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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544612/ecology-adaptation-and-function-of-methane-sulfidic-spring-water-biofilm-microorganisms-including-a-strain-of-anaerobic-fungus-mucor-hiemalis
#1
Enamul Hoque, Johannes Fritscher
Ecological aspects, adaptation, and some functions of a special biofilm and its unique key anaerobic fungus Mucor hiemalis strain EH11 isolated from a pristine spring (Künzing, Bavaria, Germany) are described. The spring's pure nature is characterized by, for example, bubbling methane, marine-salinity, mild hydrothermal (~19.1°C), sulfidic, and reductive-anoxic (Eh : -241 to -253 mV, O2 : ≤ 0.1 mg/L) conditions. It is geoecologically located at the border zone between Bavarian Forest (crystalline rocky mountains) and the moor-like Danube River valley, where geological displacements bring the spring's water from the deeper layers of former marine sources up to the surface...
May 24, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542268/consistent-multi-level-trophic-effects-of-marine-reserve-protection-across-northern-new-zealand
#2
Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Russell J Thomson, Debbie J Freeman
Through systematic Reef Life Survey censuses of rocky reef fishes, invertebrates and macroalgae at eight marine reserves across northern New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, we investigated whether a system of no-take marine reserves generates consistent biodiversity outcomes. Ecological responses of reef assemblages to protection from fishing, including potential trophic cascades, were assessed using a control-impact design for the six marine reserves studied with associated reference sites, and also by comparing observations at reserve sites with predictions from random forest models that assume reserve locations are fished...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538812/climatically-mediated-landcover-change-impacts-on-brazilian-territory
#3
Marina Zanin, Geiziane Tessarolo, Nathália Machado, Ana Luisa M Albernaz
In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. However, the lack of distribution data makes predictions at species level a difficult task, mainly in regions of higher biodiversity. To overcome this problem, we use native landcover as a surrogate biodiversity, because it can represent specialized habitat for species, and investigate the effects of future climate change on Brazilian biomes. We characterize the climatic niches of native landcover and use ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533968/changes-in-the-spatial-and-temporal-pattern-of-natural-forest-cover-on-hainan-island-from-the-1950s-to-the-2010s-implications-for-natural-forest-conservation-and-management
#4
Siliang Lin, Yaozhu Jiang, Jiekun He, Guangzhi Ma, Yang Xu, Haisheng Jiang
The study of the past, present, and future state and dynamics of the tropical natural forest cover (NFC) might help to better understand the pattern of deforestation and fragmentation as well as the influence of social and natural processes. The obtained information will support the development of effective conservation policies and strategies. In the present study, we used historical data of the road network, topography, and climatic productivity to reconstruct NFC maps of Hainan Island, China, from the 1950s to the 2010s, using the random forest algorithm...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533204/diverse-early-dwarf-mistletoes-arceuthobium-ecological-keystones-of-the-eocene-baltic-amber-biota
#5
Eva-Maria Sadowski, Leyla J Seyfullah, Carol A Wilson, Clyde L Calvin, Alexander R Schmidt
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Extant dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium M. Bieb., Viscaceae) are hemiparasites with complex roles in nature. They are one of the most severe pests in northern hemisphere conifer forests, but they also enhance the structural complexity and species diversity of the forests. Here, we describe the first pre-Miocene macrofossils of dwarf mistletoes. The fossils from Eocene Baltic amber provide new insights into the morphological evolution of the Arceuthobium lineage and its paleobiogeography...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531969/biogeographical-factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-stream-salamanders-on-the-cumberland-plateau-usa
#6
P R Gould, K K Cecala, S S Drukker, B A McKenzie, C Van de Ven
Geophysical and climate conditions play an important role in the distribution of organisms at both fine and broad scales. Headwater streams integrate changes at broad geographical scales and serve as important regions of nutrient processing and support high biodiversity. Stream salamanders are important members of headwater aquatic communities as both predators and prey. Combined with their biphasic life histories and physiological requirements, stream amphibians may serve as indicators for headwater stream conditions...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531796/spatially-explicit-modeling-of-multi-scale-drivers-of-aboveground-forest-biomass-and-water-yield-in-watersheds-of-the-southeastern-united-states
#7
Mukhtar Ahmed Ajaz Ahmed, Amr Abd-Elrahman, Francisco J Escobedo, Wendell P Cropper, Timothy A Martin, Nilesh Timilsina
Understanding ecosystem processes and the influence of regional scale drivers can provide useful information for managing forest ecosystems. Examining more local scale drivers of forest biomass and water yield can also provide insights for identifying and better understanding the effects of climate change and management on forests. We used diverse multi-scale datasets, functional models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to model ecosystem processes at the watershed scale and to interpret the influence of ecological drivers across the Southeastern United States (SE US)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527739/local-people-s-knowledge-with-regard-to-land-use-activities-in-southwest-madagascar-conceptual-insights-for-sustainable-land-management
#8
Nadine V M Fritz-Vietta, H Stone Tahirindraza, Susanne Stoll-Kleemann
Environmental conditions in the Mahafaly Plateau region in southwest Madagascar are harsh, with a long dry season and a short rainy season. The local people's land use capabilities and skills are adapted to these conditions. Nevertheless, they are currently confronted by drastic climatic changes, including longer dry seasons, which have resulted in food and water scarcities. It is therefore essential to ensure sustainable land management in the region. At present, the main land use activities are agriculture, livestock farming, natural resource collection including timber and non-timber forest products, and the practice of local customs...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516254/use-of-muscular-cholinesterase-of-astyanax-bifasciatus-teleostei-characidae-as-a-biomarker-in-biomonitoring-of-rural-streams
#9
Jardel Nimet, Ana Tereza Bittencourt Guimarães, Rosilene Luciana Delariva
Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was measured in Astyanax bifasciatus maintained in controlled conditions. Muscle ChE activity of individuals collected in field conditions in two seasons was compared among specimens collected in seven streams (forest and rural) of the lower Iguaçu river basin in association with physical, chemical, pesticides and biological factors. Significant differences in muscle ChE activity between control fish and fish collected in streams in both seasons were found, with higher activity in natural conditions...
May 17, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509658/haemosporidian-parasites-of-reptiles-and-birds-from-gabon-central-africa
#10
Larson Boundenga, Susan L Perkins, Benjamin Ollomo, Virginie Rougeron, Eric M Leroy, François Renaud, Franck Prugnolle
Haemosporidian parasites are protozoans that infect many different vertebrates hosts. Re-examination of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites, using molecular tools, has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting two genera of vertebrates living in the forests of Gabon, by analyzing a collection of 128 samples of reptiles and birds. We found that samples from two tortoise species (Pelusios castaneus and Kinixys erosa) and three bird species (Turtur afer, Ceratogymna atrata and Agelastes niger) were infected by Haemocystidium spp...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506468/-impact-of-cork-oak-management-on-the-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-associated-with-quercus-suber-in-the-m%C3%A3-amora-forest-morocco
#11
Fatima Z Maghnia, Hervé Sanguin, Younes Abbas, Marcello Verdinelli, Benaissa Kerdouh, Naima El Ghachtouli, Enrico Lancellotti, Salah Eddine Bakkali Yakhlef, Robin Duponnois
The cork oak forest is an ecosystem playing a major role in Moroccan socio-economy and biodiversity conservation. However, this ecosystem is negatively impacted by extensive human- and climate-driven pressures, causing a strong decrease in its distribution and a worsening of the desertification processes. This study aims at characterising the impact of cork oak forest management on a major actor of its functioning, the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal community associated with Quercus suber, and the determination of EcM bio-indicators...
May 11, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505889/vegetation-dynamics-and-responses-to-climate-change-and-human-activities-in-central-asia
#12
Liangliang Jiang, Guli Jiapaer, Anming Bao, Hao Guo, Felix Ndayisaba
Knowledge of the current changes and dynamics of different types of vegetation in relation to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities is critical for developing adaptation strategies to address the challenges posed by climate change and human activities for ecosystems. Based on a regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index method, this research investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships between vegetation greenness and climatic factors in Central Asia using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded high-resolution station (land) data for the period 1984-2013...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505349/decline-of-ecological-functions-performed-by-dung-beetles-in-areas-of-atlantic-forest-and-contribution-of-rollers-and-tunnellers-in-organic-matter-removal
#13
M Batilani-Filho, M I M Hernandez
The feeding behavior of the Scarabaeinae subfamily has positive implications on ecosystem functioning. We characterize the necrophagous and coprophagous dung beetle assemblages, and we quantify the removal of swine carrion and domestic dog dung in two areas with different degrees of environmental disturbance in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. The experiment was setup at eight sampling points in each area, by installing one control and two collection and removal assessment arenas for collecting necrophagous dung beetles while simultaneously evaluating the removal of carrion (50 g of rotting pork for 48 h)...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500791/fire-catalyzed-rapid-ecological-change-in-lowland-coniferous-forests-of-the-pacific-northwest-over-the-past-14-000-years
#14
Shelley D Crausbay, Philip E Higuera, Douglas G Sprugel, Linda B Brubaker
Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500789/atlantic-small-mammal-a-dataset-of-communities-of-rodents-and-marsupials-of-the-atlantic-forests-of-south-america
#15
Ricardo S Bovendorp, Nacho Villar, Edson F de Abreu-Junior, Carolina Bello, André L Regolin, Alexandre R Percequillo, Mauro Galetti
The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499157/identify-temporal-trend-of-air-temperature-and-its-impact-on-forest-stream-flow-in-lower-mississippi-river-alluvial-valley-using-wavelet-analysis
#16
Ying Ouyang, Prem B Parajuli, Yide Li, Theodor D Leininger, Gary Feng
Characterization of stream flow is essential to water resource management, water supply planning, environmental protection, and ecological restoration; while air temperature variation due to climate change can exacerbate stream flow and add instability to the flow. In this study, the wavelet analysis technique was employed to identify temporal trend of air temperature and its impact upon forest stream flows in Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV). Four surface water monitoring stations, which locate near the headwater areas with very few land use disturbances and the long-term data records (60-90 years) in the LMRAV, were selected to obtain stream discharge and air temperature data...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497577/the-least-speciose-amongst-the-most-speciose-natural-history-correlates-of-mono-and-bispecific-genera-of-rodentia-and-soricomorpha
#17
Giovanni Amori, Alessandra Maria Bissattini, Spartaco Gippoliti, Leonardo Vignoli, Luigi Maiorano, Luca Luiselli
Mono-and bispecific genera are of special concern as they represent unique phylogenetic/evolutionary trajectories within larger clades. In addition, as phylogenetically older taxa are supposed to be exposed to higher rarity and extinction risk, mono- and bispecific genera may be intrinsically more prone to extinction risks than multispecies genera, although extinction risks also depend on the ecological and biological strategy of the species. Here, the distribution across biogeographical zones and the threatening levels of two speciose orders of mammals (mono- and bispecific genera of Rodentia and Soricomorpha) are investigated in order to highlight major patterns at the worldwide scale...
May 11, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494421/forest-protected-areas-governance-in-zimbabwe-shift-needed-away-from-a-long-history-of-local-community-exclusion
#18
V T Mutekwa, J Gambiza
In this literature review based paper we explored the concept of exclusion of local communities from accessing resources in forest protected areas (FPAs) in Zimbabwe. We discussed the colonial and post-colonial forms, causes and mechanisms of exclusion and their social, economic and ecological outcomes. We examined the range of powers embodied in and exercised through various mechanisms, processes and social relations and their impact on local communities' access to FPA resources and associated benefits along the historical trajectory of forest governance in Zimbabwe...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494288/growth-trends-of-beech-and-norway-spruce-in-switzerland-the-role-of-nitrogen-deposition-ozone-mineral-nutrition-and-climate
#19
Sabine Braun, Christian Schindler, Beat Rihm
Understanding the effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate on tree growth is important for planning sustainable forest management also in the future. The complex interplay of all these factors cannot be covered by experiments. Here we use observational data of mature forests for studying associations of various biotic and abiotic factors with tree growth. A 30year time series on basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. in Switzerland was analyzed to evaluate the development in relation to a variety of predictors...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494086/functional-ecology-of-soil-microbial-communities-along-a-glacier-forefield-in-tierra-del-fuego-chile
#20
Miguel A Fernández-Martínez, Stephen B Pointing, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, María Arróniz-Crespo, T G Allan Green, Ricardo Rozzi, Leopoldo G Sancho, Asunción de Los Ríos
A previously established chronosequence from Pia Glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) containing soils of different ages (from bare soils to forest ones) is analyzed. We used this chronosequence as framework to postulate that microbial successional development would be accompanied by changes in functionality. To test this, the GeoChip functional microarray was used to identify diversity of genes involved in microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as other genes related to microbial stress response and biotic interactions...
September 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
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