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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735425/influence-of-host-plant-on-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-gut-bacterial-community
#1
Cinzia P Strano, Antonino Malacrinò, Orlando Campolo, Vincenzo Palmeri
Microbial communities associated to the gut of insects are attracting an increasing interest, mainly because of their role in influencing several host life-traits. The characterization of the gut microbial community is pivotal for understanding insect ecology and, thus, to develop novel pest management strategies. The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pytiocampa (Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), is a severe defoliator of pine forests, able to feed on several pine species. In this work, we performed a metabarcoding analysis to investigate, for the first time, the diversity of the gut bacterial community of pine processionary larvae associated with three different host pine species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra subsp...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735205/unconventional-gas-development-facilitates-plant-invasions
#2
Kathryn M Barlow, David A Mortensen, Patrick J Drohan, Kristine M Averill
Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733024/ecohealth-research-in-africa-where-from-where-to
#3
EDITORIAL
Robert Bergquist, Norbert W Brattig, Moses J Chimbari, Jakob Zinsstag, Jürg Utzinger
Epidemiological mapping and risk profiling build on the idea that diseases are tied to social-ecological systems that govern the distribution and abundance of transmissible pathogens, vectors and hosts. This is the heart of the emerging field of ecohealth, which examines how biological, cultural, demographic, economic, physical, political and social environments change can affect the health and wellbeing of humans, animals and ecosystems and the services they provide. This paper is an overview of a special issue of Acta Tropica, whose 15 publications reflect a geographically and epidemiologically diverse landscape of ecohealth in Africa...
July 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731793/phylogeny-traits-and-biodiversity-of-a-neotropical-bat-assemblage-close-relatives-show-similar-responses-to-local-deforestation
#4
Hannah K Frank, Luke O Frishkoff, Chase D Mendenhall, Gretchen C Daily, Elizabeth A Hadly
If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729869/genetic-patterns-of-myrceugenia-correifolia-a-rare-species-of-fog-dependent-forests-of-mediterranean-chile-is-it-a-climatic-relict
#5
Fernanda Pérez, Luis F Hinojosa, Gioconda Peralta, Paz Montenegro, Carla Irarrázabal, Michel Cossio
Rare species frequently occur in areas with microclimatic conditions that are atypical for their regions, but that were more common in the past, and that probably have operated as climatic refugia for a long time. Myrceugenia correifolia is a rare arboreal species that grows in deep canyons and hilltops of the Coast Range of north-central Chile between 30° and 35°S. In the northern edge of its distribution M. correifolia grows in small patches of fog-dependent forest surrounding by xeric vegetation. These forest formations are thought to be remnants of an ancient and continuous rainforest that according to some authors became fragmented during aridization of the Neogene (Neogene relict) and to others during warm-dry cycles of the Pleistocene (glacial relicts)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729670/forest-edge-disturbance-increases-rattan-abundance-in-tropical-rain-forest-fragments
#6
Mason J Campbell, Will Edwards, Ainhoa Magrach, Susan G Laurance, Mohammed Alamgir, Gabriel Porolak, William F Laurance
Human-induced forest fragmentation poses one of the largest threats to global diversity yet its impact on rattans (climbing palms) has remained virtually unexplored. Rattan is arguably the world's most valuable non-timber forest product though current levels of harvesting and land-use change place wild populations at risk. To assess rattan response to fragmentation exclusive of harvesting impacts we examined rattan abundance, demography and ecology within the forests of northeastern, Australia. We assessed the community abundance of rattans, and component adult (>3 m) and juvenile (≤3 m) abundance in five intact forests and five fragments (23-58 ha) to determine their response to a range of environmental and ecological parameters...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729641/the-rhizosphere-microbiome-of-burned-holm-oak-potential-role-of-the-genus-arthrobacter-in-the-recovery-of-burned-soils
#7
Antonio J Fernández-González, Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, José F Cobo-Díaz, Pablo J Villadas, Eustoquio Martínez-Molina, Nicolás Toro, Susannah G Tringe, Manuel Fernández-López
After a forest wildfire, the microbial communities have a transient alteration in their composition. The role of the soil microbial community in the recovery of an ecosystem following such an event remains poorly understood. Thus, it is necessary to understand the plant-microbe interactions that occur in burned soils. By high-throughput sequencing, we identified the main bacterial taxa of burnt holm-oak rhizosphere, then we obtained an isolate collection of the most abundant genus and its growth promoting activities were characterised...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727769/small-subunit-ribosomal-metabarcoding-reveals-extraordinary-trypanosomatid-diversity-in-brazilian-bats
#8
Maria Augusta Dario, Ricardo Moratelli Mendonça da Rocha, Philipp Schwabl, Ana Maria Jansen, Martin S Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Bats are a highly successful, globally dispersed order of mammals that occupy a wide array of ecological niches. They are also intensely parasitized and implicated in multiple viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonosis. Trypanosomes are thought to be especially abundant and diverse in bats. In this study, we used 18S ribosomal RNA metabarcoding to probe bat trypanosome diversity in unprecedented detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total DNA was extracted from the blood of 90 bat individuals (17 species) captured along Atlantic Forest fragments of Espírito Santo state, southeast Brazil...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725362/negative-correlation-between-altitudes-and-oxygen-isotope-ratios-of-seeds-exploring-its-applicability-to-assess-vertical-seed-dispersal
#9
Shoji Naoe, Ichiro Tayasu, Takashi Masaki, Shinsuke Koike
Vertical seed dispersal, which plays a key role in plant escape and/or expansion under climate change, was recently evaluated for the first time using negative correlation between altitudes and oxygen isotope ratio of seeds. Although this method is innovative, its applicability to other plants is unknown. To explore the applicability of the method, we regressed altitudes on δ(18)O of seeds of five woody species constituting three families in temperate forests in central Japan. Because climatic factors, including temperature and precipitation that influence δ(18)O of plant materials, demonstrate intensive seasonal fluctuation in the temperate zone, we also evaluated the effect of fruiting season of each species on δ(18)O of seeds using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM)...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724106/potential-environmental-benefits-from-blending-biosolids-with-other-organic-amendments-before-application-to-land
#10
Dharini Paramashivam, Nicholas M Dickinson, Timothy J Clough, Jacqui Horswell, Brett H Robinson
Biosolids disposal to landfill or through incineration is wasteful of a resource that is rich in organic matter and plant nutrients. Land application can improve soil fertility and enhance crop production but may result in excessive nitrate N (NO-N) leaching and residual contamination from pathogens, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. This paper evaluates evidence that these concerns can be reduced significantly by blending biosolids with organic materials to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application to soils...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720703/canopy-structure-drives-orangutan-habitat-selection-in-disturbed-bornean-forests
#11
Andrew B Davies, Marc Ancrenaz, Felicity Oram, Gregory P Asner
The conservation of charismatic and functionally important large species is becoming increasingly difficult. Anthropogenic pressures continue to squeeze available habitat and force animals into degraded and disturbed areas. Ensuring the long-term survival of these species requires a well-developed understanding of how animals use these new landscapes to inform conservation and habitat restoration efforts. We combined 3 y of highly detailed visual observations of Bornean orangutans with high-resolution airborne remote sensing (Light Detection and Ranging) to understand orangutan movement in disturbed and fragmented forests of Malaysian Borneo...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716927/nuclear-genomes-distinguish-cryptic-species-suggested-by-their-dna-barcodes-and-ecology
#12
Daniel H Janzen, John M Burns, Qian Cong, Winnie Hallwachs, Tanya Dapkey, Ramya Manjunath, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Paul D N Hebert, Nick V Grishin
DNA sequencing brings another dimension to exploration of biodiversity, and large-scale mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I barcoding has exposed many potential new cryptic species. Here, we add complete nuclear genome sequencing to DNA barcoding, ecological distribution, natural history, and subtleties of adult color pattern and size to show that a widespread neotropical skipper butterfly known as Udranomia kikkawai (Weeks) comprises three different species in Costa Rica. Full-length barcodes obtained from all three century-old Venezuelan syntypes of U...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714942/palaeo-leaf-economics-reveal-a-shift-in-ecosystem-function-associated-with-the-end-triassic-mass-extinction-event
#13
W K Soh, I J Wright, K L Bacon, T I Lenz, M Steinthorsdottir, A C Parnell, J C McElwain
Climate change is likely to have altered the ecological functioning of past ecosystems, and is likely to alter functioning in the future; however, the magnitude and direction of such changes are difficult to predict. Here we use a deep-time case study to evaluate the impact of a well-constrained CO2-induced global warming event on the ecological functioning of dominant plant communities. We use leaf mass per area (LMA), a widely used trait in modern plant ecology, to infer the palaeoecological strategy of fossil plant taxa...
July 17, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711843/ecological-and-environmental-transition-across-the-forested-to-open-bog-ecotone-in-a-west-siberian-peatland
#14
Joshua L Ratcliffe, Angela Creevy, Roxane Andersen, Evgeny Zarov, Paul P J Gaffney, Mark A Taggart, Yuri Mazei, Andrey N Tsyganov, James G Rowson, Elena D Lapshina, Richard J Payne
Climate change may cause increasing tree cover in boreal peatlands, and the impacts of this encroachment will be noted first at forested-to-open bog ecotones. We investigate key metrics of ecosystem function in five such ecotones at a peatland complex in Western Siberia. Stratigraphic analysis of three cores from one of these transects shows that the ecotone has been dynamic over time with evidence for recent expansion of forested peatland. We observed that the two alternative states for northern boreal peatlands (forested/open) clearly support distinct plant and microbial communities...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710898/projected-climate-changes-threaten-ancient-refugia-of-kelp-forests-in-the-north-atlantic
#15
Jorge Assis, Miguel B Araújo, Ester A Serrão
Intra-specific genetic variability is critical for species adaptation and evolution and yet it is generally overlooked in projections of the biological consequences of climate change. We ask whether ongoing climate changes can cause the loss of important gene pools from North Atlantic relict kelp forests that persisted over glacial-interglacial cycles. We use ecological niche modeling to predict genetic diversity hotspots for eight species of large brown algae with different thermal tolerances (Arctic to warm-temperate), estimated as regions of persistence throughout the Last Glacial Maximum (20,000 YBP), the warmer Mid-Holocene (6,000 YBP) and the present...
July 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710567/threatened-fish-and-fishers-along-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-coast
#16
Alpina Begossi, Svetlana Salivonchyk, Gustavo Hallwass, Natalia Hanazaki, Priscila F M Lopes, Renato A M Silvano
Small-scale fisheries of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast (BAFC) depend on fish resources for food and income. Thus, if the catch diminishes or if fish species that are a target for fishers are overexploited or impacted, this could affect fishers' livelihoods. The exclusion of threatened fish species from the catch is believed to be a threat to small-scale fisheries, which is likely to be the case along the BAFC. Many fish species are currently listed as threatened or vulnerable, whereas there is not enough biological information available to determine the status of the majority of the other species...
July 14, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709371/relationship-of-fish-indices-with-sampling-effort-and-land-use-change-in-a-large-mediterranean-river
#17
David Almeida, Juan Diego Alcaraz-Hernández, Roberto Merciai, Lluís Benejam, Emili García-Berthou
Fish are invaluable ecological indicators in freshwater ecosystems but have been less used for ecological assessments in large Mediterranean rivers. We evaluated the effects of sampling effort (transect length) on fish metrics, such as species richness and two fish indices (the new European Fish Index EFI+ and a regional index, IBICAT2b), in the mainstem of a large Mediterranean river. For this purpose, we sampled by boat electrofishing five sites each with 10 consecutive transects corresponding to a total length of 20 times the river width (European standard required by the Water Framework Directive) and we also analysed the effect of sampling area on previous surveys...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708881/large-anthropogenic-impacts-on-a-charismatic-small-carnivore-insights-from-distribution-surveys-of-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens-in-nepal
#18
Saroj Panthi, Gopal Khanal, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Achyut Aryal, Arjun Srivathsa
Protected areas are key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. However, their ability to ensure long-term survival of threatened andendangered species varies across countries, regions and landscapes. Distribution surveys can beparticularly important for assessing the value of protected areas, and gauging their efficacy incatering to species-specific requirements. We assessed the conservation value of one such reserve for a charismatic yet globally endangered species, the red panda Ailurus fulgens,in the light of on-going land-use transformation in Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704731/random-forests-as-cumulative-effects-models-a-case-study-of-lakes-and-rivers-in-muskoka-canada
#19
F Chris Jones, Rachel Plewes, Lorna Murison, Mark J MacDougall, Sarah Sinclair, Christie Davies, John L Bailey, Murray Richardson, John Gunn
Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) - a type of environmental appraisal - lacks effective methods for modeling cumulative effects, evaluating indicators of ecosystem condition, and exploring the likely outcomes of development scenarios. Random forests are an extension of classification and regression trees, which model response variables by recursive partitioning. Random forests were used to model a series of candidate ecological indicators that described lakes and rivers from a case study watershed (The Muskoka River Watershed, Canada)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704518/photosynthetic-morphological-and-reproductive-variations-in-cypripedium-tibeticum-in-relation-to-different-light-regimes-in-a-subalpine-forest
#20
Bao-Qiang Zheng, Long-Hai Zou, Kui Li, Xiao Wan, Yan Wang
Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE), forest gap (FG), and understory (UST), which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST). However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C...
2017: PloS One
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