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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785463/the-north-american-forest-database-going-beyond-national-level-forest-resource-assessment-statistics
#1
W Brad Smith, Rubí Angélica Cuenca Lara, Carina Edith Delgado Caballero, Carlos Isaías Godínez Valdivia, Joseph S Kapron, Juan Carlos Leyva Reyes, Carmen Lourdes Meneses Tovar, Patrick D Miles, Sonja N Oswalt, Mayra Ramírez Salgado, Xilong Alex Song, Graham Stinson, Sergio Armando Villela Gaytán
Forests cannot be managed sustainably without reliable data to inform decisions. National Forest Inventories (NFI) tend to report national statistics, with sub-national stratification based on domestic ecological classification systems. It is becoming increasingly important to be able to report statistics on ecosystems that span international borders, as global change and globalization expand stakeholders' spheres of concern. The state of a transnational ecosystem can only be properly assessed by examining the entire ecosystem...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785342/occurrence-of-termites-isoptera-on-living-and-standing-dead-trees-in-a-tropical-dry-forest-in-mexico
#2
Nancy Calderón-Cortés, Luis H Escalera-Vázquez, Ken Oyama
Termites play a key role as ecosystem engineers in numerous ecological processes though their role in the dynamics of wood degradation in tropical dry forests, particularly at the level of the crown canopy, has been little studied. In this study, we analysed the occurrence of termites in the forest canopy by evaluating the density and proportion of living and standing dead trees associated with termites in deciduous and riparian habitats of the tropical dry forest in Chamela, Mexico. The results indicated that 60-98% of standing dead trees and 23-59% of living trees in Chamela were associated with termites...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785338/coarse-and-fine-scale-patterns-of-distribution-and-habitat-selection-places-an-amazonian-floodplain-curassow-in-double-jeopardy
#3
Gabriel A Leite, Izeni P Farias, André L S Gonçalves, Joseph E Hawes, Carlos A Peres
Patterns of habitat selection are influenced by local productivity, resource availability, and predation risk. Species have taken millions of years to hone the macro- and micro-habitats they occupy, but these may now overlap with contemporary human threats within natural species ranges. Wattled Curassow ( Crax globulosa ), an endemic galliform species of the western Amazon, is threatened by both hunting and habitat loss, and is restricted to white-water floodplain forests of major Amazonian rivers. In this study conducted along the Juruá River, Amazonas, Brazil, we quantified the ranging ecology and fine-scale patterns of habitat selection of the species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783880/ethnography-of-a-parasite-a-quantitative-ethnographic-observation-of-forest-malaria-in-the-amazon-basin
#4
Alejandro Feged-Rivadeneira, Sian Evans
AIMS: Malaria in the Amazon basin is persistently more prevalent among low density populations (1-4 people/[Formula: see text]). Describing malaria transmission in small populations, such as ethnic minorities in the Amazon basin, living in reserves in groups that amount to 110-450 individuals, is fundamental for the implementation of adequate interventions. Here, we examine malaria transmission in a context of high prevalence in a small population of Nükak ethnicity (ethnic group [Formula: see text] individuals, study group, [Formula: see text] individuals) living in the peri-urban area of a city with [Formula: see text] inhabitants in the Amazon basin...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781797/from-plants-to-nematodes-serratia-grimesii-bxf1-genome-reveals-an-adaptation-to-the-modulation-of-multi-species-interactions
#5
Francisco Nascimento, Cláudia Vicente, Peter Cock, Maria Tavares, Márcio Rossi, Koichi Hasegawa, Manuel Mota
Serratia grimesii BXF1 is a bacterium with the ability to modulate the development of several eukaryotic hosts. Strain BXF1 was isolated from the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease affecting pine forests worldwide. This bacterium potentiates Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reproduction, acts as a beneficial pine endophyte, and possesses fungal and bacterial antagonistic activities, further indicating a complex role in a wide range of trophic relationships. In this work, we describe and analyse the genome sequence of strain BXF1, and discuss several important aspects of its ecological role...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780172/a-spatially-integrated-framework-for-assessing-socioecological-drivers-of-carnivore-decline
#6
Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A V St John, Elke Schüttler, David W Macdonald, Zoe G Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human-predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively.We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and people coexist...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777687/physiological-stress-responses-in-wild-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-in-the-western-ghats-southern-india
#7
Sreedhar Vijayakrishnan, Mavatur Ananda Kumar, G Umapathy, Vinod Kumar, Anindya Sinha
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773336/seasonal-dynamics-geographical-range-size-hosts-genetic-diversity-and-phylogeography-of-amblyomma-sculptum-in-argentina
#8
Evelina L Tarragona, Patrick S Sebastian, María N Saracho Bottero, Emilia I Martinez, Valeria N Debárbora, Atilio J Mangold, Alberto A Guglielmone, Santiago Nava
The aim of this work was to generate knowledge on ecological aspects of Amblyomma sculptum in Argentina, such as seasonal dynamics, geographical range size, hosts, genetic diversity and phylogeography. Adult and immature A. sculptum ticks were collected in different localities of Argentina to know the geographical range size and hosts. The genetic diversity of this tick was studied through analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. To describe the seasonal dynamics, free-living ticks were monthly collected from October 2013 to October 2015...
April 27, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771923/invasion-complexity-at-large-spatial-scales-is-an-emergent-property-of-interactions-among-landscape-characteristics-and-invader-traits
#9
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Adam S Davis, Nicholas R Jordan, James D Forester
Invasion potential should be part of the evaluation of candidate species for any species introduction. However, estimating invasion risks remains a challenging problem, particularly in complex landscapes. Certain plant traits are generally considered to increase invasive potential and there is an understanding that landscapes influence invasions dynamics, but little research has been done to explore how those drivers of invasions interact. We evaluate the relative roles of, and potential interactions between, plant invasiveness traits and landscape characteristics on invasions with a case study using a model parameterized for the potentially invasive biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768699/near-infrared-spectrometry-allows-fast-and-extensive-predictions-of-functional-traits-from-dry-leaves-and-branches
#10
Flávia R C Costa, Carla Lang, Danilo R A Almeida, Carolina V Castilho, Lourens Poorter
The linking of individual functional traits to ecosystem processes is the basis for making generalizations in ecology, but the measurement of individual values is laborious and time consuming, preventing large-scale trait mapping. Also, in hyper-diverse systems, errors occur because identification is difficult, and species level values ignore intra-specific variation. To allow extensive trait mapping at the individual level, we evaluated the potential of Fourrier-Transformed Near Infra-Red Spectrometry (FT-NIR) to adequately describe 14 traits that are key for plant carbon, water, and nutrient balance...
May 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767431/vocal-repertoire-of-free-ranging-adult-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#11
Penglai Fan, Xuecong Liu, Ruoshuang Liu, Fang Li, Tianpeng Huang, Feng Wu, Hui Yao, Dingzhen Liu
Vocal signaling represents a primary mode of communication for most nonhuman primates. A quantitative description of the vocal repertoire is a critical step in in-depth studies of the vocal communication of particular species, and provides the foundation for comparative studies to investigate the selective pressures in the evolution of vocal communication systems. The present study was the first attempt to establish the vocal repertoire of free-ranging adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on quantitative methods...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765619/contrasting-ecological-roles-of-non-native-ungulates-in-a-novel-ecosystem
#12
Ann Marie Gawel, Haldre S Rogers, Ross H Miller, Alexander M Kerr
Conservation has long focused on preserving or restoring pristine ecosystems. However, understanding and managing novel ecosystems has grown in importance as they outnumber pristine ecosystems worldwide. While non-native species may be neutral or detrimental in pristine ecosystems, it is possible that even notorious invaders could play beneficial or mixed roles in novel ecosystems. We examined the effects of two long-established non-native species-Philippine deer ( Rusa marianna ) and feral pigs ( Sus scrofa )-in Guam, Micronesia, where native vertebrate frugivores are functionally absent leaving forests devoid of seed dispersers...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758911/a-hybrid-land-water-environment-model-for-identification-of-ecological-effect-and-risk-under-uncertain-meteorological-precipitation-in-an-agroforestry-ecosystem
#13
Xueting Zeng, Tienan Li, Cong Chen, Zhenjiang Si, Guohe Huang, Ping Guo, Xiaowen Zhuang
In this study, a hybrid land-water-environment (LWE) model is developed for identifying ecological effect and risk under uncertain precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem. A simulation-based fuzzy-stochastic programming with risk analysis (SFSR) method is used into LWE model to reflect the meteorological impacts; meanwhile, it also can quantify artificial fuzziness (e.g., risk attitude of policymaker) and natural vagueness (e.g., ecological function) in decision-making. The developed LWE model with SFSR method is applied to a practical agroforestry ecosystem in China...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758869/food-preference-and-ecotoxicological-tests-with-millipedes-in-litter-contaminated-with-mercury
#14
Andressa Cristhy Buch, Cristina Lúcia Silveira Sisinno, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Emmanoel Vieira Silva-Filho
Worldwide, various guidelines and directives for human health and the environment aim to reduce anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission. Forest ecosystems are natural sinks of this element, transferring it from the atmosphere to litter and soil. Millipedes play an important role in litter/soil and may be negatively affected by contamination. As a pioneering contribution to ecotoxicological test guidelines with millipedes in litter, the present study evaluated food preference of millipedes and mercury toxicity, to prevent interference of food types in toxicity responses...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751404/can-a-growth-model-be-used-to-describe-forest-carbon-and-water-balance-after-fuel-reduction-burning-in-temperate-forests
#15
Mana Gharun, Malcolm Possell, R Willem Vervoort, Mark A Adams, Tina L Bell
Empirical evidence from Australia shows that fuel reduction burning significantly reduces the incidence and extent of unplanned fires. However, the integration of environmental values into fire management operations is not yet well-defined and requires further research and development. WAVES, a plant growth model that incorporates Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer, was used to simulate the hydrological and ecological effects of three fuel management scenarios on a forest ecosystem. WAVES was applied using inputs from a set of forest plots for one year after three potential scenarios: (1) all litter removed, (2) all litter and 50% of the understorey removed, (3) all litter and understorey removed...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751296/urban-stormwater-run-off-promotes-compression-of-saltmarshes-by-freshwater-plants-and-mangrove-forests
#16
Ina Geedicke, Jens Oldeland, Michelle R Leishman
Subtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh of Australia is listed as an endangered ecological community under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC Act). Saltmarshes are under threat from sea level rise, landward migration of mangroves, and in urban regions from habitat loss, input of litter, nutrients, and other contaminants. In urbanised catchments, saltmarsh areas receive nutrient-enriched and pollutant-contaminated run-off, such as heavy metals, through the stormwater system...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748934/legacy-effects-of-land-use-modulate-tree-growth-responses-to-climate-extremes
#17
Katharina Mausolf, Werner Härdtle, Kirstin Jansen, Benjamin M Delory, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner, Vicky M Temperton, Goddert von Oheimb, Andreas Fichtner
Climate change can impact forest ecosystem processes via individual tree and community responses. While the importance of land-use legacies in modulating these processes have been increasingly recognised, evidence of former land-use mediated climate-growth relationships remain rare. We analysed how differences in former land-use (i.e. forest continuity) affect the growth response of European beech to climate extremes. Here, using dendrochronological and fine root data, we show that ancient forests (forests with a long forest continuity) and recent forests (forests afforested on former farmland) clearly differ with regard to climate-growth relationships...
May 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748910/does-the-increase-in-ambient-co-2-concentration-elevate-allergy-risks-posed-by-oak-pollen
#18
Kyu Rang Kim, Jae-Won Oh, Su-Young Woo, Yun Am Seo, Young-Jin Choi, Hyun Seok Kim, Wi Young Lee, Baek-Jo Kim
Oak pollen is a major respiratory allergen in Korea, and the distribution of oak trees is expected to increase by ecological succession and climate change. One of the drivers of climate change is increasing CO2 , which is also known to amplify the allergy risk of weed pollen by inducing elevated allergenic protein content. However, the impact of CO2 concentration on tree pollen is not clearly understood due to the experimental difficulties in carrying out extended CO2 treatment. To study the response of pollen production of sawtooth oak trees (Quercus acutissima) to elevated levels of ambient CO2 , three open-top chambers at the National Institute of Forest Science in Suwon, Korea were utilized with daytime (8 am-6 pm) CO2 concentrations of ambient (× 1...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748822/vascular-plant-and-bryophyte-species-richness-in-response-to-water-quality-in-lowland-spring-niches-with-different-anthropogenic-impacts
#19
Katarzyna Puczko, Piotr Zieliński, Szymon Jusik, Anita Kołakowska, Elżbieta Jekatierynczuk-Rudczyk
Many freshwater ecosystems face severe threats from anthropogenic disturbances. In the field, we investigated the morphology of spring niches and the species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes in 16 springs, draining the quaternary aquifers, located in two different environments-an urban area (city of Białystok) and a protected area (Knyszyn Forest Landscape Park, NE Poland). In total, 47 vascular plant and 45 bryophyte species were recorded, representing mostly crenophytes including protected species...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746516/examining-the-patterns-and-dynamics-of-species-abundance-distributions-in-succession-of-forest-communities-by-model-selection
#20
Zuo-Yun Yin, Lu Zeng, Shao-Ming Luo, Ping Chen, Xiao He, Wei Guo, Bailian Li
There are a few common species and many rare species in a biological community or a multi-species collection in given space and time. This hollow distribution curve is called species abundance distribution (SAD). Few studies have examined the patterns and dynamics of SADs during the succession of forest communities by model selection. This study explored whether the communities in different successional stages followed different SAD models and whether there existed a best SAD model to reveal their intrinsic quantitative features of structure and dynamics in succession...
2018: PloS One
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