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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223976/zinc-detoxification-a-functional-genomics-and-transcriptomics-analysis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-cultured-cells
#1
Stephanie E Mohr, Kirstin Rudd, Yanhui Hu, Wei R Song, Quentin Gilly, Michael Buckner, Benjamin E Housden, Colleen Kelley, Jonathan Zirin, Rong Tao, Gabriel Amador, Katarzyna Sierzputowska, Aram Comjean, Norbert Perrimon
Cells require some metals, such as zinc and manganese, but excess levels of these metals can be toxic. As a result, cells have evolved complex mechanisms for maintaining metal homeostasis and surviving metal intoxication. Here, we present the results of a large-scale functional genomic screen in Drosophila cultured cells for modifiers of zinc chloride toxicity, together with transcriptomics data for wildtype or genetically zinc-sensitized cells challenged with mild zinc chloride supplementation. Altogether, we identified 47 genes for which knockdown conferred sensitivity or resistance to toxic zinc or manganese chloride treatment, and more than 1800 putative zinc-responsive genes...
December 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223890/gold-core-ceria-shell-based-redox-active-nanozyme-mimicking-the-biological-multienzyme-complex-phenomenon
#2
Stuti Bhagat, N V Srikanth Vallabani, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Mark Bowden, Ajay S Karakoti, Sanjay Singh
Catalytically active individual gold (Au) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are well known to exhibit specific enzyme-like activities, such as natural catalase, oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase enzymes. These activities have been maneuvered to design several biological applications such as immunoassays, glucose detection, radiation and free radical protection and tissue engineering. In biological systems, multienzyme complexes are involved in catalyzing important reactions of essential metabolic processes such as respiration, biomolecule synthesis, and photosynthesis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223331/the-nos-like-protein-from-the-microalgae-ostreococcus-tauri-is-a-genuine-and-ultrafast-no-producing-enzyme
#3
Marine Weisslocker-Schaetzel, François André, Nabila Touazi, Noelia Foresi, Mehdi Lembrouk, Pierre Dorlet, Annie Frelet-Barrand, Lorenzo Lamattina, Jérôme Santolini
The exponential increase of genomes' sequencing has revealed the presence of NO-Synthases (NOS) throughout the tree of life, uncovering an extraordinary diversity of genetic structure and biological functions. Although NO has been shown to be a crucial mediator in plant physiology, NOS sequences seem present solely in green algae genomes, with a first identification in the picoplankton species Ostreococcus tauri. There is no rationale so far to account for the presence of NOS in this early-diverging branch of the green lineage and its absence in land plants...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223282/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-and-biological-rhythms-the-discovery-of-tsh-s-unexpected-role-using-animal-models
#4
REVIEW
Keisuke Ikegami, Takashi Yoshimura
Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for development, growth, and metabolism. It is also clear that the synthesis and secretion of TH are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Animal models have helped advance our understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanisms of TH. The animals' bodies develop through coordinated timing of cell division and differentiation. Studies of frog metamorphosis led to the discovery of TH and their role in development. However, to adapt to rhythmic environmental changes, animals also developed various endocrine rhythms...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223185/aiding-medical-professionals-in-fitness-to-drive-screenings-for-elderly-drivers-development-of-an-office-based-screening-tool
#5
Judith H J Urlings, Ariane Cuenen, Tom Brijs, Mark Lutin, Ellen M M Jongen
BACKGROUND: Elderly drivers are an increasing group in society. Previous research has found that functional and cognitive abilities are more important for driving abilities than biological age. In an attempt to conserve independent mobility for elderly drivers, many researchers have focused on elderly drivers diagnosed with cognitive decline (mild cognitive impairment or mild Dementia). This study is the first to focus on elderly drivers with cognitive complaints or suspected of diminished fitness to drive by an (in)formal caregiver as an at-risk group...
December 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222611/kiwifruit-svp2-controls-developmental-and-drought-stress-pathways
#6
Rongmei Wu, Tianchi Wang, Ben A W Warren, Susan J Thomson, Andrew C Allan, Richard C Macknight, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Genome-wide targets of Actinidia chinensis SVP2 confirm roles in ABA- and dehydration-mediated growth repression and reveal a conservation in mechanism of action between SVP genes of taxonomically distant Arabidopsis and a woody perennial kiwifruit. The molecular mechanisms underlying growth and dormancy in woody perennials are largely unknown. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) plays a key role in the progression from vegetative to floral development, and in woody perennials SVP-like genes are also proposed to be involved in controlling dormancy...
December 8, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222306/therapy-of-primary-cns-lymphoma-role-of-intensity-radiation-and-novel-agents
#7
REVIEW
Andrés José María Ferreri
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, an aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumor burden and histological type. Despite the high sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remissions are frequently short lasting. Treatment efficacy is limited by several factors, including the biology and microenvironment of this malignancy and the "protective" effect of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the access of most drugs to the CNS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222070/regulation-of-trna-biogenesis-in-plants-and-its-link-to-plant-growth-and-response-to-pathogens
#8
REVIEW
Adriana Santos Soprano, Juliana Helena Costa Smetana, Celso Eduardo Benedetti
tRNA biology has fascinated scientists over the years. Besides their fundamental role in protein translation, new evidence indicates that tRNA-derived molecules also regulate gene expression and protein synthesis in all domains of life. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent findings linking tRNA transcription and modification with plant cell growth and response to pathogens. In fact, mutations in proteins directly involved in tRNA synthesis and modification most often lead to pleiotropic effects on plant growth and immunity...
December 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220485/funricegenes-dataset-for-comprehensive-understanding-and-application-of-rice-functional-genes
#9
Wen Yao, Guangwei Li, Yiming Yu, Yidan Ouyang
Background: As a main staple food, rice is also a model plant for functional genomic studies of monocots. Decoding of every DNA element of the rice genome is essential for genetic improvement to address increasing food demands. The past 15 years have witnessed extraordinary advances in rice functional genomics. Systematic characterization and proper deposition of every rice gene are vital for both functional studies and crop genetic improvement. Findings: We built a comprehensive and accurate dataset of ∼2,800 functionally characterized rice genes and ∼5,000 members of different gene families, by integrating data from available databases and reviewing of every publication on rice functional genomic studies...
December 4, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219465/emergent-bistability-and-switching-in-a-nonequilibrium-crystal
#10
Guram Gogia, Justin C Burton
Multistability is an inseparable feature of many physical, chemical, and biological systems which are driven far from equilibrium. In these nonequilibrium systems, stochastic dynamics often induces switching between distinct states on emergent time scales; for example, bistable switching is a natural feature of noisy, spatially extended systems that consist of bistable elements. Nevertheless, here we present experimental evidence that bistable elements are not required for the global bistability of a system...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218911/convergent-downstream-candidate-mechanisms-of-independent-intergenic-polymorphisms-between-co-classified-diseases-implicate-epistasis-among-noncoding-elements
#11
Jiali Han, Jianrong Li, Ikbel Achour, Lorenzo Pesce, Ian Foster, Haiquan Li, Yves A Lussier
Eighty percent of DNA outside protein coding regions was shown biochemically functional by the ENCODE project, enabling studies of their interactions. Studies have since explored how convergent downstream mechanisms arise from independent genetic risks of one complex disease. However, the cross-talk and epistasis between intergenic risks associated with distinct complex diseases have not been comprehensively characterized. Our recent integrative genomic analysis unveiled downstream biological effectors of disease-specific polymorphisms buried in intergenic regions, and we then validated their genetic synergy and antagonism in distinct GWAS...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218909/reading-between-the-genes-computational-models-to-discover-function-from-noncoding-dna
#12
Yves A Lussier, Joanne Berghout, Francesca Vitali, Kenneth S Ramos, Maricel Kann, Jason H Moore
Noncoding DNA - once called "junk" has revealed itself to be full of function. Technology development has allowed researchers to gather genome-scale data pointing towards complex regulatory regions, expression and function of noncoding RNA genes, and conserved elements. Variation in these regions has been tied to variation in biological function and human disease. This PSB session tackles the problem of handling, analyzing and interpreting the data relating to variation in and interactions between noncoding regions through computational biology...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218749/evidence-for-mirna-mediated-modulation-of-the-host-transcriptome-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#13
Sebastian Baumgarten, Maha J Cziesielski, Ludivine Thomas, Craig T Michell, Lisl Y Esherick, John R Pringle, Manuel Aranda, Christian R Voolstra
Reef-building corals and other cnidarians living in symbiotic relationships with intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium undergo transcriptomic changes during infection with the algae and maintenance of the endosymbiont population. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms modulating the host transcriptome are unknown. Here we report apparent post-transcriptional gene regulation by miRNAs in the sea anemone Aiptasia, a model system for cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218630/differential-reactivity-of-closely-related-zinc-ii-binding-metallothioneins-from-the-plant-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Hasan T Imam, Claudia A Blindauer
The dynamics of metal binding to and transfer from metalloproteins involved in metal homeostasis are important for understanding cellular distribution of metal ions. The dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana has two type 4 seed-specific metallothionein homologues, MT4a and MT4b, with likely roles in zinc(II) homeostasis. These two metallothioneins are 84% identical, with full conservation of all metal-binding cysteine and histidine residues. Yet, differences in their spatial and temporal expression patterns suggested divergence in their biological roles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218439/characterization-and-expression-of-lin-28a-involved-in-lin28-let-7signal-pathway-during-early-development-of-p-olivaceus
#15
Yuanshuai Fu, Lina Gao, Zhiyi Shi, Feng You, Junling Zhang, Wenjuan Li
Heterochronic lin-28 is a conserved RNA-binding protein that plays a key role in the timing of developmental events in organisms. As a crucial heterochronic gene, the protein controls developmental events of the second of four larval stages in Caenorhabditi elegans. Heterochronic let-7 miRNAs are often present in various species and highly conserved in sequence and biological function and are required for various biological processes. Previous studies showed that ten let-7 miRNAs were identified in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and that they were primarily expressed during metamorphosis...
December 7, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218408/transcription-profiling-and-identification-of-infection-related-genes-in-phytophthora-cactorum
#16
Xiao-Ren Chen, Shen-Xin Huang, Ye Zhang, Gui-Lin Sheng, Bo-Yue Zhang, Qi-Yuan Li, Feng Zhu, Jing-You Xu
Phytophthora cactorum, an oomycete pathogen, infects more than 200 plant species within several plant families. To gain insight into the repertoire of the infection-related genes of P. cactorum, Illumina RNA-Seq was used to perform a global transcriptome analysis of three life cycle stages of the pathogen, mycelia (MY), zoospores (ZO) and germinating cysts with germ tubes (GC). From over 9.8 million Illumina reads for each library, 18,402, 18,569 and 19,443 distinct genes were identified for MY, ZO and GC libraries, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218085/identification-and-differential-expression-of-micrornas-in-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Huijie Gu, Jun Xu, Zhongyue Huang, Liang Wu, Kaifeng Zhou, Yiming Zhang, Jiong Chen, Jiangni Xia, Xiaofan Yin
The aim of this study was to identify specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and their regulatory roles in the process of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced (VD3-induced) osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived Mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). The differentially expressed miRNAs in VD3-induced hAMSCs was examined. The putative target genes of these miRNAs were predicted. A total of 76 conserved miRNAs, including 18 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 58 miRNAs were significantly downregulated, and significantly differentially expressed between the two samples...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217674/pollen-pistil-interaction-in-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-the-northernmost-species-of-the-mainly-tropical-family-annonaceae
#18
Juan M Losada, Jose I Hormaza, Jorge Lora
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pawpaw, Asimina triloba, is an underutilized fruit crop native to North America that belongs to the mainly tropical, early-divergent family Annonaceae. Asimina is the only genus within the Annonaceae with species adapted to cold climates. A thorough analysis of its reproductive biology, specifically pollen-pistil interaction during the progamic phase, is essential to understand both its adaptation to cold climates and how to optimize its fertilization and fruit set...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217666/epac1-regulates-endothelial-annexin-a2-cell-surface-translocation-and-plasminogen-activation
#19
Wenli Yang, Fang C Mei, Xiaodong Cheng
Annexins, a family of highly conserved calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins, play important roles in a wide range of physiologic functions. Among the 12 known annexins in humans, annexin A2 (AnxA2) is one of the most extensively studied and has been implicated in various human diseases. AnxA2 can exist as a monomer or a heterotetrameric complex with S100A10 (P11) and plays a critical role in many cellular processes, including exocytosis, endocytosis, and membrane organization. At the endothelial cell surface, the (AnxA2·P11)2 tetramer-acting as a coreceptor for plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-accelerates tPA-dependent activation of the fibrinolytic protease, plasmin, the enzyme that is responsible for thrombus dissolution and the degradation of fibrin...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217592/loss-of-lofsep-transcription-factor-function-converts-spikelet-to-leaf-like-structures-in-rice
#20
Di Wu, Wanqi Liang, Wanwan Zhu, Mingjiao Chen, Cristina Ferrandiz, Rachel A Burton, Ludovico Dreni, Dabing Zhang
SEPALLATA (SEP)-like genes, which encode a subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors, are essential for specifying floral organ and meristem identity in angiosperms. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) has five SEP-like genes with partial redundancy and overlapping expression domains, yet their functions and evolutionary conservation are only partially known. Here, we describe the biological role of one of the SEP genes of rice, OsMADS5, in redundantly controlling spikelet morphogenesis. OsMADS5 belongs to the conserved LOFSEP subgroup along with OsMADS1 and OsMADS34...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
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