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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474932/profiling-g-protein-coupled-receptors-of-fasciola-hepatica-identifies-orphan-rhodopsins-unique-to-phylum-platyhelminthes
#1
Paul McVeigh, Erin McCammick, Paul McCusker, Duncan Wells, Jane Hodgkinson, Steve Paterson, Angela Mousley, Nikki J Marks, Aaron G Maule
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth...
February 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474435/sumo-polymeric-chains-are-involved-in-nuclear-foci-formation-and-chromatin-organization-in-trypanosoma-brucei-procyclic-forms
#2
Paula Ana Iribarren, Lucía Ayelén Di Marzio, María Agustina Berazategui, Javier Gerardo De Gaudenzi, Vanina Eder Alvarez
SUMOylation is a post-translational modification conserved in eukaryotic organisms that involves the covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-like protein SUMO to internal lysine residues in target proteins. This tag usually alters the interaction surface of the modified protein and can be translated into changes in its biological activity, stability or subcellular localization, among other possible outputs. SUMO can be attached as a single moiety or as SUMO polymers in case there are internal acceptor sites in SUMO itself...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474423/seasonal-variability-in-the-persistence-of-dissolved-environmental-dna-edna-in-a-marine-system-the-role-of-microbial-nutrient-limitation
#3
Ian Salter
Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be defined as the DNA pool recovered from an environmental sample that includes both extracellular and intracellular DNA. There has been a significant increase in the number of recent studies that have demonstrated the possibility to detect macroorganisms using eDNA. Despite the enormous potential of eDNA to serve as a biomonitoring and conservation tool in aquatic systems, there remain some important limitations concerning its application. One significant factor is the variable persistence of eDNA over natural environmental gradients, which imposes a critical constraint on the temporal and spatial scales of species detection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474379/small-rna-populations-revealed-by-blocking-rrna-fragments-in-drosophila-melanogaster-reproductive-tissues
#4
Emily K Fowler, Irina Mohorianu, Damian T Smith, Tamas Dalmay, Tracey Chapman
RNA interference (RNAi) is a complex and highly conserved regulatory mechanism mediated via small RNAs (sRNAs). Recent technical advances in high throughput sequencing have enabled an increasingly detailed analysis of sRNA abundances and profiles in specific body parts and tissues. This enables investigations of the localized roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, variation in the proportions of non-coding RNAs in the samples being compared can hinder these analyses. Specific tissues may vary significantly in the proportions of fragments of longer non-coding RNAs (such as ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA) present, potentially reflecting tissue-specific differences in biological functions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473490/identification-and-analysis-of-key-residues-involved-in-folding-and-binding-of-protein-carbohydrate-complexes
#5
Michael Gromiha, N R Siva Shanmugam, J Fermin Angelo Selvin, K Veluraja
Protein-carbohydrate interactions play vital roles in several biological processes in living organisms. The comparative analysis of binding site residues along with stabilizing residues in protein-carbohydrate complexes provides ample insights to understand the structure, function and recognition mechanism. In this work, we have identified 2.45% binding site residues in a non-redundant dataset of 1130 complexes using distance-based criteria and 7.07% stabilizing residues using the concepts of hydrophobicity, long-range interactions and conservation of residues...
February 21, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473220/cost-shifting-and-other-perverse-incentives-in-biodiversity-offsetting-in-india
#6
Divya Narain, Martine Maron
Biodiversity offsetting aims to compensate for development-induced biodiversity loss through commensurate conservation gains and is gaining traction among governments and businesses. However, cost shifting (i.e., diversion of offset funds to other conservation programs) and other perverse incentives can undermine the effectiveness of biodiversity offsetting. Additionality - the requirement that biodiversity offsets result in conservation outcomes that would not have been achieved otherwise - is fundamental to biodiversity offsetting...
February 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473208/the-perpetual-state-of-emergency-that-sacrifices-protected-areas-in-a-changing-climate
#7
Dirac Twidwell, Carissa L Wonkka, Christine H Bielski, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler, Jacob Drozda, Ahjond S Garmestani, Julia Johnson, Larkin A Powell, Caleb P Roberts
A modern challenge for conservation biology is to assess the consequences of policies that adhere to assumptions of stationarity (e.g. historic norms) in an era of global environmental change. Such policies may result in unexpected and surprising levels of mitigation given future climate change trajectories, especially as agriculture looks to protected areas to buffer against production losses during periods of environmental extremes. Here, we conduct a scenario impact assessment to determine the potential impact of climate change scenarios on the rates at which lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands are authorized for emergency biomass removal...
February 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473009/coremic-a-web-tool-to-search-for-a-niche-associated-core-microbiome
#8
Richard R Rodrigues, Nyle C Rodgers, Xiaowei Wu, Mark A Williams
Microbial diversity on earth is extraordinary, and soils alone harbor thousands of species per gram of soil. Understanding how this diversity is sorted and selected into habitat niches is a major focus of ecology and biotechnology, but remains only vaguely understood. A systems-biology approach was used to mine information from databases to show how it can be used to answer questions related to the core microbiome of habitat-microbe relationships. By making use of the burgeoning growth of information from databases, our tool "COREMIC" meets a great need in the search for understanding niche partitioning and habitat-function relationships...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472927/genome-wide-identification-of-destruxin-a-responsive-immunity-related-micrornas-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella
#9
Muhammad Shakeel, Xiaoxia Xu, Jin Xu, Shuzhong Li, Jialin Yu, Xianqiang Zhou, Xiaojing Xu, Qiongbo Hu, Xiaoqiang Yu, Fengliang Jin
Plutella xylostella , a global key pest, is one of the major lepidopteran pests of cruciferous vegetables owing to its strong ability of resistance development to a wide range of insecticides. Destruxin A, a mycotoxin of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae , has broad-spectrum insecticidal effects and has been used as an alternative control strategy to reduce harmful effects of insecticides. However, microRNA (miRNA)-regulated reactions against destruxin A have not been elucidated yet. Therefore, here, to identify immunity-related miRNAs, we constructed four small RNA libraries from destruxin A-injected larvae of P...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472760/genetic-diversity-and-functional-analysis-of-sigma-factors-in-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-resourced-from-various-niche
#10
Farah Nazir, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ghunva Zaman, Annam Hussain, Asma Muhammad Yar, Zhu Bo
Sigma factors are bacterial transcription factors that bind the core RNA polymerase and direct transcription initiation at a specific promoter site. These specialized sigma factors bind the promoters of genes appropriate to the environmental conditions and selectively increase the transcription of those genes. Here, we attempt to identify sigma factors in 5 genomes belonging to the Enterobacter cloacae complex (Ecc), a group of gram-negative bacteria that are important nosocomial pathogens. This process includes the identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, phylogenetic profiles, and protein-protein associations of these components...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472364/pseudo-dubs-as-allosteric-activators-and-molecular-scaffolds-of-protein-complexes
#11
REVIEW
Miriam Walden, Safi Kani Masandi, Krzysztof Pawłowski, Elton Zeqiraj
The ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system and Ub signalling networks are crucial to cell biology and disease development. Deubiquitylases (DUBs) control cell signalling by removing mono-Ub and polyubiquitin chains from substrates. DUBs take part in almost all processes that regulate cellular life and are frequently dysregulated in disease. We have catalogued 99 currently known DUBs in the human genome and sequence conservation analyses of catalytic residues suggest that 11 lack enzyme activity and are classed as pseudo-DUBs...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471787/evolutionary-and-expression-analyses-of-soybean-basic-leucine-zipper-transcription-factor-family
#12
Man Zhang, Yanhui Liu, Hang Shi, Mingliang Guo, Mengnan Chai, Qing He, Maokai Yan, Du Cao, Lihua Zhao, Hanyang Cai, Yuan Qin
BACKGROUND: Soybean, a major legume crop native to East Asia, presents a wealth of resources for utilization. The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in various biological processes including developmental regulation and responses to environmental stress stimuli. Currently, little information is available regarding the bZIP family in the legume crop soybean. RESULTS: Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 160 GmbZIP genes in soybean genome, named from GmbZIP1 to GmbZIP160...
February 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471575/-breast-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy-the-most-important-facts-for-internists
#13
Ulrich Hamann, Christine Ankel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the epidemiology of breast cancer, its incidence and impact. 2. Appreciate the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. 3. Understand the concept of comprehensive breast cancer management and its multidisciplinarity. 4. Be knowledgeable about the entire process required to manage breast cancer, since the early diagnosis until the management of non breast related conditions derived from the treatment...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471272/gene-architecture-and-expression-analyses-provide-insights-into-the-role-of-glutathione-peroxidases-gpxs-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#14
Shivi Tyagi, Himani, Jaspreet K Sembi, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are redox sensor proteins that maintain a steady-state of H2 O2 in plant cells. They exhibit distinct sub-cellular localization and have diverse functionality in response to different stimuli. In this study, a total of 14 TaGPX genes and three splice variants were identified in the genome of Triticum aestivum and evaluated for various physicochemical properties. The TaGPX genes were scattered on the various chromosomes of the A, B, and D sub-genomes and clustered into five homeologous groups based on high sequence homology...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471026/fungal-extracellular-vesicles-modulating-host-pathogen-interactions-by-both-the-fungus-and-the-host
#15
D Zamith-Miranda, L Nimrichter, M L Rodrigues, J D Nosanchuk
The secretion of biomolecules by fungal cells occurs via the conventional export of signal peptide-coupled soluble molecules, but it also results from transport within extracellular vesicles (EV). During the last ten years since the description of this non-conventional secretion pathway, varied, interesting biological roles have been associated with EV release by fungi. The various organic molecules carried by these structures are involved in pathogenesis and immune evasion, and may be associated with cell-cell communication...
February 19, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470702/the-mutual-benefits-of-research-in-wild-animal-species-and-human-assisted-reproduction
#16
REVIEW
P Comizzoli, E E Paulson, L K McGinnis
Studying the reproductive biology of wild animal species produces knowledge beneficial to their management and conservation. However, wild species also share intriguing similarities in reproductive biology with humans, thereby offering alternative models for better understanding the etiology of infertility and developing innovative treatments. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness in different scientific communities about intriguing connections between wild animals and humans regarding infertility syndromes or improvement of fertility preservation...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470664/toward-miniaturized-analysis-of-chemical-identity-and-purity-of-radiopharmaceuticals-via-microchip-electrophoresis
#17
Jimmy Ly, Noel S Ha, Shilin Cheung, R Michael van Dam
Miniaturized synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers is poised to offer numerous advantages including reduced tracer production costs and increased availability of diverse tracers. While many steps of the tracer production process have been miniaturized, there has been relatively little development of microscale systems for the quality control (QC) testing process that is required by regulatory agencies to ensure purity, identity, and biological safety of the radiotracer before use in human subjects...
February 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470549/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-events-in-bovine-by-transcriptome-sequencing
#18
Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Abdolreza Salehi, Rocío Melissa Rivera
RNA editing increases the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is the predominant type of RNA editing in mammals and it is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) family. Here, we used a largescale computational analysis of transcriptomic data from brain, heart, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testes, skeletal muscle and liver, from three adult animals in order to identify RNA editing sites in bovine. We developed a computational pipeline and used a rigorous strategy to identify novel editing sites from RNA-Seq data in the absence of corresponding DNA sequence information...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469689/genomic-and-structural-features-of-the-yellow-fever-virus-from-the-2016-2017-brazilian-outbreak
#19
Mariela Martínez Gómez, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Alexandre Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Iasmim Silva de Mello, Marta Pereira Santos, Ieda Pereira Ribeiro, Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Mario Sergio Ribeiro, Roberto da Costa Laterrière Junior, Shirlei Ferreira Aguiar, Guilherme Louzada Silva Meira, Deborah Antunes, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Daiana Mir, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina Ramos Guimarães, Ernesto Raul Caffarena, Gonzalo Bello, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Myrna Cristina Bonaldo
Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South America, heretofore a yellow fever-free zone for more than 70 years. In the current study, we describe the complete genome of 12 YFV samples from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates from the Brazilian 2017 epidemic. All of the YFV sequences belong to the modern lineage (sub-lineage 1E) of South American genotype I, having been circulating for several months prior to the December 2016 detection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469653/analytical-similarity-assessment-of-rituximab-biosimilar-ct-p10-to-reference-medicinal-product
#20
Kyoung Hoon Lee, Jihun Lee, Jin Soo Bae, Yeon Jung Kim, Hyun Ah Kang, Sung Hwan Kim, So Jung Lee, Ki Jung Lim, Jung Woo Lee, Soon Kwan Jung, Shin Jae Chang
CT-P10 (TruximaTM) was recently approved as the world's first rituximab biosimilar product in the European Union (EU) and South Korea. To demonstrate biosimilarity of CT-P10 with the reference medicinal product (RMP), extensive 3-way similarity assessment has been conducted between CT-P10, EU-Rituximab and US-Rituximab, focusing on the physicochemical and biological quality attributes. A multitude of state-of-the-art analyses revealed that CT-P10 has identical primary and higher order structures compared to the original product...
February 22, 2018: MAbs
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