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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915462/abundance-of-large-old-trees-in-wood-pastures-of-transylvania-romania
#1
Tibor Hartel, Jan Hanspach, Cosmin I Moga, Lucian Holban, Árpád Szapanyos, Réka Tamás, Csaba Hováth, Kinga-Olga Réti
Wood-pastures are special types of agroforestry systems that integrate trees with livestock grazing. Wood pastures can be hotspots for large old tree abundance and have exceptional natural values; but they are declining all over Europe. While presence of large old trees in wood-pastures can provide arguments for their maintenance, actual data on their distribution and abundance are sparse. Our study is the first to survey large old trees in Eastern Europe over such a large area. We surveyed 97 wood-pastures in Transylvania (Romania) in order to (i) provide a descriptive overview of the large old tree abundance; and (ii) to explore the environmental determinants of the abundance and persistence of large old trees in wood-pastures...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912508/use-of-anthropogenic-linear-features-by-two-medium-sized-carnivores-in-reserved-and-agricultural-landscapes
#2
Georgina E Andersen, Christopher N Johnson, Leon A Barmuta, Menna E Jones
Many carnivores are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. These changes create linear features and habitat edges that can facilitate foraging and/or travel. To understand the significance of anthropogenic linear features in the ecology of carnivores, fine-scaled studies are needed. We studied two medium-sized carnivores: the endangered Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and the near threatened spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), in a mixed landscape of conservation and agricultural land. Using GPS tracking, we investigated their use of intact habitat versus linear features such as roads, fences and the pasture/cover interface...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902920/use-of-airborne-lidar-data-to-improve-plant-species-richness-and-diversity-monitoring-in-lowland-and-mountain-forests
#3
Marc Bouvier, Sylvie Durrieu, Frédéric Gosselin, Basile Herpigny
We explored the potential of airborne laser scanner (ALS) data to improve Bayesian models linking biodiversity indicators of the understory vegetation to environmental factors. Biodiversity was studied at plot level and models were built to investigate species abundance for the most abundant plants found on each study site, and for ecological group richness based on light preference. The usual abiotic explanatory factors related to climate, topography and soil properties were used in the models. ALS data, available for two contrasting study sites, were used to provide biotic factors related to forest structure, which was assumed to be a key driver of understory biodiversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902445/nutrients-and-temperature-additively-increase-stream-microbial-respiration
#4
David W P Manning, Amy D Rosemond, Vladislav Gulis, Jonathan P Benstead, John S Kominoski
Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co-occurring global-change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon (C), but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across seasonal temperature gradients before (PRE) and after (ENR1, ENR2) experimental nutrient (nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) additions to five forest streams...
September 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902295/sandfly-fauna-diptera-psychodidae-in-an-urban-area-central-west-of-brazil
#5
Wagner de Souza Fernandes, Leandro Machado Borges, Aline Etelvina Casaril, Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Jucelei de Oliveira Moura Infran, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Suellem Petilim Gomes, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
Biological and ecological relations among vectors and their pathogens are important to understand the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. Camapuã is an endemic area for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the sandfly fauna present in Camapuã , MS, Brazil. Sand flies were collected every fortnight from May 2014 to April 2015 using automatic light traps in the domicile and peridomicile of twelve neighborhoods and forest. The collected specimens were identified based on morphology according to the valid identification keys...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900670/seasonality-and-microhabitat-selection-in-a-forest-dwelling-salamander
#6
Marco Basile, Antonio Romano, Andrea Costa, Mario Posillico, Daniele Scinti Roger, Aldo Crisci, Ranieri Raimondi, Tiziana Altea, Vittorio Garfì, Giovanni Santopuoli, Marco Marchetti, Sebastiano Salvidio, Bruno De Cinti, Giorgio Matteucci
Many small terrestrial vertebrates exhibit limited spatial movement and are considerably exposed to changes in local environmental variables. Among such vertebrates, amphibians at present experience a dramatic decline due to their limited resilience to environmental change. Since the local survival and abundance of amphibians is intrinsically related to the availability of shelters, conservation plans need to take microhabitat requirements into account. In order to gain insight into the terrestrial ecology of the spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata and to identify appropriate forest management strategies, we investigated the salamander's seasonal variability in habitat use of trees as shelters in relation to tree features (size, buttresses, basal holes) and environmental variables in a beech forest in Italy...
September 12, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900276/highly-variable-lifespan-in-an-annual-reptile-labord-s-chameleon-furcifer-labordi
#7
Falk Eckhardt, Peter M Kappeler, Cornelia Kraus
Among tetrapods, the current record holder for shortest lifespan is Labord's chameleon, Furcifer labordi. These reptiles from the arid southwest of Madagascar have a reported lifespan of 4-5 months during the annual rainy season and spend the majority of their life (8-9 months) as a developing embryo. This semelparous, annual life history is unique among tetrapods, but only one population (Ranobe) in the southernmost distribution range has been studied. We therefore investigated the potential for environmentally-dependent variability in lifespan in a population in Kirindy Forest, which has a much longer warm rainy season...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899751/homeostatic-and-circadian-mechanisms-of-bioluminescence-regulation-differ-between-a-forest-and-a-facultative-cave-species-of-glowworm-arachnocampa
#8
Sarah E Berry, Joshua Gilchrist, David J Merritt
Glowworms, members of the keroplatid fly genus, Arachnocampa, glow to attract prey. Here we describe substantial differences in the bioluminescence regulatory systems of two species; one is a troglophile with populations both in caves and outside of caves in wet forest (Arachnocampa tasmaniensis) and the other has no known cave populations (Arachnocampa flava). We find that A. tasmaniensis is ready to initiate bioluminescence at any time darkness is encountered. In contrast, A. flava shows a homeostatic control of bioluminescence; it is unlikely to initiate bioluminescence when exposed to dark pulses during the photophase and it does so with a long latency...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898502/reduced-range-of-the-endangered-crested-capuchin-monkey-sapajus-robustus-and-a-possible-hybrid-zone-with-sapajus-nigritus
#9
Waldney Pereira Martins, Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Anthony B Rylands
The crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) is an endangered species endemic to the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Surveys for S. robustus were carried out over a 25-month period (2003-2005) to obtain more precise geographical limits for the western range of the species. Previously published localities for S. robustus were mapped, and each point was given a 25-km radius "buffer zone." The largest forest remnants in the buffer zones (>300 ha) in Minas Gerais were visited in order to interview the local people and/or survey the forests directly using playback recordings of S...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895147/root-traits-are-more-than-analogues-of-leaf-traits-the-case-for-diaspore-mass
#10
Joana Bergmann, Masahiro Ryo, Daniel Prati, Stefan Hempel, Matthias C Rillig
Root traits are often thought to be analogues of leaf traits along the plant economics spectrum. But evolutionary pressures have most likely shaped above- and belowground patterns differentially. Here, we aimed to identify the most important aboveground traits for explaining root traits without an a priori focus on known concepts. We measured morphological root traits in a glasshouse experiment on 141 common Central European grassland species. Using random forest algorithms, we built predictive models of six root traits from 97 aboveground morphological, ecological and life history traits...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894949/diet-and-feeding-ecology-of-the-western-hoolock-gibbon-hoolock-hoolock-in-a-tropical-forest-fragment-of-northeast-india
#11
Mrigakhi Borah, Ashalata Devi, Awadhesh Kumar
Forest fragmentation alters plant species diversity and composition, and causes diverse affects on the feeding behavior of wild primates. We investigated the feeding behavior and diet of two groups of western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) inhabiting a small isolated forest patch (21 km(2)) in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, Northeast India, over a year using focal animal sampling. H. hoolock adults spent, on average, 35.2% of their total annual activity budget on feeding, and fed on young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits, petioles, buds and also on animal matter...
September 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894646/canopy-soil-bacterial-communities-altered-by-severing-host-tree-limbs
#12
Cody R Dangerfield, Nalini M Nadkarni, William J Brazelton
Trees of temperate rainforests host a large biomass of epiphytic plants, which are associated with soils formed in the forest canopy. Falling of epiphytic material results in the transfer of carbon and nutrients from the canopy to the forest floor. This study provides the first characterization of bacterial communities in canopy soils enabled by high-depth environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Canopy soil included many of the same major taxonomic groups of Bacteria that are also found in ground soil, but canopy bacterial communities were lower in diversity and contained different operational taxonomic units...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892301/deep-nirs-amplicon-sequencing-of-san-francisco-bay-sediments-enables-prediction-of-geography-and-environmental-conditions-from-denitrifying-community-composition
#13
Jessica A Lee, Christopher A Francis
Denitrification is a dominant nitrogen loss process in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. In this study, we sought to understand the ecology of denitrifying bacteria by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to survey the diversity of a denitrification functional gene, nirS (encoding cytchrome-cd1 nitrite reductase), along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay over the course of a year. We compared our dataset to a library of nirS sequences obtained previously from the same samples by standard PCR cloning and Sanger sequencing, and showed that both methods similarly demonstrated geography, salinity, and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen, to be strong determinants of community composition...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892277/ungulates-increase-forest-plant-species-richness-to-the-benefit-of-non-forest-specialists
#14
Vincent Boulanger, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Frédéric Archaux, Vincent Badeau, Christophe Baltzinger, Richard Chevalier, Emmanuel Corcket, Yann Dumas, Françoise Forgeard, Anders Mårell, Pierre Montpied, Yoan Paillet, Jean-François Picard, Sonia Saïd, Erwin Ulrich
Large wild ungulates are a major biotic factor shaping plant communities. They influence species abundance and occurrence directly by herbivory and plant dispersal, or indirectly by modifying plant-plant interactions and through soil disturbance. In forest ecosystems, researchers' attention has been mainly focused on deer overabundance. Far less is known about the effects on understory plant dynamics and diversity of wild ungulates where their abundance is maintained at lower levels to mitigate impacts on tree regeneration...
September 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892141/novel-insights-on-population-and-range-edge-dynamics-using-an-unparalleled-spatiotemporal-record-of-species-invasion
#15
Kristine Grayson, Derek M Johnson
Quantifying the complex spatial dynamics taking place at range edges is critical for understanding future distributions of species, yet very few systems have sufficient data or the spatial resolution to empirically test these dynamics. This paper reviews how data from a large-scale pest management program have provided important contributions to the fields of population dynamics and invasion biology. The invasion of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is well-documented from its introduction near Boston, Massachusetts USA in 1869 to its current extent of over 900,000 km(2) in Eastern North America...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890857/how-long-should-the-fully-hillside-closed-forest-protection-be-implemented-on-the-loess-plateau-shaanxi-china
#16
Lin Hou, Sijia Hou
BACKGROUND: Restoration of degraded forest ecosystem is crucial for regional sustainable development. To protect the country's fragile and fragmented environment, the Chinese government initiated an ecological engineering project, the Natural Forest Protection Program, in seventeen provinces in China beginning in 1998. Fully hillside-closed forest protection (vegetation restoration naturally without any artificial disturbance) was one of vital measures of the Natural Forest Protection Program applied nation wide...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889201/not-accounting-for-interindividual-variability-can-mask-habitat-selection-patterns-a-case-study-on-black-bears
#17
Rémi Lesmerises, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Habitat selection studies conducted at the population scale commonly aim to describe general patterns that could improve our understanding of the limiting factors in species-habitat relationships. Researchers often consider interindividual variation in selection patterns to control for its effects and avoid pseudoreplication by using mixed-effect models that include individuals as random factors. Here, we highlight common pitfalls and possible misinterpretations of this strategy by describing habitat selection of 21 black bears Ursus americanus...
September 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887529/production-of-high-resolution-forest-ecosite-maps-based-on-model-predictions-of-soil-moisture-and-nutrient-regimes-over-a-large-forested-area
#18
Qi Yang, Fan-Rui Meng, Charles P-A Bourque, Zhengyong Zhao
Forest ecosite reflects the local site conditions that are meaningful to forest productivity as well as basic ecological functions. Field assessments of vegetation and soil types are often used to identify forest ecosites. However, the production of high-resolution ecosite maps for large areas from interpolating field data is difficult because of high spatial variation and associated costs and time requirements. Indices of soil moisture and nutrient regimes (i.e., SMR and SNR) introduced in this study reflect the combined effects of biogeochemical and topographic factors on forest growth...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887448/remarkable-preservation-of-terpenoids-and-record-of-volatile-signalling-in-plant-animal-interactions-from-miocene-amber
#19
Suryendu Dutta, Rakesh C Mehrotra, Swagata Paul, R P Tiwari, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Gaurav Srivastava, V Z Ralte, C Zoramthara
Plants produce and release a large array of volatile organic compounds that play many ecological functions. These volatile plant metabolites serve as pollinator attractants, herbivore and pathogen repellents and protect plants from abiotic stresses. To date, the geological evolution of these organic compounds remains unknown. The preservation potential of these metabolites in the fossil record is very poor due to their low boiling points. Here we report a series of volatile sesquiterpenoids, including δ-elemene, α-copaene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D, δ-cadiene and spathunenol, from early Miocene (~17 million year) amber from eastern India...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886058/sparse-trees-and-shrubs-confers-a-high-biodiversity-to-pastures-case-study-on-spiders-from-transylvania
#20
Róbert Gallé, István Urák, Gallé-Szpisjak Nikolett, Tibor Hartel
The integration of food production and biodiversity conservation represents a key challenge for sustainability. Several studies suggest that even small structural elements in the landscape can make a substantial contribution to the overall biodiversity value of the agricultural landscapes. Pastures can have high biodiversity potential. However, their intensive and monofunctional use typically erodes its natural capital, including biodiversity. Here we address the ecological value of fine scale structural elements represented by sparsely scattered trees and shrubs for the spider communities in a moderately intensively grazed pasture in Transylvania, Eastern Europe...
2017: PloS One
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