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Thioredoxin reductase

Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Guilherme Razzera, Guilherme Toledo-Silva, Maria João Bebianno, Maria Risoleta Freire Marques, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction (diesel-WAF) is a complex mixture of organic compounds that may cause harmful effects to marine invertebrates. Expression of microsomal proteins can be changed by oil exposure, causing functional alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression signatures in microsomes of oysterl Crassostrea brasiliana (=C.gasar) gill after exposure to 10% diesel-WAF for 24 and 72 h. Protein expression signatures of gills of oysters exposed to diesel-WAF were compared to those of unexposed oysters using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins...
June 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Y X Wang, X Xiao, X A Zhan
Fluorosis can induce oxidative stress through leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Selenium (Se) can eliminate ROS by direct and indirect manners. In this study, therefore, we investigated the possible protective effects of sodium selenite (SS) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) on fluorine (F)-induced oxidative stress in broilers. A total of 720 1-day-old Lingnan Yellow broilers were allotted to 4 groups (6 replicates of 30 birds each group) and fed with basal diet (control group), 800 mg/kg F (high F group), 800 mg/kg F+0...
June 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Renata Kuras, Edyta Reszka, Edyta Wieczorek, Ewa Jablonska, Jolanta Gromadzinska, Beata Malachowska, Lucyna Kozlowska, Magdalena Stanislawska, Beata Janasik, Wojciech Wasowicz
The present observation based research was designed to evaluate the influence of occupational human exposure to metallic mercury (Hg°) vapor on the biomarkers of selenium status involved in the antioxidant defense system. For this purpose we determined Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in body fluids, the markers of antioxidant effect measured as an activity of Se-dependent enzymes (red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase: GPx1-RBC and GPx3-P), concentration of selenoprotein P in the plasma (SeP-P) and total antioxidant activity in the plasma (TAA-P) in 131 male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg° and 67 non-exposed males (control group)...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Veni Bharti, Hua Tan, Desiree Chow, Yiran Wang, Pandian Nagakannan, Eftekhar Eftekharpour, Jun-Feng Wang
Previous studies have shown that chronic stress and chronic stress hormone treatment induce oxidative damage in rodents. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small redox protein that plays an important role in regulation of oxidative protein cysteine modification. A Trx reduced state is maintained by thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and the thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) is an endogenous inhibitor of Trx. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with stress hormone corticosterone on Trx, TrxR and Txnip in cultured neuronal cells...
June 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Laura Martins, José Abraham Trujillo-Hernandez, Jean-Philippe Reichheld
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well-described by-products of cellular metabolic activities, acting as signaling molecules and regulating the redox state of proteins. Solvent exposed thiol residues like cysteines are particularly sensitive to oxidation and their redox state affects structural and biochemical capacities of many proteins. While thiol redox regulation has been largely studied in several cell compartments like in the plant chloroplast, little is known about redox sensitive proteins in the nucleus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cindy Staerck, Julie Tabiasco, Charlotte Godon, Yves Delneste, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Scedosporium species rank the second, after Aspergillus fumigatus, among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Development of microorganisms in the respiratory tract depends on their capacity to evade killing by the host immune system, particularly through the oxidative response of macrophages and neutrophils, with the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). This is particularly true in the airways of CF patients which display an exacerbated inflammatory reaction...
June 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Nádia S R S Mota, Maicon R Kviecinski, Rodrigo C Zeferino, Daniela A de Oliveira, Lizandra C Bretanha, Sandra R S Ferreira, Gustavo A Micke, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Rozangela C Pedrosa, Fabiana Ourique
Antiinflammatory and antitumor activity has been reported in Passiflora edulis (yellow passion fruit) nevertheless the intrinsic mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. The present study aimeds to perform a comparison between the antitumor activity involving the crude extract (HCE) and the supercritical fluid extract with ethanol as co-solvent (SFEtOH) from P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in MCF-7 cells, while the in vivo antitumor activity was assessed in male Balb/c mice inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma cells...
June 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Neha Paraswani, Maikho Thoh, Hari N Bhilwade, Anu Ghosh
The radiation-induced adaptive response (RI-AR) is a non-targeted effect which is outside the scope of the classical Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) dose-response paradigm. However, the mechanisms of the RI-AR are not well understood. We have studied the RI-AR in quiescent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs in G0 phase were 'primed' with a low dose (100 mGy gamma radiation) and then, after an 'adaptive window' of 4 h, 'challenged' with a high dose (2 Gy). A small (5.7%) increase in viability and a decrease in DNA strand breaks were seen in primed cells, compared to non-primed cells...
July 2018: Mutation Research
Paraskevi Kritsiligkou, Jonathan D Rand, Alan J Weids, Ximeng Wang, Chris J Kershaw, Chris M Grant
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is constitutively active in yeast thioredoxin reductase mutants suggesting a link between cytoplasmic thiol redox control and ER oxidative protein folding. The unique oxidative environment of the ER lumen requires tight regulatory control and we show that the active UPR is dependent on the presence of oxidised thioredoxins, rather than arising due to a loss of thioredoxin function. Preventing activation of the UPR by deletion of HAC1, encoding the UPR transcription factor, rescues a number of thioredoxin reductase mutant phenotypes including slow growth, shortened longevity and oxidation of the cytoplasmic glutathione pool...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Dennis R Petersen, David J Orlicky, James R Roede, Colin T Shearn
OBJECTIVE: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a severe cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive peri-biliary tract inflammation, elevated oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury. A hallmark of PSC patients is the concurrent diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease occurring in approximately 70%-80% of PSC patients (PSC/IBD). We previously reported dysregulation of key anti-oxidant pathways in PSC/IBD. The objective of this study was to expand previous data by examining the abundance of thioredoxins (Trx) in PSC/IBD...
May 29, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Xiaoyuan Ren, Lili Zou, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren
Thioredoxin system is a ubiquitous disulfide reductase system evolutionarily conserved through all living organisms. It contains thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and NADPH. TrxR can use NADPH to reduce Trx which passes the reducing equivalent to its downstream substrates involved in various biomedical events, such as ribonucleotide reductase for deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis, or peroxiredoxins for counteracting oxidative stress. Obviously, TrxR stays in the center of the system to maintain the electron flow...
May 25, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Qian Li, Guangying Chen, Wei Wang, Weijie Zhang, Yangyang Ding, Ting Zhao, Fang Li, Guanghua Mao, Weiwei Feng, Qiang Wang, Liuqing Yang, Xiangyang Wu
In this study, a Se-deficient mice model was successfully developed by feeding a Se-deficient diet (0.02 mg Se/kg diet) for 4 weeks, and Se supplementation by Se-polysaccharides (Se-GFP-22) was lasted for 4 weeks. The immunomodulatory activity and Se supplementation of Se-GFP-22 from Se-enriched G. frondosa was investigated. Results showed that Se-GFP-22 remarkably enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities in liver, kidney and plasma, and serum, liver, spleen and kidney Se levels of Se-deficient mice...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Radosveta Gencheva, Qing Cheng, Elias S J Arnér
BACKGROUND: Toxoflavin (1,6-dimethylpyrimido[5,4-e][1,2,4]triazine-5,7-dione; xanthothricin) is a well-known natural toxin of the pyrimidinetriazinedione type that redox cycles with oxygen under reducing conditions. In mammalian systems, toxoflavin is an inhibitor of Wnt signaling as well as of SIRT1 and SIRT2 activities, but other molecular targets in mammalian cells have been scarcely studied. Interestingly, in a library of nearly 400,000 compounds (PubChem assay ID 588456), toxoflavin was identified as one out of only 56 potential substrates of the mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1, TXNRD1)...
May 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Karim M Tawfik, Yasser M Moustafa, Mona F El-Azab
Epilepsy is one of the furthermost common neurodegenerative diseases affecting above 50 million individuals worldwide. The pathogenesis of epileptic seizures is not satisfactorily explored, and hence more effective anti-convulsive therapies are indispensable. Current study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the potential neuroprotective effects of sildenafil/selenium on chemically-induced convulsions in mice. Kindling model was induced using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35mg/Kg, 11 doses, intraperitoneally, every other day)...
May 25, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Collins Kamunde, Mahmoud Sharaf, Nicole MacDonald
Although mitochondria are presumed to emit and consume reactive oxygen species (ROS), the quantitative interplay between the two processes in ROS regulation is not well understood. Here, we probed the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics in H2 O2 metabolism using rainbow trout liver and heart mitochondria. Both liver and heart mitochondria emitted H2 O2 at rates that depended on their metabolic state, with the emission rates (free radical leak) constituting 0.8 to 2.9% and 0.2 to 2.5% of the respiration rate in liver and heart mitochondria, respectively...
May 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ilaria Silvestri, Haining Lyu, Francesca Fata, Giovanna Boumis, Adriana E Miele, Matteo Ardini, Rodolfo Ippoliti, Andrea Bellelli, Ajit Jadhav, Wendy A Lea, Anton Simeonov, Qing Chen, Elias S J Arner, Gregory Rj Thatcher, Pavel A Petukhov, David L Williams, Francesco Angelucci
Members of the FAD/NAD-linked reductase family are recognized as crucial targets in drug development for cancers, inflammatory disorders, and infectious diseases. However, individual FAD/NAD reductases are difficult to inhibit in a selective manner with off target inhibition reducing usefulness of identified compounds. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a high molecular weight thioredoxin reductase-like enzyme, has emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of schistosomiasis, a parasitosis afflicting more than 200 million people...
May 25, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Dennis R Petersen, Laura M Saba, Volkan I Sayin, Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Edward E Schmidt, Gary F Merrill, David J Orlicky, Colin T Shearn
OBJECTIVE: In the liver, a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NASH) is oxidative stress, which leads to the accumulation of highly reactive electrophilic α/β unsaturated aldehydes. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of NASH on protein carbonylation and antioxidant responses in a murine model. METHODS: Liver-specific phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deletion mice (PTENLKO) or control littermates were fed a standard chow diet for 45-55 weeks followed by analysis for liver injury, oxidative stress and inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Ilknur Ozgencli, Harun Budak, Mehmet Ciftci, Mustafa Anar
BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin reductase (E.C; TrxR) is a widely distributed flavoprotein that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of thioredoxin (Trx) in many cellular events such as DNA synthesis, DNA repair, angiogenesis, antioxidative defense, and regulating apoptosis. Although TrxR is indispensible in protecting cells against oxidative stress, the overexpression of TrxR is seen in many aggressive tumors. Therefore, targeted inhibition of TrxR has been accepted as a new approach for chemotherapy...
May 24, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Kristin M Peters, Bradley A Carlson, Vadim N Gladyshev, Petra A Tsuji
Selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) have been implicated in the regulation of various cell signaling pathways, many of which are linked to colorectal malignancies. In this in-depth excurse into the selenoprotein literature, we review possible roles for human selenoproteins in colorectal cancer, focusing on the typical hallmarks of cancer cells and their tumor-enabling characteristics. Human genome studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms in various genes coding for selenoproteins have revealed potential involvement of glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and other proteins...
May 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Na Ke, Cristina Landeta, Xiaoyun Wang, Dana Boyd, Markus Eser, Jon Beckwith
Disulfide bonds influence stability and activity of many proteins. In Escherichia coli the DsbA and DsbB enzymes promote disulfide bond formation. Other bacteria, including the Actinobacteria, use instead of DsbB the enzyme VKOR (Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase), which is found either fused to or encoded in the same operon as a dsbA -like protein. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other gram-positive Actinobacteria secrete to the cell envelope many proteins with even numbers of cysteines. These organisms have predicted oxidoreductases and VKOR orthologs...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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