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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350498/evolutionary-assembly-of-communities-in-butterfly-mimicry-rings
#1
Jahnavi Joshi, Anupama Prakash, Krushnamegh Kunte
Species co-occurrence in ecological communities is thought to be influenced by multiple ecological and evolutionary processes, especially colonization and competition. However, effects of other interspecific interactions and evolutionary relationships are less explored. We examined evolutionary histories of community members and roles of mutualistic and parasitic interactions (Müllerian and Batesian mimicry, respectively) in the assembly of mimetic butterfly communities called mimicry rings in tropical forests of the Western Ghats, India...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342283/effects-of-predatory-ants-within-and-across-ecosystems-in-bromeliad-food-webs
#2
Ana Z Gonçalves, Diane S Srivastava, Paulo S Oliveira, Gustavo Q Romero
Predation is one of the most fundamental ecological processes affecting biotic communities. Terrestrial predators that live at ecosystem boundaries may alter the diversity of terrestrial organisms, but they may also have cross-ecosystem cascading effects when they feed on organisms with complex life cycles (i.e., organisms that shift from aquatic juvenile stages to terrestrial adult stages) or inhibit female oviposition in the aquatic environment. The predatory ant Odontomachus hastatus establishes its colonies among roots of Vriesea procera, an epiphytic bromeliad species with water-filled tanks that shelters many terrestrial and aquatic organisms...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342237/an-ecosystem-services-approach-to-the-ecological-effects-of-salvage-logging-valuation-of-seed-dispersal
#3
Alexandro B Leverkus, Jorge Castro
Forest disturbances diminish ecosystem services and boost disservices. Because post-disturbance management intends to recover the greatest possible value, selling timber often prevails over other considerations. Ecological research has shown diverse effects of salvage logging, yet such research has focused on the biophysical component of post-disturbance ecosystems and lacks the link with human well-being. Here we bridge that gap under the ecosystem services framework by assessing the impact of post-fire management on a non-timber value...
March 25, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340594/species-specific-ecological-niche-modelling-predicts-different-range-contractions-for-lutzomyia-intermedia-and-a-related-vector-of-leishmania-braziliensis-following-climate-change-in-south-america
#4
Shannon McIntyre, Elizabeth F Rangel, Paul D Ready, Bruno M Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Before 1996 the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was usually treated as a synonym of the morphologically similar Lutzomyia intermedia, which has long been considered a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of much cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. This report investigates the likely range changes of both sand fly species in response to a stabilisation climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and a high greenhouse gas emissions one (RCP8.5). METHODS: Ecological niche modelling was used to identify areas of South America with climates currently suitable for each species, and then the future distributions of these climates were predicted based on climate change scenarios...
March 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338630/life-cycle-ecological-characteristics-and-control-of-trachys-yanoi-coleoptera-buprestidae-an-important-pest-of-zelkova-serrata
#5
Masashi Ohsawa
This study was conducted to elucidate the life cycle and the ecological characteristics of Trachys yanoi Y. Kurosawa, an important pest of Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino. Life cycle, mortality rates in developmental stages, annual population dynamics, and early leaf abscission were investigated. Adults emerged from under the bark of Zelkova trees in April and fed on Zelkova leaves. Females laid 49 eggs on average, mainly in May and early June. Eggs hatched after 17 days, and the larvae fed inside the leaves...
March 24, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334155/genetic-diversity-of-symbiotic-paraburkholderia-species-isolated-from-nodules-of-mimosa-pudica-l-and-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-grown-in-soils-of-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-mata-atl%C3%A3-ntica
#6
Rebeca Fuzinatto Dall Agnol, Caroline Bournaud, Sérgio Miana de Faria, Gilles Béna, Lionel Moulin, Mariangela Hungria
Some species of the genus Paraburkholderia that are able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes are called β-rhizobia and represent a group of ecological and biotechnological importance. We used Mimosa pudica and Phaseolus vulgaris to trap 427 rhizobial isolates from rhizospheric soil of Mimoseae trees in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Eighty-four representative strains were selected according to the 16S rRNA haplotypes and taxonomically characterized using a concatenated 16S rRNA-recA phylogeny...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334073/do-distinct-biomes-influence-the-cuticular-chemical-profile-in-orchid-bees
#7
A B Santos, F S Nascimento
Cuticular chemical profiles of Euglossa cordata L. males were analyzed to test whether ecological predictors affect their composition and relative proportion. Males were collected in areas of Caatinga and Atlantic Forest from Brazil during two distinct seasonal periods. We found 48 compounds from the cuticular extracts of males, which consisted of hydrocarbons (71.39%), acetates (16.79%), esters (10.5%), alcohols and others (1.31%). We verified that when specimens were separated between biomes, they did not show a qualitative differentiation, but a small quantitative variation of compounds was found between some alkanes...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334021/the-effect-of-remnant-forest-on-insect-successional-response-in-tropical-fire-impacted-peatland-a-bi-taxa-comparison
#8
Kok-Boon Neoh, Lee-Jin Bong, Ahmad Muhammad, Masayuki Itoh, Osamu Kozan, Yoko Takematsu, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
Fire has become a common feature in tropical drained peatlands, and it may have detrimental impacts on the overall biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. We investigated the effect of fire on termite and ant assemblages and the importance of remnant forest in restoring species diversity in fire-impacted tropical peat swamp forests. The species loss of both termites and ants was as high as 50% in some fire-impacted peats compared to remnant forests, but in most cases the species richness for termites and ants was statistically equal along the land uses surveyed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331586/how-to-induce-defense-responses-in-wild-plant-populations-using-bilberry-vaccinium-myrtillus-as-example
#9
Tarald Seldal, Stein Joar Hegland, Knut Rydgren, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Joachim Paul Töpper
Inducible plant defense is a beneficial strategy for plants, which imply that plants should allocate resources from growth and reproduction to defense when herbivores attack. Plant ecologist has often studied defense responses in wild populations by biomass clipping experiments, whereas laboratory and greenhouse experiments in addition apply chemical elicitors to induce defense responses. To investigate whether field ecologists could benefit from methods used in laboratory and greenhouse studies, we established a randomized block-design in a pine-bilberry forest in Western Norway...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325890/environmental-filtering-triggers-community-assembly-of-forest-understorey-plants-in-central-european-pine-stands
#10
Werner Ulrich, Piotr Sewerniak, Radosław Puchałka, Marcin Piwczyński
Habitat filtering models predict ecologically similar plant species to jointly colonize sites due to comparable environmental characteristics leading to an aggregated pattern of species spatial occurrence. Models focused on interspecific competition expect species with similar ecological requirements to be spatially segregated. While both models are corroborated by field work, few empirical studies have tried to infer under which habitat conditions these patterns of co-occurrence prevail. Here we use an exceptional data set on central European pine forest understorey plant communities to assess the change in community structure along gradients of soil productivity and heterogeneity...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324146/beliefs-about-the-potential-impacts-of-exploiting-non-timber-forest-products-predict-voluntary-participation-in-monitoring
#11
Alice Dantas Brites, Carla Morsello
Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323330/insights-on-the-evolutionary-origin-of-detarioideae-a-clade-of-ecologically-dominant-tropical-african-trees
#12
Manuel de la Estrella, Félix Forest, Jan J Wieringa, Marie Fougère-Danezan, Anne Bruneau
African tropical forests are generally considered less diverse than their Neotropical and Asian counterparts. By contrast, the Detarioideae is much more diverse in Africa than in South America and Asia. To better understand the evolution of this contrasting diversity pattern, we investigated the biogeographical and ecological origin of this subfamily, testing whether they originated in dry biomes surrounding the Tethys Seaway as currently hypothesized for many groups of Leguminosae. We constructed the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the subfamily to date, reconstructed ancestral states for geography and biome/habitat, estimated diversification and extinction rates, and evaluated biome/habitat and geographic shifts in Detarioideae...
March 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322250/effects-of-ecological-restoration-projects-on-changes-in-land-cover-a-case-study-on-the-loess-plateau-in-china
#13
Jun Zhao, Yanzheng Yang, Qingxia Zhao, Zhong Zhao
Changes in land cover have become key components of global environmental change and represent the impact of human activity. To better understand the fundamental processes of land transition characteristics before and after the implementation of ecological programmes, we determined the dominant systematic changes in land cover in Yongshou, a hilly-gully region on the Loess Plateau. This was achieved by performing an in-depth analysis of a cross-tabulation matrix and a modified spatial dynamic degree model. Our results indicated that (1) forest land and cultivated land were the most important land cover types in Yongshou and their persistence would greatly affect the landscape pattern of the entire region; (2) the most significant changing signals in the study area during the periods 1992-2000 and 2000-2013 were from immature forest land to forest land, cultivated land to orchards and orchards to construction land; and (3) the region that experienced the most changes during 1992-2000 was the densely populated county seat of Yongshou; however, from 2000-2013, the region of most changes was Changning, a town located in the northcentral region of Yongshou...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321007/diversity-of-ktedonobacteria-with-actinomycetes-like-morphology-in-terrestrial-environments
#14
Shuhei Yabe, Yasuteru Sakai, Keietsu Abe, Akira Yokota
Bacteria with an actinomycetes-like morphology have recently been discovered, and the class Ktedonobacteria was created for these bacteria in the phylum Chloroflexi. They may prove to be a valuable resource with the potential to produce unprecedented secondary metabolites. However, our understanding of their diversity, richness, habitat, and ecological significance is very limited. We herein developed a 16S rRNA gene-targeted, Ktedonobacteria-specific primer and analyzed ktedonobacterial amplicons. We investigated abundance, diversity, and community structure in forest and garden soils, sand, bark, geothermal sediment, and compost...
March 17, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316116/water-availability-drives-signatures-of-local-adaptation-in-whitebark-pine-pinus-albicaulis-englm-across-fine-spatial-scales-of-the-lake-tahoe-basin-usa
#15
Brandon M Lind, Christopher J Friedline, Jill L Wegrzyn, Patricia E Maloney, Detlev R Vogler, David B Neale, Andrew J Eckert
Patterns of local adaptation at fine spatial scales are central to understanding how evolution proceeds, and are essential to the effective management of economically and ecologically important forest tree species. Here, we employ single and multilocus analyses of genetic data (n = 116,231 SNPs) to describe signatures of fine-scale adaptation within eight whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) populations across the local extent of the environmentally heterogeneous Lake Tahoe Basin, USA. We show that despite highly shared genetic variation (FST = 0...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314130/the-effects-of-vegetation-cover-on-soil-nematode-communities-in-various-biotopes-disturbed-by-industrial-emissions
#16
Peter Šalamún, Vladimíra Hanzelová, Dana Miklisová, Oľga Šestinová, Lenka Findoráková, Peter Kováčik
Better understanding of interactions among belowground and aboveground components in biotopes may improve our knowledge about soil ecosystem, and is necessary in environment assessment using indigenous soil organisms. In this study, we proposed that in disturbed biotopes, vegetation play important role in the buffering of contamination impact on soil communities and decrease the ecological pressure on soil biota. To assess the effects of these interactions we compared nematode communities, known for their bioindication abilities, from four types of disturbed and undisturbed biotopes (coniferous forest, permanent grassland, agricultural field, clearings), where the main stress agent was represented by long-term acidic industrial emissions containing heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb)...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303184/the-shifting-phenological-landscape-within-and-between-species-variation-in-leaf-emergence-in-a-mixed-deciduous-woodland
#17
Ella F Cole, Ben C Sheldon
Many organisms rely on synchronizing the timing of their life-history events with those of other trophic levels-known as phenological matching-for survival or successful reproduction. In temperate deciduous forests, the extent of matching with the budburst date of key tree species is of particular relevance for many herbivorous insects and, in turn, insectivorous birds. In order to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces operating in these systems, we require knowledge of the factors influencing leaf emergence of tree communities...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303180/interactions-between-body-size-abundance-seasonality-and-phenology-in-forest-beetles
#18
Mark A K Gillespie, Tone Birkemoe, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Body size correlates with a large number of species traits, and these relationships have frequently been used to explain patterns in populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, diverging patterns occur, and there is a need for more data on different taxa at different scales. Using a large dataset of 155,418 individual beetles from 588 species collected over 13 years of sampling in Norway, we have explored whether body size predicts abundance, seasonality, and phenology in insects. Seasonality is estimated here by flight activity period length and phenology by peak activity...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303176/abundance-distributions-for-tree-species-in-great-britain-a%C3%A2-two-stage-approach-to-modeling-abundance-using-species-distribution-modeling-and-random-forest
#19
Louise Hill, Andy Hector, Gabriel Hemery, Simon Smart, Matteo Tanadini, Nick Brown
High-quality abundance data are expensive and time-consuming to collect and often highly limited in availability. Nonetheless, accurate, high-resolution abundance distributions are essential for many ecological applications ranging from species conservation to epidemiology. Producing models that can predict abundance well, with good resolution over large areas, has therefore been an important aim in ecology, but poses considerable challenges. We present a two-stage approach to modeling abundance, combining two established techniques...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301482/forest-biomass-density-across-large-climate-gradients-in-northern-south-america-is-related-to-water-availability-but-not-with-temperature
#20
Esteban Álvarez-Dávila, Luis Cayuela, Sebastián González-Caro, Ana M Aldana, Pablo R Stevenson, Oliver Phillips, Álvaro Cogollo, Maria C Peñuela, Patricio von Hildebrand, Eliana Jiménez, Omar Melo, Ana Catalina Londoño-Vega, Irina Mendoza, Oswaldo Velásquez, Fernando Fernández, Marcela Serna, Cesar Velázquez-Rua, Doris Benítez, José M Rey-Benayas
Understanding and predicting the likely response of ecosystems to climate change are crucial challenges for ecology and for conservation biology. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in the tropics as these forests store more than half the total atmospheric carbon stock in their biomass. Biomass is determined by the balance between biomass inputs (i.e., growth) and outputs (mortality). We can expect therefore that conditions that favor high growth rates, such as abundant water supply, warmth, and nutrient-rich soils will tend to correlate with high biomass stocks...
2017: PloS One
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