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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915182/using-spatial-metrics-and-surveys-for-the-assessment-of-trans-boundary-deforestation-in-protected-areas-of-the-maya-mountain-massif-belize-guatemala-border
#1
S D Chicas, K Omine, J B Ford, K Sugimura, K Yoshida
Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912018/genetic-diversity-of-seagrass-seeds-influences-seedling-morphology-and-biomass
#2
A Randall Hughes, Torrance C Hanley, Forest R Schenck, Cynthia G Hays
Genetic diversity can influence ecological processes throughout ontogeny, yet whether diversity at early life history stages is important in long-lived taxa with overlapping generations is unclear. Seagrass systems provide some of the best evidence for the ecological effects of genetic diversity among adult shoots, but we do not know if the genetic diversity of seeds and seedlings also influences seagrass ecology. We tested the effects of seagrass (Zostera marina) seed diversity and relatedness on germination success, seedling morphology, and seedling production by comparing experimental assemblages of seeds collected from single reproductive shoots ("monocultures") to assemblages of seeds collected from multiple reproductive shoots ("polycultures")...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911998/tropical-forest-loss-and-its-multitrophic-effects-on-insect-herbivory
#3
José Carlos Morante-Filho, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Madelon Lohbeck, Teja Tscharntke, Deborah Faria
Forest loss threatens biodiversity, but its potential effects on multitrophic ecological interactions are poorly understood. Insect herbivory depends on complex bottom-up (e.g., resource availability and plant antiherbivore defenses) and top-down forces (e.g., abundance of predators and herbivorous), but its determinants in human-altered tropical landscapes are largely unknown. Using structural equation models, we assessed the direct and indirect effects of forest loss on insect herbivory in 40 landscapes (115 ha each) from two regions with contrasting land-use change trajectories in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908625/a-novel-integrated-modelling-framework-to-assess-the-impacts-of-climate-and-socio-economic-drivers-on-land-use-and-water-quality
#4
Matthias Zessner, Martin Schönhart, Juraj Parajka, Helene Trautvetter, Hermine Mitter, Mathias Kirchner, Gerold Hepp, Alfred Paul Blaschke, Birgit Strenn, Erwin Schmid
Changes in climatic conditions will directly affect the quality and quantity of water resources. Further on, they will affect them indirectly through adaptation in land use which ultimately influences diffuse nutrient emissions to rivers and therefore potentially the compliance with good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). We present an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to track and quantify direct and indirect pollution impacts along policy-economy-climate-agriculture-water interfaces...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905533/five-key-attributes-can-increase-marine-protected-areas-performance-for-small-scale-fisheries-management
#5
Antonio Di Franco, Pierre Thiriet, Giuseppe Di Carlo, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Patrice Francour, Nicolas L Gutiérrez, Alain Jeudy de Grissac, Drosos Koutsoubas, Marco Milazzo, María Del Mar Otero, Catherine Piante, Jeremiah Plass-Johnson, Susana Sainz-Trapaga, Luca Santarossa, Sergi Tudela, Paolo Guidetti
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have largely proven to be effective tools for conserving marine ecosystem, while socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs to fisheries are still under debate. Many MPAs embed a no-take zone, aiming to preserve natural populations and ecosystems, within a buffer zone where potentially sustainable activities are allowed. Small-scale fisheries (SSF) within buffer zones can be highly beneficial by promoting local socio-economies. However, guidelines to successfully manage SSFs within MPAs, ensuring both conservation and fisheries goals, and reaching a win-win scenario, are largely unavailable...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905270/gastrointestinal-helminth-fauna-of-rodents-from-cambodia-emphasizing-the-community-ecology-of-host-parasite-associations
#6
K Chaisiri, M Chou, C C Siew, S Morand, A Ribas
Extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. Gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of Cambodia (Krong Preah Sihanouk, Mondolkiri, Pursat and Steung Treng). The average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0-64.7%), and 19 helminth taxa were identified in total...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905044/modulatory-effect-of-the-exudates-released-by-the-brown-kelp-lessonia-spicata-on-the-toxicity-of-copper-in-early-developmental-stages-of-ecologically-related-organisms
#7
Alexandre Fellous, Santiago Andrade, Francisco Vidal-Ramirez, Ricardo Calderón, Jessica Beltran, Juan A Correa
Lessonia spicata is a key dominant species along the Pacific coast of South America, providing a habitat for many organisms. However, this role can be affected by abiotic stress, such as metals. To counteract the toxic effect, L. spicata, among other seaweeds, releases exudates that bind metals. In this study, tolerances to copper of organisms related to the kelp forest (spores of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) and L. spicata (Phaeophyceae) and Zoea I of Taliepus dentatus (Milne-Edwards, Crustacea)) were studied; then, exudates are assessed by their protective effect...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899929/efficient-identification-of-the-forest-tree-species-in-aceraceae-using-dna-barcodes
#8
Yu-Wei Han, Dong Duan, Xiong-Feng Ma, Yun Jia, Zhan-Lin Liu, Gui-Fang Zhao, Zhong-Hu Li
Aceraceae is a large forest tree family that comprises many economically and ecologically important species. However, because interspecific and/or intraspecific morphological variations result from frequent interspecific hybridization and introgression, it is challenging for non-taxonomists to accurately recognize and identify the tree species in Aceraceae based on a traditional approach. DNA barcoding is a powerful tool that has been proposed to accurately distinguish between species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of three core standard markers (matK, rbcL and ITS) plus the chloroplast locus trnS-trnG as Aceraceae barcodes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898671/prevalence-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-districts-of-high-and-low-endemicity-in-mali
#9
Bourama Traoré, Fabiano Oliveira, Ousmane Faye, Adama Dicko, Cheick A Coulibaly, Ibrahim M Sissoko, Samake Sibiry, Nafomon Sogoba, Moussa Brema Sangare, Yaya I Coulibaly, Pierre Traore, Sekou F Traore, Jennifer M Anderson, Somita Keita, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Seydou Doumbia
Historically the western sahelian dry regions of Mali are known to be highly endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major, while cases are rarely reported from the Southern savanna forest of the country. Here, we report baseline prevalence of CL infection in 3 ecologically distinct districts of Mali (dry sahelian, north savanna and southern savanna forest areas). We screened 195 to 250 subjects from 50 to 60 randomly selected households in each of the 6 villages (four from the western sahelian district of Diema in Kayes region, one from the central district of Kolokani and one from the southern savanna district of Kolodieba, region of Sikasso)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896023/ceratopogonidae-diptera-nematocera-of-the-piedmont-of-the-yungas-forests-of-tucum%C3%A3-n-ecology-and-distribution
#10
José Manuel Direni Mancini, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani-Aybar, Ana Denise Fuenzalida, Mercedes Sara Lizarralde de Grosso, María Gabriela Quintana
Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895628/nearshore-pelagic-microbial-community-abundance-affects-recruitment-success-of-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera
#11
Megan M Morris, John M Haggerty, Bhavya N Papudeshi, Alejandro A Vega, Matthew S Edwards, Elizabeth A Dinsdale
Marine microbes mediate key ecological processes in kelp forest ecosystems and interact with macroalgae. Pelagic and biofilm-associated microbes interact with macroalgal propagules at multiple stages of recruitment, yet these interactions have not been described for Macrocystis pyrifera. Here we investigate the influence of microbes from coastal environments on recruitment of giant kelp, M. pyrifera. Through repeated laboratory experiments, we tested the effects of altered pelagic microbial abundance on the settlement and development of the microscopic propagules of M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893157/brown-world-forests-increased-ungulate-browsing-keeps-temperate-trees-in-recruitment-bottlenecks-in-resource-hotspots
#12
Marcin Churski, Jakub W Bubnicki, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Dries P J Kuijper, Joris P G M Cromsigt
Plant biomass consumers (mammalian herbivory and fire) are increasingly seen as major drivers of ecosystem structure and function but the prevailing paradigm in temperate forest ecology is still that their dynamics are mainly bottom-up resource-controlled. Using conceptual advances from savanna ecology, particularly the demographic bottleneck model, we present a novel view on temperate forest dynamics that integrates consumer and resource control. We used a fully factorial experiment, with varying levels of ungulate herbivory and resource (light) availability, to investigate how these factors shape recruitment of five temperate tree species...
November 28, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892680/artificial-light-at-night-and-cancer-global-study
#13
Redhwan Ahmed Al-Naggar, Shirin Anil
Background: Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been linked to increased risk of cancers in body sites like the breast and colorectum. However exposure of ALAN as an environmental risk factor and its relation to cancers in humans has never been studied in detail. Objective: To explore the association of ALAN with all forms of cancers in 158 countries. Materials and Methods: An ecological study encompassing global data was conducted from January to June 2015, with age-standardized rates (ASR) of cancers as the outcome measure...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889926/nutritional-ecology-of-wild-bornean-orangutans-pongo-pygmaeus-wurmbii-in-a-peat-swamp-habitat-effects-of-age-sex-and-season
#14
Erin R Vogel, Shauhin E Alavi, Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko, Maria A van Noordwijk, Timothy D Bransford, Wendy M Erb, Astri Zulfa, Fransiska Sulistyo, Wartika Rosa Farida, Jessica M Rothman
: The spatial and temporal variation in food abundance has strong effects on wildlife feeding and nutrition. This variation is exemplified by the peatland forests of Central Kalimantan, which are characterized by unpredictable fruiting fluctuations, relatively low levels of fruit availability, and low fruit periods (<3% of trees fruiting) that can last nearly a year. Challenged by these environments, large, arboreal frugivores like orangutans must periodically rely on non-preferred, lower-quality foods to meet their nutritional needs...
November 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886331/effect-of-fragmentation-on-the-natural-genetic-diversity-of-theobroma-speciosum-willd-ex-spreng-populations
#15
T L Varella, A A B Rossi, J F E Dardengo, G F Silveira, M D A Souza, M L S Carvalho
Forest fragmentation reduces the effective size of natural populations, isolates individuals in the landscape, and, consequently, changes species' mating systems by increasing the degree of relatedness between individuals and inbreeding. Investigating the impact of habitat degradation on forest fragments helps to assess the genetic and ecological consequences of these changes, and allows the development of effective and sustainable conservation strategies to manage the genetic resources of species living in degraded landscapes...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885171/sapfluxnet-towards-a-global-database-of-sap-flow-measurements
#16
EDITORIAL
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Maurizio Mencuccini, Kathy Steppe, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world...
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882647/host-and-tissue-variation-overshadow-the-response-of-boreal-moss-associated-fungal-communities-to-increased-nitrogen-load
#17
Marie L Davey, Marte J Skogen, Einar Heegaard, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud, Mikael Ohlson
Human activity has more than doubled the amount of nitrogen entering the global nitrogen cycle, and the boreal forest biome is a nitrogen-limited ecosystem sensitive to nitrogen load perturbation. Although bryophyte-associated microbes contribute significantly to boreal forest ecosystem function, particularly in carbon and nitrogen cycling, little is known about their responses to anthropogenic global change. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of rDNA was used to investigate how fungal communities associated with three bryophyte species responded to increased nitrogen loads in a long-term fertilization experiment in a boreal Picea abies forest in southern Norway...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880949/ecological-and-behavioural-factors-influencing-territorial-call-rates-for-the-bolivian-titi-monkeys-plecturocebus-modestus-and-plecturocebus-olallae
#18
Jesus Martinez, Robert B Wallace
Primate territorial calls have been used to locate groups in censuses. Daily variations in call rates are a potential source of error in these studies. To obtain more accurate estimations of population density it is necessary to determine how much variation there is in group call rates and to identify the factors that influence them. We present data on the emission of territorial calls by two threatened and endemic titi monkeys in Bolivia: Plecturocebus olallae and P. modestus. We found interspecific differences in daily call rates (52% P...
November 24, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878095/on-the-influence-of-provenance-to-soil-quality-enhanced-stress-reaction-of-young-beech-trees-to-summer-drought
#19
Constanze Buhk, Marcel Kämmer, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Anke Jentsch, Jürgen Kreyling, Hermann F Jungkunst
Climate projections propose that drought stress will become challenging for establishing trees. The magnitude of stress is dependent on tree species, provenance, and most likely also highly influenced by soil quality. European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) is of major ecological and economical importance in Central European forests. The species has an especially wide physiological and ecological amplitude enabling growth under various soil conditions within its distribution area in Central Europe. We studied the effects of extreme drought on beech saplings (second year) of four climatically distinct provenances growing on different soils (sandy loam and loamy sand) in a full factorial pot experiment...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876648/mosquitoes-of-the-caatinga-1-adults-stage-survey-and-the-emerge-of-seven-news-species-endemic-of-a-dry-tropical-forest-in-brazil
#20
Letícia Silva Marteis, Delsio Natal, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Antônio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Tatiane Marques Porangaba Oliveira, Roseli La Corte
The Caatinga is the least known Brazilian biome in terms of the diversity of Culicidae. No systematic study of the diversity or ecology of the mosquitoes of this biome is available, despite the importance of vector diseases in Brazil. The present study addressed the mosquito biodiversity in the Caatinga biome by sampling adult populations. Specimens were sampled monthly from March 2013 to September 2014 in a Caatinga conservation unit located in the Brazilian semiarid zone. Mosquito collections were carried out in Shannon traps from late afternoon to early evening, and manual aspiration was used to capture diurnal species as well...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
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