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forest ecology

Tan Li, Qingguo Zhang, Ying Zhang
The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Robert Bagchi, Leone M Brown, Chris S Elphick, David L Wagner, Michael S Singer
Reduced ecological specialization is an emerging, general pattern of ecological networks in fragmented landscapes. In plant-herbivore interactions, reductions in dietary specialization of herbivore communities are consistently associated with fragmented landscapes, but the causes remain poorly understood. We propose several hypothetical bottom-up and top-down mechanisms that may reduce the specificity of plant-herbivore interactions. These include empirically plausible applications and extensions of theory based on reduced habitat patch size and isolation (considered jointly), and habitat edge effects...
March 21, 2018: Oecologia
Ethan A G Baker, Jill L Wegrzyn, Uzay U Sezen, Taylor Falk, Patricia E Maloney, Detlev R Vogler, Annette Delfino-Mix, Camille Jensen, Jeffry Mitton, Jessica Wright, Brian Knaus, Hardeep Rai, Richard Cronn, Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas, Hans A Vasquez-Gross, Randi A Famula, Jun-Jun Liu, Lara M Kueppers, David B Neale
Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors...
March 20, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Ana Filipa Palmeirim, Maíra Benchimol, Marcus Vinícius Vieira, Carlos A Peres
Hydroelectric dams have induced widespread loss, fragmentation and degradation of terrestrial habitats in lowland tropical forests. Yet their ecological impacts have been widely neglected, particularly in developing countries, which are currently earmarked for exponential hydropower development. Here we assess small mammal assemblage responses to Amazonian forest habitat insularization induced by the 28-year-old Balbina Hydroelectric Dam. We sampled small mammals on 25 forest islands (0.83-1466 ha) and four continuous forest sites in the mainland to assess the overall community structure and species-specific responses to forest insularization...
March 19, 2018: Oecologia
David Roberts, Simone Ciuti, Quinn E Barber, Caitlin Willier, Scott E Nielsen
Habitat fragmentation is typically seen as inhibiting movement via erosion in connectivity, although some patterns of early-phase disturbance, such as narrow linear disturbances in otherwise undisturbed forests, may actually facilitate the dispersal of certain species. Such features are common in Alberta's oil sands region as legacies from seismic hydrocarbon exploration used to map oil reserves. Many of the ecological implications of these disturbances are unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of these forest dissections by experimentally testing dispersal patterns along seismic lines compared with adjacent forests using two proxy materials for wind-dispersed seeds, Typha latifolia seed and goose down feathers...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Małgorzata Proćków, Jarosław Proćków, Paweł Błażej, Paweł Mackiewicz
Trochulus hispidus and T. sericeus are hairy snails widely distributed in Europe. They differ in shell morphology and are usually found in various land habitats. However, their morphology does not match genetic distance as they do not form distinct clades. Therefore, it is interesting to determine to what extent environmental factors can control their phenotypes. We analysed the morphological traits and many environmental features of their habitats to find relationships between these parameters and explain ecological reasons for this plasticity...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Luciano J S Anjos, Peter Mann de Toledo
Climate change has been identified as the primary threat to the integrity and functioning of ecosystems in this century, although there is still much uncertainty about its effects and the degree of vulnerability for different ecosystems to this threat. Here we propose a new methodological approach capable of measuring and mapping the resilience of terrestrial ecosystems at large scales based on their climatic niche. To do this, we used high spatial resolution remote sensing data and ecological niche modeling techniques to calculate and spatialize the resilience of three stable states of ecosystems in South America: forest, savanna, and grassland...
2018: PloS One
Jie Xu, Ming-Xiao Li, Jing Su, Li-Yun Tang, Ye Jiang, Tie-Lin Wang, Guo-Zhen He, Lan-Ping Guo
In order to set up a technical standard for planting Amomum villosum in wood forest in the future, we analyzed the relationship between the ecological factors and the yield of A. villosum planted in five Dimocarpus imocarpus longan wood forests and five miscellaneous wood forests in Yangchun city, to find out the dominant factors that affect the yield of A. villosum. The results showed that agricultural measures of fertilization, artificial irrigation and removing the old plants were positively correlated with the yield of A...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Paul A Garber
Over the past few decades, field studies conducted by Chinese primatologists have contributed significant new theoretical and empirical insights into the behavior, ecology, biology, genetics, and conservation of lorises, macaques, langurs, snub-nosed monkeys, and gibbons. With the recent establishment and inaugural meeting of the China Primatological Society in 2017, China has emerged as a leading nation in primate research. Several research teams have conducted long-term studies despite the difficult challenges of habituating and observing wild primates inhabiting mountainous temperate forests, and the fact that some 80% of China's 25-27 primate species are considered vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered and are distributed in small isolated subpopulations...
January 24, 2018: Zoological Research
Zhen-Hua Guan, Chang-Yong Ma, Han-Lan Fei, Bei Huang, Wen-He Ning, Qing-Yong Ni, Xue-Long Jiang, Peng-Fei Fan
Gibbons in China represent the northernmost margin of present day gibbon species distribution (around N25°). Compared to tropical habitats, northern gibbon habitats are characterized by low temperatures and remarkable seasonal variation in fruit abundance. How gibbons adapt to their cold and seasonal habitats and what ecological factors affect their sociality are key questions for understanding their ecology and social system evolution, the elucidation of which will contribute to the conservation of these special populations/species...
March 12, 2018: Zoological Research
Bing Liu, Chi Toan Le, Russell L Barrett, Daniel L Nickrent, Zhiduan Chen, Limin Lu, Romina Vidal-Russell
Coadaptation between mistletoes and birds captured the attention of Charles Darwin over 150 years ago, stimulating considerable scientific research. Here we used Loranthaceae, a speciose and ecologically important mistletoe family, to obtain new insights into the interrelationships among its hosts and dispersers. Phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae were based on a dataset of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction, and diversification rate analyses were employed to examine historical biogeography...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
T C McDonnell, S Belyazid, T J Sullivan, M Bell, C Clark, T Blett, T Evans, W Cass, A Hyduke, H Sverdrup
Ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition on two hardwood forest sites in the eastern United States were simulated in the context of a changing climate using the dynamic coupled biogeochemical/ecological model chain ForSAFE-Veg. The sites are a mixed oak forest in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia (Piney River) and a mixed oak-sugar maple forest in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (Cosby Creek). The sites have received relatively high levels of both S and N deposition and the climate has warmed over the past half century or longer...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Joseph P Receveur, Jennifer L Pechal, M Eric Benbow, Gary Donato, Tadhgh Rainey, John R Wallace
Ephemeral aquatic habitats and their associated microbial communities (microbiomes) play important roles in the growth and development of numerous aquatic insects, including mosquitoes (Diptera). Biological control agents, such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) or insect growth regulators (e.g., methoprene), are commonly used to control mosquitoes in these habitats. However, it is unknown how commonly used control compounds affect the mosquito internal microbiome and potentially alter their life history traits...
March 17, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Alexander Arévalo-Sandi, Paulo Estefano D Bobrowiec, Victor Juan Ulises Rodriguez Chuma, Darren Norris
There is increasing interest in the restoration/regeneration of degraded tropical habitats yet the potential role of natural regenerators remains unclear. We test the hypothesis that the richness and functional diversity of terrestrial mammals differs between forest regrowth stages. We quantified the richness and functional diversity of eight terrestrial mammal seed-disperser species across a forest regrowth gradient in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We installed camera-traps in 15 sites within small-holder properties with forest regrowth stage classified into three groups, with five sites each of: late second-regrowth forest, early second-regrowth forest and abandoned pasture...
2018: PloS One
Marco Helbich, Derek de Beurs, Mei-Po Kwan, Rory C O'Connor, Peter P Groenewegen
Background: Natural outdoor environments, such as green spaces (ie, grass, forests, or parks), blue spaces (ie, visible bodies of fresh or salt water), and coastal proximity, have been increasingly shown to promote mental health. However, little is known about how and the extent to which these natural environments are associated with suicide mortality. Our aim was to investigate whether the availability of green space and blue space within people's living environments and living next to the coast are protective against suicide mortality...
March 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Niels Rueegger, Brad Law, Ross Goldingay
Understanding maternity roost requirements is fundamental to guide timber production forest management given such roosts are vital to sustain bat populations. We tracked lactating females of three tree cavity-roosting species: Gould's long-eared bat (Nyctophilus gouldi) (n = 7), eastern broad-nosed bat (Scotorepens orion) (n = 6) and little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) (n = 25), over five weeks in young (predominately <5 years old) forest regenerating from heavy timber harvest in southeast Australia...
2018: PloS One
Masatoshi Matsunami, Daiji Endo, Naruya Saitou, Hitoshi Suzuki, Manabu Onuma
The wood mouse (genus Apodemus ) is one of the most common rodents in broad-leaf forests in the temperate zone of the Palaearctic region. Molecular studies of wood mice have critically enhanced the understanding of their evolution and ancestral biogeographic events. However, their molecular data are currently only limited to partial mitochondrial sequences and a few genes. Therefore, we sequenced the wood mouse genome to facilitate the acquisition of useful resources for inferring their molecular evolution...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Jaime Paneque-Gálvez, Irene Pérez-Llorente, Ana Catarina Luz, Maximilien Guèze, Jean-François Mas, Manuel J Macía, Martí Orta-Martínez, Victoria Reyes-García
It has been suggested that traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) may play a key role in forest conservation. However, empirical studies assessing to what extent TEK is associated with forest conservation compared with other variables are rare. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the spatial overlap of TEK and forest conservation has not been evaluated at fine scales. In this paper, we address both issues through a case study with Tsimane' Amerindians in the Bolivian Amazon. We sampled 624 households across 59 villages to estimate TEK and used remote sensing data to assess forest conservation...
March 12, 2018: Ambio
Xuelian He, Kang Luo, Calum Brown, Luxiang Lin
Integrating multiple facets of biodiversity to describe spatial and temporal distribution patterns is one way of revealing the mechanisms driving community assembly. We assessed the species, functional, and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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