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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633514/metagenomic-smrt-sequencing-based-exploration-of-novel-lignocellulose-degrading-capability-in-wood-detritus-from-torreya-nucifera-in-bija-forest-on-jeju-island
#1
Han Na Oh, Tae Kwon Lee, Jae Wan Park, Jee Hyun No, Dockyu Kim, Woo Jun Sul
Lignocellulose, mostly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin generated through secondary growth of woody plant, is considered as promising resources for bio-fuel. In order to use lignocellulose as a biofuel, the biodegradation besides high-cost chemical treatments were applied, but its knowledge on decomposition of lignocellulose occurring in a natural environment were insufficient. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene and metagenome to understand how the lignocellulose are decomposed naturally in decayed Torreya nucifera (L) of Bija forest (Bijarim) in Gotjawal, an ecologically distinct environment...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632343/dispersal-isolation-and-diversification-with-continued-gene-flow-in-an-andean-tropical-dry-forest
#2
R Toby Pennington, Matt Lavin
The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631411/function-of-bacterial-community-dynamics-in-the-formation-of-cadaveric-semiochemicals-during-in-situ-carcass-decomposition
#3
Javier Pascual, Christian von Hoermann, Ann-Marie Rottler-Hoermann, Omer Nevo, Alicia Geppert, Johannes Sikorski, Katharina J Huber, Sandra Steiger, Manfred Ayasse, Jörg Overmann
The decomposition of dead mammalian tissue involves a complex temporal succession of epinecrotic bacteria. Microbial activity may release different cadaveric volatile organic compounds which in turn attract other key players of carcass decomposition such as scavenger insects. To elucidate the dynamics and potential functions of epinecrotic bacteria on carcasses, we monitored bacterial communities developing on still-born piglets incubated in different forest ecosystems by combining high-throughput Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatiles...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625739/changes-in-the-fine-root-proteome-of-fagus-sylvatica-l-trees-associated-with-p-deficiency-and-amelioration-of-p-deficiency
#4
Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Sebastien Christian Carpentier, Aljoša Zavišić, Andrea Polle
Phosphorus is often the least available macronutrient in soil. Lack in phosphorus has detrimental effect on growth and biomass production of European Fagus sylvatica L., a major trees species in temperate forests. In contrast to leaf tissues, few studies have examined changes in the root system and no study has ever investigated the proteomic changes affected in beech roots by a lack in available phosphate (P). Here, we studied roots of young Fagus sylvatica L. trees in their native soils from two forests sites with contrasting availability of P: one P rich and P poor soil...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619090/truffle-renaissance-in-poland-history-present-and-prospects
#5
REVIEW
Aleksandra Rosa-Gruszecka, Dorota Hilszczańska, Wojciech Gil, Bogusław Kosel
The use of truffles in Poland has a long tradition, yet due to some historical aspects, this knowledge was lost. Currently, truffles and truffle orchards are again receiving attention, and thanks to, e.g., historical data, they have solid foundations to be established. Publications relating to truffles between 1661 and 2017 were searched for in international and national databases, such as the database of PhD theses, Google Scholar, and catalogues of the National Library of Poland, the Jagiellonian Digital Library, the University Library of J...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617841/height-diameter-allometry-and-above-ground-biomass-in-tropical-montane-forests-insights-from-the-albertine-rift-in-africa
#6
Gérard Imani, Faustin Boyemba, Simon Lewis, Nsharwasi Léon Nabahungu, Kim Calders, Louis Zapfack, Bernard Riera, Clarisse Balegamire, Aida Cuni-Sanchez
Tropical montane forests provide an important natural laboratory to test ecological theory. While it is well-known that some aspects of forest structure change with altitude, little is known on the effects of altitude on above ground biomass (AGB), particularly with regard to changing height-diameter allometry. To address this we investigate (1) the effects of altitude on height-diameter allometry, (2) how different height-diameter allometric models affect above ground biomass estimates; and (3) how other forest structural, taxonomic and environmental attributes affect above ground biomass using 30 permanent sample plots (1-ha; all trees ≥ 10 cm diameter measured) established between 1250 and 2600 m asl in Kahuzi Biega National Park in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617641/decreasing-stoichiometric-resource-quality-drives-compensatory-feeding-across-trophic-levels-in-tropical-litter-invertebrate-communities
#7
Malte Jochum, Andrew D Barnes, David Ott, Birgit Lang, Bernhard Klarner, Achmad Farajallah, Stefan Scheu, Ulrich Brose
Living organisms are constrained by both resource quantity and quality. Ecological stoichiometry offers important insights into how the elemental composition of resources affects their consumers. If resource quality decreases, consumers can respond by shifting their body stoichiometry, avoiding low-quality resources, or up-regulating feeding rates to maintain the supply of required elements while excreting excess carbon (i.e., compensatory feeding). We analyzed multitrophic consumer body stoichiometry, biomass, and feeding rates along a resource-quality gradient in the litter of tropical forest and rubber and oil-palm plantations...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614414/species-specific-variation-in-nesting-and-postfledging-resource-selection-for-two-forest-breeding-migrant-songbirds
#8
Julianna M A Jenkins, Frank R Thompson, John Faaborg
Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection changes, timing of change, and whether all or only a few species alter their resource use is unclear. We compared resource selection for nest sites and resource selection by postfledging juvenile ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) followed with radio telemetry in Missouri mature forest fragments from 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614351/newtonian-boreal-forest-ecology-the-scots-pine-ecosystem-as-an-example
#9
Pertti Hari, Tuomas Aakala, Juho Aalto, Jaana Bäck, Jaakko Hollmén, Kalev Jõgiste, Kourosh Kabiri Koupaei, Mika A Kähkönen, Mikko Korpela, Liisa Kulmala, Eero Nikinmaa, Jukka Pumpanen, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen, Pauliina Schiestl-Aalto, Asko Simojoki, Mikko Havimo
Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610101/-i-euastacus-i-i-vesper-i-sp-nov-a-new-giant-spiny-crayfish-crustacea-decapoda-parastacidae-from-the-great-dividing-range-new-south-wales-australia
#10
Robert B McCormack, Shane T Ahyong
Euastacus vesper sp. nov., is described from the upper Cudgegong River, Coricudgy State Forest, New South Wales, Australia. The new species occurs in the western drainage of the Great Dividing Range, and is most closely related to E. spinifer (Heller, 1865), which occurs on the eastern side of the range. Euastacus vesper differs from E. spinifer by its considerably smaller maximum size (OCL 67.9 mm versus 116.7 mm), greater degree of thoracic spination loosely arrayed in three instead of two rows and absence of the antennular basipodite and coxopodite spines...
March 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610048/the-phytotelm-tadpoles-of-i-microhyla-i-i-arboricola-i-anura-microhylidae-from-vietnam-with-comments-on-reproductive-biology-and-development
#11
Anna B Vassilieva, Vitaly L Trounov, Nikolay A Jr Poyarkov, Eduard A Galoyan
The reproductive biology of Microhyla arboricola (Microhylidae) was studied in two regions of the southern Annamite Mountains in Vietnam. M. arboricola is an obligate phytotelm-breeder that reproduces in water-filled tree hollows in montane evergreen forests. Clutches are attached above the water level in the hollows and contain 5-37 pigmented, relatively large eggs. Larvae hatch at markedly advanced stages and develop in water until metamorphosis is completed. The developing tadpoles are obligately oophagous and feed on conspecific eggs and embryos...
March 28, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609922/-i-balligratus-i-new-genus-of-wingless-ground-beetles-from-equatorial-andean-montane-forest-coleoptera-carabidae-lachnophorini
#12
Pierre Moret, Vicente M Ortuño
A new carabid beetle genus, Balligratus gen. nov., belonging to the tribe Lachnophorini, is described. It is geographically restricted to the equatorial Andes, and ecologically linked to the montane pluvial forest ecosystem, at elevations ranging from 1,200 to 3,600 m. As other carabid lineages that have radiated in such environments, Balligratus gen. nov. is a wingless clade, characterized by the loss of flight wings associated with metathoracic reduction, constriction of the elytral base, and reduced eye size...
April 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609467/land-cover-more-than-monthly-fire-weather-drives-fire-size-distribution-in-southern-qu%C3%A3-bec-forests-implications-for-fire-risk-management
#13
Jean Marchal, Steve G Cumming, Eliot J B McIntire
Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606157/semiarid-ethnoagroforestry-management-tajos-in-the-sierra-gorda-guanajuato-mexico
#14
Vincent M Hoogesteger van Dijk, Alejandro Casas, Ana Isabel Moreno-Calles
BACKGROUND: The semi-arid environments harbor nearly 40% of biodiversity, and half of indigenous cultures of Mexico. Thousands of communities settled in these areas depend on agriculture and using wild biodiversity for their subsistence. Water, soil, and biodiversity management strategies are therefore crucial for people's life. The tajos, from Sierra Gorda, are important, poorly studied, biocultural systems established in narrow, arid alluvial valleys. The systems are constructed with stone-walls for capturing sediments, gradually creating fertile soils in terraces suitable for agriculture in places where it would not be possible...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600590/do-multi-year-applications-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-for-control-of-mosquito-larvae-affect-the-abundance-of-b-cereus-group-populations-in-riparian-wetland-soils
#15
Salome Schneider, Tania Tajrin, Jan O Lundström, Niels B Hendriksen, Petter Melin, Ingvar Sundh
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a soil-borne bacterium affiliated to the Bacillus cereus group (Bcg) and has been used in biocontrol products against nematoceran larvae for several decades. However, knowledge is limited on whether long-term Bti application can affect the structure of indigenous communities of Bcg and the overall abundance of Bti. Using species- and group-specific quantitative PCR assays, we measured the Bcg- and Bti-abundances in riparian wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains of central Sweden...
June 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597433/interspecific-associations-of-dominant-tree-populations-in-a-virgin-old-growth-oak-forest-in-the-qinling-mountains-china
#16
Zongzheng Chai, Caili Sun, Dexiang Wang, Wenzhen Liu
BACKGROUND: Understanding interspecific associations in old-growth forests will help to reveal mechanisms of interspecific replacement in the process of forest development and provide a theoretical basis for vegetation restoration and reestablishment. In this study, we analyzed interspecific associations of eleven dominant tree populations of varying development stages in an old-growth oak forest stand in the Qinling Mountains, China. We examined overall interspecific associations (multiple species) and pairwise interspecific associations (two species)...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596637/wild-chimpanzees-use-of-single-and-combined-vocal-and-gestural-signals
#17
C Hobaiter, R W Byrne, K Zuberbühler
ABSTRACT: We describe the individual and combined use of vocalizations and gestures in wild chimpanzees. The rate of gesturing peaked in infancy and, with the exception of the alpha male, decreased again in older age groups, while vocal signals showed the opposite pattern. Although gesture-vocal combinations were relatively rare, they were consistently found in all age groups, especially during affiliative and agonistic interactions. Within behavioural contexts rank (excluding alpha-rank) had no effect on the rate of male chimpanzees' use of vocal or gestural signals and only a small effect on their use of combination signals...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589457/assessing-the-accuracy-and-stability-of-variable-selection-methods-for-random-forest-modeling-in-ecology
#18
Eric W Fox, Ryan A Hill, Scott G Leibowitz, Anthony R Olsen, Darren J Thornbrugh, Marc H Weber
Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589455/terrestrially-derived-glomalin-related-soil-protein-quality-as-a-potential-ecological-indicator-in-a-peri-urban-watershed
#19
Xueyan Sui, Zhipeng Wu, Chen Lin, Shenglu Zhou
Glomalin, which sequesters substantial amounts of carbon, plays a critical role in sustaining terrestrial biome functions and contributes to the fate of many pollutants from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Despite having focused on the amount of glomalin produced, very few attempts have been made to understand how landscapes and environmental conditions influence glomalin composition and characteristics. This study focused on glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) exported as storm runoff including eroded sediment and water that was collected before flowing to surface waters in a peri-urban watershed...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587683/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-acre-state-brazil
#20
Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior, Andréia Fernandes Brilhante, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
BACKGROUND: Acre has reported the highest incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil in recent years. The present study seeks to identify high and low risk agglomerations of ACL in space and space-time during the period from 2007 to 2013 in Acre, and also to characterize the occurrence of the disease in time and according to sociodemographic variables. METHODS: This is an ecological study, the study population of which consisted of autochthonous ACL cases notified in the municipalities of Acre by an epidemiological surveillance system...
June 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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