging are irreversible, they can be modulated by genome maintenance pathways and environmental factors such as diet. Selenium (Se) confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, but Se compounds and other proteins that incorporate Se nonspecifically also impact optimal health. Bruce Ames proposed that the aging process could be mitigated by a subset of low-hierarchy selenoproteins whose levels are preferentially reduced in response to Se deficiency...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782453/a-robust-approach-to-implementing-fascia-iliaca-compartment-nerve-blocks-in-hip-fracture-patients
#2
Mark G Williams, Zachary Jeffery, Henry W Corner, John Charity, Marina Quantick, Natalie Sartin
BACKGROUND: A clear imperative exists to optimize the preoperative pain management of hip fracture patients. Increasingly, fascia iliaca compartment blocks (FICBs) are being effectively utilized as an adjunct to oral analgesia in the emergency department. PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility, safety, and delivery rate when junior doctors and specialist nurses are trained in FICBs delivery, alongside the introduction of a step-by-step proforma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of hip fractures patients presenting preinterventions (n = 138) between October and December 2014 and postinterventions (n = 246) between April and August 2015...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781993/murine-salivary-functional-assessment-via-pilocarpine-stimulation-following-fractionated-radiation
#3
Jomy J Varghese, Isaac L Schmale, Mollie Eva Hansen, Shawn D Newlands, Danielle S W Benoit, Catherine E Ovitt
Hyposalivation is commonly observed in the autoimmune reaction of Sjögren's syndrome or following radiation injury to the major salivary glands. In these cases, questions remain regarding disease pathogenesis and effective interventions. An optimized technique that allows functional assessment of the salivary glands is invaluable for investigating exocrine gland biology, dysfunction, and therapeutics. Here, we present a step by step approach to performing pilocarpine stimulated saliva secretion, including tracheostomy and the dissection of the three major murine salivary glands...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781787/evaluating-the-duration-of-prophylactic-post-operative-antibiotic-agents-after-open-reduction-internal-fixation-for-closed-fractures
#4
Brett D Crist, Lasun O Oladeji, Gregory J Della Rocca, David A Volgas, James P Stannard, David D Greenberg
BACKGROUND: The importance of timely pre-operative antibiotic agents for effective surgical prophylaxis has been established but the optimal duration of antimicrobial coverage post-operatively has not yet been defined clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine if prophylactic post- operative cefazolin for 23 hours decreases the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of closed extremity fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After Institutional Reviews Board approval, patients undergoing ORIF of closed extremity fractures who had a planned post-operative stay of at least 23 hours were randomly assigned to either receive 23 hours of cefazolin or a placebo...
May 21, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781319/assessing-the-role-of-ranibizumab-in-improving-the-outcome-of-glaucoma-filtering-surgery-and-neovascular-glaucoma
#5
Andreas Katsanos, Kostantina Gorgoli, Dimitrios G Mikropoulos, Esther Arranz-Marquez, Georgios P Athanasopoulos, Miguel A Teus, Anastasios G P Konstas
Ranibizumab was the first anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent approved for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The use of ranibizumab and other anti-VEGF medications in recent years has revolutionized the treatment of several sight-threatening retinal disorders. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that anti-VEGF treatment can offer advantages in the management of other ocular conditions where VEGFs play a key role: ocular scarring following glaucoma filtering surgery and neovascular glaucoma (NVG)...
May 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781175/translational-safety-biomarkers-of-colonic-barrier-integrity-in-the-rat
#6
Tim Erkens, Ruud Bueters, Marjolein van Heerden, Filip Cuyckens, Rob Vreeken, Nick Goeminne, Lieve Lammens
The intestinal barrier controls intestinal permeability, and its disruption has been associated with multiple diseases. Therefore, preclinical safety biomarkers monitoring barrier integrity are essential during the development of drugs targeting the intestines, particularly if starting treatment early after onset of disease. Classical toxicology endpoints are not sensitive enough and therefore our objective was to identify non-invasive markers enabling early in vivo detection of colonic barrier perturbation...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781165/dose-rate-response-of-digital-megavolt-imager-detector-for-flattening-filter-free-beams
#7
Zhigang Xu, Jinkoo Kim, James Han, An Ting Hsia, Samuel Ryu
In this study we investigated the dose rate response characteristics of the Digital Megavolt Imager (DMI) detector, including panel saturation, linearity, and imager ghosting effects for flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. The DMI detector dose rate response characteristics were measured as a function of dose rate on a Varian TrueBeam machine. Images were acquired at dose rates ranging from 400 to 1400 MU/min for 6XFFF and 400 to 2400 MU/min for 10XFFF. Line profiles and central portal doses derived from the images were analyzed and compared...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781138/comparison-of-the-progressive-resolution-optimizer-and-photon-optimizer-in-vmat-optimization-for-stereotactic-treatments
#8
Han Liu, Benjamin Sintay, Keith Pearman, Qingyang Shang, Lane Hayes, Jacqueline Maurer, Caroline Vanderstraeten, David Wiant
The photon optimization (PO) algorithm was recently released by Varian Medical Systems to improve volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) optimization within Eclipse (Version 13.5). The purpose of this study is to compare the PO algorithm with its predecessor, progressive resolution optimizer (PRO) for lung SBRT and brain SRS treatments. A total of 30 patients were selected retrospectively. Previously, all the plans were generated with the PRO algorithm within Eclipse Version 13.6. In the new version of PO algorithm (Version 15), dynamic conformal arcs (DCA) were first conformed to the target, then VMAT inverse planning was performed to achieve the desired dose distributions...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780829/the-effect-of-c-arm-mobility-and-field-of-vision-on-radiation-exposure-in-the-treatment-of-proximal-femoral-fractures-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Mahmut Kalem, Kerem Başarır, Hakan Kocaoğlu, Ercan Şahin, Hakan Kınık
Objectives: To examine the effect of fluoroscopy devices with different sizes of image intensifier and C-arm maneuverability on operating time, fluoroscopy time, radiation dose and reduction, and fixation quality at intertrochanteric femoral fractures. Design: Single-center, randomized, prospective study. Setting: Academic Level I trauma hospital. Patients and Intervention: 34 patients treated with cephalomedullary nailing for a stable, intertrochanteric proximal femur fracture (OTA A1)...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780777/retrospective-study-of-combination-chemotherapy-with-etoposide-and-ifosfamide-in-patients-with-heavily-pretreated-recurrent-or-persistent-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#10
Wonkyo Shin, Hye-Joo Lee, Seong J Yang, E Sun Paik, Hyun-Jin Choi, Tae-Joong Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Jeong-Won Lee, Duk-Soo Bae, Byoung-Gie Kim
Objective: This retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy with etoposide and ifosfamide (ETI) in the management of pretreated recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Patients with recurrent or persistent EOC who had measurable disease and at least one chemotherapy regimen were to receive etoposide at a dose of 100 mg/m2 /day intravenous (IV) on days 1 to 3 in combination with ifosfamide 1 g/m2 /day IV on days 1 to 5, every 21 days...
May 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780631/screening-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-and-its-correlation-with-lung-nodule-detection
#11
REVIEW
Fangfei Qian, Wenjia Yang, Qunhui Chen, Xueyan Zhang, Baohui Han
Currently, the most effective way of reducing lung cancer mortality is early diagnosis of lung cancer. The National Lung Screening Trial has proved the efficacy of lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography to reduce lung cancer mortality. However, many questions remain surrounding lung cancer screening implementation, among which include how to select the optimal risk population, the personalized screening interval based different levels of risk, methods to improve diagnostic discrimination between malignant and benign disease in detected lung nodules, and the roles of biomolecular markers in stratifying risk and in guiding the management of indeterminate nodules...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780330/application-of-feedback-system-control-optimization-technique-in-combined-use-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-and-herbal-medicines
#12
Wang Liu, Yu-Long Li, Mu-Ting Feng, Yu-Wei Zhao, Xianting Ding, Ben He, Xuan Liu
Aim: Combined use of herbal medicines in patients underwent dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) might cause bleeding or thrombosis because herbal medicines with anti-platelet activities may exhibit interactions with DAPT. In this study, we tried to use a feedback system control (FSC) optimization technique to optimize dose strategy and clarify possible interactions in combined use of DAPT and herbal medicines. Methods: Herbal medicines with reported anti-platelet activities were selected by searching related references in Pubmed...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780257/effect-of-first-line-endocrine-therapy-in-patients-with-hormone-sensitive-advanced-breast-cancer-a-network-meta-analysis
#13
Tingting Zhang, Fubin Feng, Wenge Zhao, Jinhui Tian, Yan Yao, Chao Zhou, Shengjie Dong, Congcong Wang, Chuanxin Zang, Qingliang Lv, Changgang Sun
Background: Endocrine therapy is the cornerstone treatment for patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of various first-line endocrine monotherapies or combinations to determine the optimal sequence in a network meta-analysis. Materials and methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception up to November 21, 2017. We included only RCTs that assessed the effectiveness of the following treatments as a monotherapy or in combination as the first-line treatment: tamoxifen, anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane, fulvestrant, palbociclib, and ribociclib...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780250/partial-stereotactic-ablative-boost-radiotherapy-in-bulky-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#14
Yun Bai, Xian-Shu Gao, Shang-Bin Qin, Jia-Yan Chen, Meng-Meng Su, Qing Liu, Xiu-Bo Qin, Ming-Wei Ma, Bo Zhao, Xiao-Bin Gu, Mu Xie, Ming Cui, Xin Qi, Xiao-Ying Li
Purpose: Bulky non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is difficult to achieve effective local control by conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CRT). The present work aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of partial stereotactic ablative boost radiotherapy (P-SABR) in bulky NSCLC. Patients and methods: From December 2012 through August 2017, 30 patients with bulky NSCLC treated with P-SABR technique were analyzed. The P-SABR plan consisted of one partial SABR plan (5-9 Gy/f, 3-6 fractions) to gross tumor boost (GTVb), followed by one CRT plan to the planning target volume (PTV)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780045/-screening-for-biological-marker-of-dose-optimization-in-cancer-radiotherapy
#15
Tatsuya Ueno, Satoru Monzen, Mitsuru Chiba, Yuki Morino, Yoichiro Hosokawa
PURPOSE AND METHODS: External radiotherapy of target regions using high-energy beams leads to excessive exposure along with individual variation in therapeutic and adverse effects. However, high-precision radiotherapy utilizes 3D-multi detector computed tomography to confirm both target position and administer radiation dose. To install the individual bioinformation in the radiotherapy plan (particularly, radiosensitivity into the target region and/or the around normal tissue), the investigation of biomarkers, which are able to estimate their radiosensitivity was performed...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780043/-propose-for-the-benchmark-dose-bd-for-the-optimization-of-protection-in-medical-exposure-in-general-radiography
#16
Hiroshi Watanabe, Masashi Seki, Masahiro Nitta, Itsuki Serita, Yoshiaki Maehara, Hideaki Okura, Tomofumi Murakami, Kazuyuki Yamamoto, Tsutomu Sato, Ryuto Tajima
The goal of this research was to create the most appropriate index dose for the optimization of protection in medical exposure in general radiography in Kanagawa prefecture. We distributed questionnaires to 272 medical institutions in Kanagawa prefecture. The investigation period was from October 2015 to February 2016. Entrance surface dose (ESD) was used as the index dose. Investigated regions in general radiography were the adult chest, adult abdomen, and infant chest (anterior-posterior projections for all regions)...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779679/loperamide-abuse-cardiotoxicity-should-loperamide-still-be-an-over-the-counter-medication
#17
Amr Idris, Kenji Kaye
Loperamide is an over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medication that is inexpensive, easily accessible, and widely used. It is generally thought to be safe and effective without the potential for abuse. However, recent discovery of its ability to treat opioid withdrawal symptoms at high doses has led to not only its abuse, but also the need to recognize its cardiotoxicity due to the ability to prolong the QTc interval. We report a case of a 33 year old female with a history of opioid dependence who presented to the emergency department with acute onset shortness of breath and generalized weakness who was subsequently found to be in ventricular tachycardia...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779669/synthesis-and-profiling-of-benzylmorpholine-1-2-4-5-tetraoxane-analogue-n205-towards-tetraoxane-scaffolds-with-potential-for-single-dose-cure-of-malaria
#18
Paul M O' Neill, Paul A Stocks, Sunil Sabbani, Natalie L Roberts, Richard K Amewu, Emma R Shore, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Iñigo Angulo-Barturén, María Belén, Jiménez-Díaz, Santiago Ferrer Bazaga, María Santos Martínez, Brice Campo, Raman Sharma, Susan A Charman, Eileen Ryan, Gong Chen, David M Shackleford, Jill Davies, Gemma L Nixon, Giancarlo A Biagini, Stephen A Ward
A series of aryl carboxamide and benzylamino dispiro 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane analogues have been designed and synthesized in a short synthetic sequence from readily available starting materials. From this series of endoperoxides, molecules with in vitro IC50s versus Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) as low as 0.84 nM were identified. Based on an assessment of blood stability and in vitro microsomal stability, N205 (10a) was selected for rodent pharmacokinetic and in vivo antimalarial efficacy studies in the mouse Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum Pf3D70087/N9 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse models...
May 17, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779479/optimizing-antitumor-efficacy-and-adverse-effects-of-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-by-scheduled-plasmapheresis-impact-of-timing-and-dosing
#19
Romeo Ngoune, Christine Contini, Michael Marcus Hoffmann, Dominik Elverfeldt, Karl Winkler, Gerhard Putz
BACKGROUND: Nanoscale drug delivery systems accumulate in solid tumors preferentially by the enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR-effect). Nevertheless, only a miniscule fraction of a given dosage reaches the tumor, while >90% of the given drug ends up in otherwise healthy tissues, leading to the severe toxic reactions observed during chemotherapy. Once accumulation in tumor has reached its maximum, extracorporeal elimination of circulating nanoparticles by plasmapheresis can diminish toxicities...
May 18, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779418/modeling-adverse-event-counts-in-phase-i-clinical-trials-of-a-cytotoxic-agent
#20
Daniel G Muenz, Thomas M Braun, Jeremy Mg Taylor
Background/Aims The goal of phase I clinical trials for cytotoxic agents is to find the maximum dose with an acceptable risk of severe toxicity. The most common designs for these dose-finding trials use a binary outcome indicating whether a patient had a dose-limiting toxicity. However, a patient may experience multiple toxicities, with each toxicity assigned an ordinal severity score. The binary response is then obtained by dichotomizing a patient's richer set of data. We contribute to the growing literature on new models to exploit this richer toxicity data, with the goal of improving the efficiency in estimating the maximum tolerated dose...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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