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Thioredoxin reductase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443683/redox-signaling-mediated-by-the-thioredoxin-and-glutathione-systems-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Xiaoyuan Ren, Lili Zou, Xu Zhang, Vasco Branco, Jun Wang, Cristina Carvalho, Arne Holmgren, Jun Lu
SIGNIFICANCE: The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems play important roles in maintaining the redox balance in the brain, a tissue that is prone to oxidative stress due to its high energy demand. These two disulfide reductase systems are active in various areas of the brain, and are considered to be the critical antioxidant systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Various neuronal disorders have been characterized to have imbalanced redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: In addition to their detrimental effects, recent studies have highlighted that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) act as critical signaling molecules by modifying thiols in proteins...
April 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442342/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-a-protects-hepatocytes-against-acetaminophen-induced-toxicity-via-regulation-of-thioredoxin-reductase-1-expression
#2
Mahendra Pratap Singh, Geun-Hee Kwak, Ki Young Kim, Hwa-Young Kim
Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) is associated with susceptibility to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an antioxidant and protein repair enzyme that specifically catalyzes the reduction of methionine S-sulfoxide residues. We have previously shown that MsrA deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by APAP. In this study, we used primary hepatocytes to investigate the underlying mechanism of the protective effect of MsrA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429317/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-euglena
#3
Takahiro Ishikawa, Shun Tamaki, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are by-products of various metabolic processes in aerobic organisms including Euglena. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the main sites of ROS generation by photosynthesis and respiration, respectively, through the active electron transport chain. An efficient antioxidant network is required to maintain intracellular ROS pools at optimal conditions for redox homeostasis. A comparison with the networks of plants and animals revealed that Euglena has acquired some aspects of ROS metabolic process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415723/auranofin-radiosensitizes-tumor-cells-through-targeting-thioredoxin-reductase-and-resulting-overproduction-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#4
Hui Wang, Soumaya Bouzakoura, Sven de Mey, Heng Jiang, Kalun Law, Inès Dufait, Cyril Corbet, Valeri Verovski, Thierry Gevaert, Olivier Feron, Dirk Van den Berge, Guy Storme, Mark De Ridder
Auranofin (AF) is an anti-arthritic drug considered for combined chemotherapy due to its ability to impair the redox homeostasis in tumor cells. In this study, we asked whether AF may in addition radiosensitize tumor cells by targeting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), a critical enzyme in the antioxidant defense system operating through the reductive protein thioredoxin. Our principal findings in murine 4T1 and EMT6 tumor cells are that AF at 3-10 μM is a potent radiosensitizer in vitro, and that at least two mechanisms are involved in TrxR-mediated radiosensitization...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414288/-redox-dependent-mechanisms-of-regulation-of-breast-epithelial-cell-proliferation
#5
E A Stepovaya, E V Shakhristova, O L Nosareva, E V Rudikov, M Y Egorova, D Y Egorova, V V Novitsky
Activation of free radical oxidation in different cell types, including breast epithelial cells, may result in damage to macromolecules, in particular, proteins taking part in regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The glutathione, glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems play an essential role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. Due to this fact, modulation of cellular redox status under the effect of an SH group inhibitor and an SH group protector may be used as a model for studying the role of redox proteins and glutathione in regulating cell proliferation in different pathological processes...
March 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414076/inhibition-of-trxr2-suppressed-nsclc-cell-proliferation-metabolism-and-induced-cell-apoptosis-through-decreasing-antioxidant-activity
#6
Lina Bu, Wei Li, Zongjuan Ming, Jie Shi, Ping Fang, Shuanying Yang
AIMS: This study aims to analyze the effect of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2) on lung cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of TrxR2 in NSCLC tumor tissues. After pAd-TrxR2 or shRNA-TrxR2 was transfected into A549 or NCI-H1299 cells, the cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 method; cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry; cell invasion and migration was measured by Transwell method...
April 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411237/physical-interaction-between-human-ribonucleotide-reductase-large-subunit-and-thioredoxin-increases-colorectal-cancer-malignancy
#7
Meng Lou, Qian Liu, Guoping Ren, Jiling Zeng, Xueping Xiang, Yongfeng Ding, Qinghui Lin, Tingting Zhong, Xia Liu, Lijun Zhu, Hongyan Qi, Jing Shen, Haoran Li, Jimin Shao
Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis by catalyzing the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. During each enzymatic turnover, reduction of the active site disulfide in the catalytic large subunit is performed by a pair of shuttle cysteine residues in its C-terminal tail. Thioredoxin (Trx) and Glutaredoxin (Grx) are ubiquitous redox proteins, catalyzing thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Here, immunohistochemical examination of clinical colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens revealed that human thioredoxin1 (hTrx1), but not human glutaredoxin1 (hGrx1), was upregulated along with human RR large subunit (RRM1) in cancer tissues, and the expression levels of both proteins were correlated with cancer malignancy stage...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406483/apr-246-prima-1-met-inhibits-thioredoxin-reductase-1-and-converts-the-enzyme-to-a-dedicated-nadph-oxidase
#8
Xiaoxiao Peng, Mei-Qiong-Zi Zhang, Francesca Conserva, Gihan Hosny, Galina Selivanova, Vladimir Jn Bykov, Elias Sj Arnér, Klas G Wiman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406025/biogenic-nanoselenium-particles-effectively-attenuate-oxidative-stress-induced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-injury-by-activating-the-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#9
Deguang Song, Yuanzhi Cheng, Xiaoxiao Li, Fengqin Wang, Zeqing Lu, Xiao Xiao, Yizhen Wang
In the present study, a new form of selenium nanoparticle (biogenic nanoselenium (BNS) particles) was synthesized using bacteria. The protection of BNS particles against oxidative stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and the inherent mechanisms of this process were investigated, and selenomethionine (SeMet) and chemically synthesized nanoselenium (Nano-Se) particles were used for comparison. Characterization of BNS particles revealed that they were monodispersed and homogeneous spheres, with an average size of 139...
April 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405689/differential-effects-of-sulforaphane-in-regulation-of-angiogenesis-in-a-co-culture-model-of-endothelial-cells-and-pericytes
#10
Yichong Wang, Zhigang Zhou, Wei Wang, Ming Liu, Yongping Bao
Aberrant neovascularization supports nutrients and the oxygen microenvironment in tumour growth, invasion and metastasis. Recapitulation of functional microvascular structures in vitro could provide a platform for the study of vascular conditions. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate, has been reported to possess chemopreventive properties. In the present study, the effects of SFN on cell proliferation and tubular formation have been investigated using endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes in coculture. SFN showed a dose-dependent inhibition on the growth of ECs and pericytes with IC50 values 46...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397795/the-structure-of-lactococcus-lactis-thioredoxin-reductase-reveals-molecular-features-of-photo-oxidative-damage
#11
Nicklas Skjoldager, Maria Blanner Bang, Martin Rykær, Olof Björnberg, Michael J Davies, Birte Svensson, Pernille Harris, Per Hägglund
The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have been determined. These structures reveal novel molecular features that provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of this enzyme toward visible light. We propose that a pocket on the si-face of the isoalloxazine ring accommodates oxygen that reacts with photo-excited FAD generating superoxide and a flavin radical that oxidize the isoalloxazine ring C7α methyl group and a nearby tyrosine residue...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389407/d-penicillamine-combined-with-inhibitors-of-hydroperoxide-metabolism-enhances-lung-and-breast-cancer-cell-responses-to-radiation-and-carboplatin-via-h2o2-mediated-oxidative-stress
#12
Sebastian J Sciegienka, Shane R Solst, Kelly C Falls, Joshua D Schoenfeld, Adrienne R Klinger, Natalie L Ross, Samuel N Rodman, Douglas R Spitz, Melissa A Fath
D-penicillamine (DPEN), a copper chelator, has been used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, cystinuria, and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent evidence suggests that DPEN in combination with biologically relevant copper (Cu) concentrations generates H2O2 in cancer cell cultures, but the effects of this on cancer cell responses to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy are unknown. Increased steady-state levels of H2O2 were detected in MB231 breast and H1299 lung cancer cells following treatment with DPEN (100µM) and copper sulfate (15µM)...
April 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387227/corrigendum-phosphines-are-ribonucleotide-reductase-reductants-that-act-via-c-terminal-cysteines-similar-to-thioredoxins-and-glutaredoxins
#13
Vladimir Domkin, Andrei Chabes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383113/diphenyl-diselenide-protects-against-methylmercury-induced-inhibition-of-thioredoxin-reductase-and-glutathione-peroxidase-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-a-comparison-with-ebselen
#14
Daiane F Meinerz, Vasco Branco, Michael Aschner, Cristina Carvalho, João Batista T Rocha
Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an important environmental toxicant, may lead to serious health risks, damaging various organs and predominantly affecting the brain function. The toxicity of MeHg can be related to the inhibition of important selenoenzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Experimental studies have shown that selenocompounds play an important role as cellular detoxifiers and protective agents against the harmful effects of mercury. The present study investigated the mechanisms by which diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2 ] and ebselen interfered with the interaction of mercury (MeHg) and selenoenzymes (TrxR and GPx) in an in vitro experimental model of cultured human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378827/real-time-itraq-based-proteome-profiling-revealed-the-central-metabolism-involved-in-nitrogen-starvation-induced-lipid-accumulation-in-microalgae
#15
Vineeta Rai, Muthusivaramapandian Muthuraj, Mayuri N Gandhi, Debasish Das, Sanjeeva Srivastava
To understand the post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms attributing to oleaginousness in microalgae challenged with nitrogen starvation (N-starvation), the longitudinal proteome dynamics of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was investigated using multipronged quantitative proteomics and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Physiological data suggested a remarkably enhanced lipid accumulation with concomitant reduction in carbon flux towards carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The proteomics-based investigations identified the down-regulation of enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis (porphobilinogen deaminase) and photosynthetic carbon fixation (sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphate and phosphoribulokinase)...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372502/chemistry-and-redox-biology-of-mycothiol
#16
Aníbal Marcelo Reyes, Brandán Pedre Pérez, María Inés De Armas, Maria-Armineh Tossounian, Rafael Radi, Joris Messens, Madia Trujillo
SIGNIFICANCE: Mycothiol (MSH, AcCys-GlcN-Ins) is the main low molecular weight thiol of most Actinomycetes, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis that affects millions of people worldwide. Strains with decreased MSH content show increased susceptibilities to hydroperoxides and electrophilic compounds. In M. tuberculosis, MSH modulates the response to several anti-tuberculosis drugs. Enzymatic routes involving MSH could provide clues for specific drug design. Recent Advances...
April 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367140/transcriptomics-indicates-active-and-passive-metronidazole-resistance-mechanisms-in-three-seminal-giardia-lines
#17
Brendan R E Ansell, Louise Baker, Samantha J Emery, Malcolm J McConville, Staffan G Svärd, Robin B Gasser, Aaron R Jex
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes 200-300 million episodes of diarrhoea annually. Metronidazole (Mtz) is a front-line anti-giardial, but treatment failure is common and clinical resistance has been demonstrated. Mtz is thought to be activated within the parasite by oxidoreductase enzymes, and to kill by causing oxidative damage. In G. duodenalis, Mtz resistance involves active and passive mechanisms. Relatively low activity of iron-sulfur binding proteins, namely pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxins, and nitroreductase-1, enable resistant cells to passively avoid Mtz activation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366863/proteomic-and-functional-analyses-reveal-pleiotropic-action-of-the-anti-tumoral-compound-nbdhex-in-giardia-duodenalis
#18
Serena Camerini, Alessio Bocedi, Serena Cecchetti, Marialuisa Casella, Miriam Carbo, Veronica Morea, Edoardo Pozio, Giorgio Ricci, Marco Lalle
Giardiasis, a parasitic diarrheal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis, affects one billion people worldwide. Treatment relies only on a restricted armamentarium of drugs. The disease burden and the increase in treatment failure highlight the need for novel, safe and well characterized drug options. The antitumoral compound NBDHEX is effective in vitro against Giardia trophozoites and inhibits glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Aim of this work was to search for additional NBDHEX protein targets. The intrinsic NBDHEX fluorescence was exploited in a proteomic analysis to select and detect modified proteins in drug treated Giardia...
March 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362814/atypical-protein-disulfide-isomerases-pdi-comparison-of-the-molecular-and-catalytic-properties-of-poplar-pdi-a-and-pdi-m-with-pdi-l1a
#19
Benjamin Selles, Flavien Zannini, Jérémy Couturier, Jean-Pierre Jacquot, Nicolas Rouhier
Protein disulfide isomerases are overwhelmingly multi-modular redox catalysts able to perform the formation, reduction or isomerisation of disulfide bonds. We present here the biochemical characterization of three different poplar PDI isoforms. PDI-A is characterized by a single catalytic Trx module, the so-called a domain, whereas PDI-L1a and PDI-M display an a-b-b'-a' and a°-a-b organisation respectively. Their activities have been tested in vitro using purified recombinant proteins and a series of model substrates as insulin, NADPH thioredoxin reductase, NADP malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), peroxiredoxins or RNase A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356430/a-novel-organic-selenium-compound-exerts-unique-regulation-of-selenium-speciation-selenogenome-and-selenoproteins-in-broiler-chicks
#20
Ling Zhao, Lv-Hui Sun, Jia-Qiang Huang, Mickael Briens, De-Sheng Qi, Shi-Wen Xu, Xin Gen Lei
Background: A new organic selenium compound, 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (SeO), displayed a greater bioavailability than sodium selenite (SeNa) or seleno-yeast (SeY) in several species.Objective: This study sought to determine the regulation of the speciation of selenium, expression of selenogenome and selenocysteine biosynthesis and degradation-related genes, and production of selenoproteins by the 3 forms of selenium in the tissues of broiler chicks.Methods: Day-old male chicks (n = 6 cages/diet, 6 chicks/cage) were fed a selenium-deficient, corn and soy-based diet [base diet (BD), 0...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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