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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224627/nitrogen-deposition-cancels-out-exotic-earthworm-effects-on-plant-feeding-nematode-communities
#1
Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang, Shenglei Fu
1.The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222924/assessing-anthropogenic-pressures-on-streams-a-random-forest-approach-based-on-benthic-diatom-communities
#2
Floriane Larras, Romain Coulaud, Edwige Gautreau, Elise Billoir, Juliette Rosebery, Philippe Usseglio-Polatera
Benthic diatoms have been widely used to assess the ecological status of freshwater ecosystems, especially in the context of recent international water framework directive policies (e.g. the WFD). Despite diatom-based indices are known to respond fastly to water quality degradation, they are not designed to precisely identify the nature of pressures co-occurring in the environment. Based on large scale monitoring data, we aimed at building models able to estimate the risk of stream impairment by many types of anthropogenic pressures from taxonomy-based and trait-based characteristics of diatom assemblages...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220635/kyasanur-forest-disease-virus-breaking-the-endemic-barrier-an%C3%A2-investigation-into-ecological-effects-on-disease-emergence-and-future-outlook
#3
K Ajesh, B K Nagaraja, K Sreejith
Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is found in a limited range of India, but is epidemiologically understudied. The seasonal patterns of KFD are well known; however, the significant concern is on the extent to which changes in epidemiology happen especially under the influence of ecological destructions and by the eventual effects of resulting climate change. Presently, a southward and northward spread of the Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) along the Western Ghats has been reported in the adjoining states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Maharashtra...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218805/functional-nonredundancy-of-elephants-in-a-disturbed-tropical-forest
#4
Nitin Sekar, Chia-Lo Lee, Raman Sukumar
Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that the local extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, conservationists might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their range even if they are not in danger of global extinction. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218791/development-and-validation-of-the-first-ssr-markers-for-mimosa-scabrella-benth
#5
F A Saiki, A P Bernardi, M S Reis, H Faoro, E M Souza, F O Pedrosa, A Mantovani, A F Guidolin
Mimosa scabrella Benth., popularly known as ''bracatinga'', is a pioneer and endemic species of Brazil, occurring in Mixed Ombrophilous Forest associated with Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biomes. It is a fast-growing tree of the Fabaceae family that facilitates the dynamics of ecological succession. SSR development, when there is no genome sequence, is time and labor intensive and there are no molecular markers for M. scabrella. We developed and validated the first microsatellite markers for this tetraploid species, evaluating mother trees and progenies...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218163/preliminary-risk-maps-for-transmission-of-kyasanur-forest-disease-in-southern-india
#6
A Townsend Peterson, Gautam Talukdar
Kyasanur forest disease is known to be transmitted across forested regions of Southern India. The disease appears to be hosted in wild mammals and transmitted by tick vectors although the diversity and identity of host and vector species remain unclear. The area across which risk exists of contracting the disease through transfer from the hosts or vectors, however, has never been mapped in detail, such that the area that surveillance, education, and investment in diagnostic facilities should cover remains unknown...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217132/effects-of-environmental-conditions-on-the-fitness-penalty-in-herbicide-resistant-brachypodium-hybridum
#7
Eyal Frenkel, Maor Matzrafi, Baruch Rubin, Zvi Peleg
Herbicide-resistance mutations may impose a fitness penalty in herbicide-free environments. Moreover, the fitness penalty associated with herbicide resistance is not a stable parameter and can be influenced by ecological factors. Here, we used two Brachypodium hybridum accessions collected from the same planted forest, sensitive (S) and target-site resistance (TSR) to photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors, to study the effect of agro-ecological parameters on fitness penalty. Both accessions were collected in the same habitat, thus, we can assume that the genetic variance between them is relatively low...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214117/evaluating-carbon-fluxes-of-global-forest-ecosystems-by-using-an-individual-tree-based-model-forcchn
#8
Jianyong Ma, Herman H Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Cougui Cao, Shuang Wu, Jing Fang
The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213498/dispersal-assembly-of-rain-forest-tree-communities-across-the-amazon-basin
#9
Kyle G Dexter, Mathew Lavin, Benjamin M Torke, Alex D Twyford, Thomas A Kursar, Phyllis D Coley, Camila Drake, Ruth Hollands, R Toby Pennington
We investigate patterns of historical assembly of tree communities across Amazonia using a newly developed phylogeny for the species-rich neotropical tree genus Inga We compare our results with those for three other ecologically important, diverse, and abundant Amazonian tree lineages, Swartzia, Protieae, and Guatteria Our analyses using phylogenetic diversity metrics demonstrate a clear lack of geographic phylogenetic structure, and show that local communities of Inga and regional communities of all four lineages are assembled by dispersal across Amazonia...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207766/climate-change-across-seasons-experiment-ccase-a-new-method-for-simulating-future-climate-in-seasonally-snow-covered-ecosystems
#10
Pamela H Templer, Andrew B Reinmann, Rebecca Sanders-DeMott, Patrick O Sorensen, Stephanie M Juice, Francis Bowles, Laura E Sofen, Jamie L Harrison, Ian Halm, Lindsey Rustad, Mary E Martin, Nicholas Grant
Climate models project an increase in mean annual air temperatures and a reduction in the depth and duration of winter snowpack for many mid and high latitude and high elevation seasonally snow-covered ecosystems over the next century. The combined effects of these changes in climate will lead to warmer soils in the growing season and increased frequency of soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) in winter due to the loss of a continuous, insulating snowpack. Previous experiments have warmed soils or removed snow via shoveling or with shelters to mimic projected declines in the winter snowpack...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205107/tree-biomass-in-the-swiss-landscape-nationwide-modelling-for-improved-accounting-for-forest-and-non-forest-trees
#11
B Price, A Gomez, L Mathys, O Gardi, A Schellenberger, C Ginzler, E Thürig
Trees outside forest (TOF) can perform a variety of social, economic and ecological functions including carbon sequestration. However, detailed quantification of tree biomass is usually limited to forest areas. Taking advantage of structural information available from stereo aerial imagery and airborne laser scanning (ALS), this research models tree biomass using national forest inventory data and linear least-square regression and applies the model both inside and outside of forest to create a nationwide model for tree biomass (above ground and below ground)...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204868/specific-vicariance-of-two-primeval-lowland-forest-lichen-indicators
#12
Dariusz Kubiak, Piotr Osyczka
To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196398/factors-of-influence-and-social-correlates-of-parturition-in-captive-campbell-s-monkeys-case-study-and-breeding-data
#13
Alban Lemasson, Ronan Jubin, Philippe Bec, Martine Hausberger
How nonhuman primates deal with birth, at the moment of delivery, and during the following days, remains poorly explored because of the unpredictability of this event, particularly for forest-dwelling arboreal species. Available studies highlight intra- and interspecific variation which suggest flexibility of the timing of delivery, of behavior associated with labor contractions and parturition, and the social context and ambient noise surrounding delivery. Here, we present the findings of a two-decade survey of reproduction in a population of captive Campbell's monkeys...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191504/distinct-biogeographic-patterns-for-archaea-bacteria-and-fungi-along-the-vegetation-gradient-at-the-continental-scale-in-eastern-china
#14
Bin Ma, Zhongmin Dai, Haizhen Wang, Melissa Dsouza, Xingmei Liu, Yan He, Jianjun Wu, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Jack A Gilbert, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The natural forest ecosystem in Eastern China, from tropical forest to boreal forest, has declined due to cropland development during the last 300 years, yet little is known about the historical biogeographic patterns and driving processes for the major domains of microorganisms along this continental-scale natural vegetation gradient. We predicted the biogeographic patterns of soil archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities across 110 natural forest sites along a transect across four vegetation zones in Eastern China...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190693/long-term-monitoring-for-conservation-management-lessons-from-a-case-study-integrating-remote-sensing-and-field-approaches-in-floodplain-forests
#15
Patricia María Rodríguez-González, António Albuquerque, Miguel Martínez-Almarza, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado
Implementing long-term monitoring programs that effectively inform conservation plans is a top priority in environmental management. In floodplain forests, historical pressures interplay with the complex multiscale dynamics of fluvial systems and require integrative approaches to pinpoint drivers for their deterioration and ecosystem services loss. Combining a conceptual framework such as the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) with the development of valid biological indicators can contribute to the analysis of the driving forces and their effects on the ecosystem in order to formulate coordinated conservation measures...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188416/keystone-species-forest-and-landscape-a-model-to-select-protected-areas
#16
Daniela Barbosa da Silva Lins, Fernando Ravanini Gardon, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo Meyer, Rozely Ferreira Dos Santos
The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185282/impacts-of-habitat-loss-and-fragmentation-on-the-activity-budget-ranging-ecology-and-habitat-use-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-the-southern-ethiopian-highlands
#17
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr Stenseth
Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184989/acidobacteria-community-responses-to-nitrogen-dose-and-form-in-chinese-fir-plantations-in-southern-china
#18
Caixia Liu, Yuhong Dong, Lingyu Hou, Nan Deng, Ruzhen Jiao
Acidobacteria is a new bacterial group, identified by molecular research, which is widely distributed and has specific ecological functions in forest soil. In this study, we investigated Acidobacteria response to N input, and the effects were related to N form and dose. The experimental design included two N forms (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) and five levels of N deposition (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 kg N ha(-1)) for 2 years. Research into the Acidobacteria community was conducted using 16Sr RNA gene-based high-throughput pyrosequencing methods...
February 9, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182628/migratory-timing-rate-routes-and-wintering-areas-of-white-crested-elaenia-elaenia-albiceps-chilensis-a-key-seed-disperser-for-patagonian-forest-regeneration
#19
Susana Patricia Bravo, Victor Rodolfo Cueto, Cristian Andrés Gorosito
Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181524/lack-of-phylogenetic-signals-within-environmental-niches-of-tropical-tree-species-across-life-stages
#20
Caicai Zhang, Jie Yang, Liqing Sha, Xiuqin Ci, Jie Li, Min Cao, Calum Brown, Nathan G Swenson, Luxiang Lin
The lasting imprint of phylogenetic history on current day ecological patterns has long intrigued biologists. Over the past decade ecologists have increasingly sought to quantify phylogenetic signals in environmental niche preferences and, especially, traits to help uncover the mechanisms driving plant community assembly. However, relatively little is known about how phylogenetic patterns in environmental niches and traits compare, leaving significant uncertainty about the ecological implications of trait-based analyses...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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