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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340442/neurocognitive-performance-as-an-endophenotype-for-mood-disorder-subgroups
#1
Alison K Merikangas, Lihong Cui, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Kathleen R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that neurocognitive function may be an endophenotype for mood disorders. The goal of this study is to examine the specificity and familiality of neurocognitive functioning across the full range of mood disorder subgroups, including Bipolar I (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II), Major Depressive Disorders (MDD), and controls in a community-based family study. METHODS: A total of 310 participants from 137 families with mood spectrum disorders (n=151) and controls (n=159) completed the University of Pennsylvania's Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) that assessed the accuracy and speed of task performance across five domains...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334377/lrit3-differentially-affects-connectivity-and-synaptic-transmission-of-cones-to-on-and-off-bipolar-cells
#2
Marion Neuillé, Yan Cao, Romain Caplette, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Connon Thomas, Naomi Kamasawa, José-Alain Sahel, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Audo, Serge Picaud, Kirill A Martemyanov, Christina Zeitz
Purpose: Mutations in LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). Using a cCSNB mouse model lacking Lrit3 (nob6), we recently have shown that LRIT3 has a role in the correct localization of TRPM1 (transient receptor potential melastatin 1) to the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells (BCs), contacting both rod and cone photoreceptors. Furthermore, postsynaptic clustering of other mGluR6 cascade components is selectively eliminated at the dendritic tips of cone ON-BCs...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334111/g%C3%AE-2-regulates-the-multipolar-bipolar-transition-of-newborn-neurons-in-the-developing-neocortex
#3
Ye Guo, Xiaoxiao He, Lu Zhao, Lin Liu, Huifang Song, Xudong Wang, Jiahui Xu, Xingda Ju, Weixiang Guo, Xiaojuan Zhu
Proper neuronal migration is critical for the formation of the six-layered neocortex in the mammalian brain. However, the precise control of neuronal migration is not well understood. Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins), composed of Gα and Gβγ, transduce signals from G protein-coupled receptors to downstream effectors and play crucial roles in brain development. However, the functions of individual subunits of G proteins in prenatal brain development remain unclear. Here, we report that Gβ2 is expressed in the embryonic neocortex, with abundant expression in the intermediate zone, and is significantly upregulated in differentiated neurons...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#4
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321286/crispr-cas9-mediated-heterozygous-knockout-of-the-autism-gene-chd8-and-characterization-of-its-transcriptional-networks-in-cerebral-organoids-derived-from-ips-cells
#5
Ping Wang, Ryan Mokhtari, Erika Pedrosa, Michael Kirschenbaum, Can Bayrak, Deyou Zheng, Herbert M Lachman
BACKGROUND: CHD8 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8), which codes for a member of the CHD family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors, is one of the most commonly mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified in exome-sequencing studies. Loss of function mutations in the gene have also been found in schizophrenia (SZ) and intellectual disabilities and influence cancer cell proliferation. We previously reported an RNA-seq analysis carried out on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and monolayer neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were heterozygous for CHD8 knockout (KO) alleles generated using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303795/neuregulin-1-functionalization-of-organic-fibers-for-schwann-cell-guidance
#6
Ilaria Tonazzini, Maria Moffa, Dario Pisignano, Marco Cecchini
The repair of peripheral nerve lesions is a clinical problem where the functional recovery is often far from being satisfactory, although peripheral nerves generally retain good potential for regeneration. Here, we develop a novel scaffold approach based on bioactive fibers of poly(ε-caprolactone) where nanotopographical guidance and neuregulin 1 (NRG1) cues are combined. We interface them with rat primary Schwann cells (SCs), the peripheral glial cells that drive initial regeneration of injured nerves, and found that the combination of NRG1 with parallel nano-fibrous topographies is effective in improving SC growth up to 72 h, alignment to fiber topography, and bipolar differentiation, opening original perspectives for nerve repair applications...
April 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294459/identifying-dynamic-functional-connectivity-biomarkers-using-gig-ica-application-to-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-disorder-and-psychotic-bipolar-disorder
#7
Yuhui Du, Godfrey D Pearlson, Dongdong Lin, Jing Sui, Jiayu Chen, Mustafa Salman, Carol A Tamminga, Elena I Ivleva, John A Sweeney, Matcheri S Keshavan, Brett A Clementz, Juan Bustillo, Vince D Calhoun
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown altered brain dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in mental disorders. Here, we aim to explore DFC across a spectrum of symptomatically-related disorders including bipolar disorder with psychosis (BPP), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and schizophrenia (SZ). We introduce a group information guided independent component analysis procedure to estimate both group-level and subject-specific connectivity states from DFC. Using resting-state fMRI data of 238 healthy controls (HCs), 140 BPP, 132 SAD, and 113 SZ patients, we identified measures differentiating groups from the whole-brain DFC and traditional static functional connectivity (SFC), separately...
March 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291257/integrated-transcriptome-and-methylome-analysis-in-youth-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder-a-preliminary-analysis
#8
G R Fries, J Quevedo, C P Zeni, I F Kazimi, G Zunta-Soares, D E Spiker, C L Bowden, C Walss-Bass, J C Soares
First-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), particularly their offspring, have a higher risk of developing BD and other mental illnesses than the general population. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this increased risk are still unknown, particularly because most of the studies so far have been conducted in chronically ill adults and not in unaffected youth at high risk. In this preliminary study we analyzed genome-wide expression and methylation levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children and adolescents from three matched groups: BD patients, unaffected offspring of bipolar parents (high risk) and controls (low risk)...
March 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290080/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-acute-kidney-injury-risk-associated-with-antipsychotics
#9
Yawen Jiang, Jeffrey S McCombs, Susie H Park
BACKGROUND: A recent large database analysis raised concerns of potential acute kidney injury (AKI) risk associated with antipsychotics. However, whether individual atypical and typical antipsychotics are associated with differential AKI risks has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The current study compared the risks of AKI and known causes of AKI associated with a broad range of atypical and typical antipsychotics. METHOD: This retrospective cohort analysis used January 2007-June 2013 US nationwide Humana claims data to define episodes of antipsychotic drug therapy for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
March 13, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264765/a-functional-connectivity-comparison-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-adolescents-with-mood-fluctuation-and-attention-problems
#10
Young Don Son, Doug Hyun Han, Sun Mi Kim, Kyung Joon Min, Perry F Renshaw
In order to compare patterns of connectivity between affective and attention networks in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated differences in resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between these populations. Study participants were medication-naïve adolescents (aged 13-18 years) with BD (N=22) or ADHD (N=25) and age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents (healthy controls [HC]) (N=22). Forty-seven adolescents with mood fluctuation and attention problems showed increased functional correlation (FC) between two pairs of regions within the affective network (AFN), compared to 22 HC: the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) to the left thalamus and the left OFC to the right thalamus...
February 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261143/improving-major-depressive-episode-assessment-a-new-tool-developed-by-formal-psychological-assessment
#11
Francesca Serra, Andrea Spoto, Marta Ghisi, Giulio Vidotto
Aim: Major depressive episode (MDE) can manifest with different features. Discriminating between different types of MDEs is crucial for proper treatment. The aim of this study is to propose a new tool for MDE assessment in bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) to overcome some limitations of current rating scales. The proposed tool investigates all of the clinical features of different MDEs and gives qualitative information, differentiating patients with the same score but different symptoms and psychopathology severity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260229/is-there-consensus-across-international-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-management-of-bipolar-disorder
#12
REVIEW
G B Parker, R K Graham, G Tavella
OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of agreement across professionally auspiced evidence-based guidelines for managing the bipolar disorders. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycInfo was undertaken using the search terms 'bipolar disorder' and 'guidelines', generating 11 evidence-based guidelines published by professional organisations over the 2002-2015 period. Each guideline was reviewed by two independent reviewers and key themes extracted via qualitative analyses...
March 5, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258061/uncoupling-of-neurogenesis-and-differentiation-during-retinal-development
#13
Peter Engerer, Sachihiro C Suzuki, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Prisca Chapouton, Nancy Obeng, Benjamin Odermatt, Philip R Williams, Thomas Misgeld, Leanne Godinho
Conventionally, neuronal development is regarded to follow a stereotypic sequence of neurogenesis, migration, and differentiation. We demonstrate that this notion is not a general principle of neuronal development by documenting the timing of mitosis in relation to multiple differentiation events for bipolar cells (BCs) in the zebrafish retina using in vivo imaging. We found that BC progenitors undergo terminal neurogenic divisions while in markedly disparate stages of neuronal differentiation. Remarkably, the differentiation state of individual BC progenitors at mitosis is not arbitrary but matches the differentiation state of post-mitotic BCs in their surround...
March 3, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254958/quetiapine-v-lithium-in-the-maintenance-phase-following-a-first-episode-of-mania-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Michael Berk, Rothanthi Daglas, Orwa Dandash, Murat Yücel, Lisa Henry, Karen Hallam, Craig Macneil, Melissa Hasty, Christos Pantelis, Brendan P Murphy, Linda Kader, Saji Damodaran, Michael T H Wong, Philippe Conus, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick D McGorry, Sue M Cotton
BackgroundLithium and quetiapine are considered standard maintenance agents for bipolar disorder yet it is unclear how their efficacy compares with each other.AimsTo investigate the differential effect of lithium and quetiapine on symptoms of depression, mania, general functioning, global illness severity and quality of life in patients with recently stabilised first-episode mania.MethodMaintenance trial of patients with first-episode mania stabilised on a combination of lithium and quetiapine, subsequently randomised to lithium or quetiapine monotherapy (up to 800 mg/day) and followed up for 1 year...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251960/optimizing-the-design-of-bipolar-nerve-cuff-electrodes-for-improved-recording-of-peripheral-nerve-activity
#15
Parisa Sabetian, Milos Popovic, Paul Yoo
OBJECTIVE: Differential measurement of efferent and afferent peripheral nerve activity offers a promising means of improving the clinical utility of implantable neuroprostheses. The tripolar nerve cuff electrode has historically served as the gold standard for achieving high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the recordings. However, the symmetrical geometry of this electrode array (i.e., electrically-shorted side contacts) precludes it from measuring electrical signals that can be used to obtain directional information...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242870/neurons-derived-from-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-divide-into-intrinsically-different-sub-populations-of-neurons-predicting-the-patients-responsiveness-to-lithium
#16
S Stern, R Santos, M C Marchetto, A P D Mendes, G A Rouleau, S Biesmans, Q-W Wang, J Yao, P Charnay, A G Bang, M Alda, F H Gage
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder with more than 3% prevalence worldwide. Affected individuals experience recurrent episodes of depression and mania, disrupting normal life and increasing the risk of suicide greatly. The complexity and genetic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders have challenged the development of animal and cellular models. We recently reported that hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts of BD patients are electrophysiologically hyperexcitable...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239946/a-voxel-based-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#17
Jonathan Repple, Susanne Meinert, Dominik Grotegerd, Harald Kugel, Ronny Redlich, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Nils Opel, Christian Buerger, Katharina Förster, Theresa Nick, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel, Michael Deppe, Udo Dannlowski
OBJECTIVE: The absence of neurobiological diagnostic markers of bipolar disorder (BD) leads to its frequent misdiagnosis as unipolar depression (UD). We investigated if changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) could help to differentiate BD from UD in the state of depression. METHODS: Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) we employed a voxel-based analysis approach to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in 86 patients experiencing an acute major depressive episode according to DSM-IV (N=39 BD, mean age 39...
February 27, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239294/transfection-studies-with-colloidal-systems-containing-highly-purified-bipolar-tetraether-lipids-from-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius
#18
Konrad H Engelhardt, Shashank Reddy Pinnapireddy, Elias Baghdan, Jarmila Jedelská, Udo Bakowsky
Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT) differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237133/reward-processing-and-mood-related-symptoms-an-rdoc-and-translational-neuroscience-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Robin Nusslock, Lauren B Alloy
BACKGROUND: Two objectives of the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative are to identify (a) mechanisms that are common to multiple psychiatric disorders, and (b) mechanisms that are unique to specific psychiatric symptoms, and that reflect markers of differential risk for these symptoms. With respect to these objectives, a brain-behavior dimension that has received considerable attention and that is directly relevant to the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC initiative involves reward processing...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224373/drug-induced-liver-injury-in-the-setting-of-glycogenic-hepatopathy
#20
Valmiki Maharaj, Matthew Fitz, Xianzdong Ding
Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is an underdiagnosed complication of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It appears as an acute relapsing hepatitis with reversible transaminase elevations secondary to excessive hepatic glycogen accumulation. Patients are often asymptomatic but can present with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination shows hepatomegaly without splenomegaly. GH is diagnosed by biopsy as it is clinically indistinguishable from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a more common cause of hepatic dysfunction in diabetics...
February 21, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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