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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#1
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666979/amsacta-moorei-entomopoxvirus-encodes-a-functional-heparin-binding-glycosyltransferase-amv248
#2
Cihan Inan, Hacer Muratoglu, Basil M Arif, Zihni Demirbag
Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) infects certain lepidopteran and orthopteran insects and is the most studied member of the genus Betaentomopoxvirus. It has been considered as a potential vector for gene therapy, a vector to express exogenous proteins and a biological control agent. One of its open reading frames, amv248, encodes a putative glycosyltransferase and is the only known attachment protein conserved in AMEV and chordopoxviruses. The ORF was successfully expressed and the protein was shown to bind soluble heparin, both in silico and in vitro...
April 17, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666795/cell-chirality-drives-left-right-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Takeshi Sasamura, Kenji Matsuno
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666616/stem-cell-transcription-factor-foxo-controls-microbiome-resilience-in-hydra
#4
Benedikt M Mortzfeld, Jan Taubenheim, Sebastian Fraune, Alexander V Klimovich, Thomas C G Bosch
The aging process is considered to be the result of accumulating cellular deterioration in an individual organism over time. It can be affected by the combined influence of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors including life-style-associated events. In the non-senescent freshwater polyp Hydra , one of the classical model systems for evolutionary developmental biology and regeneration, transcription factor FoxO modulates both stem cell proliferation and innate immunity. This provides strong support for the role of FoxO as a critical rate-of-aging regulator...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665841/same-agent-different-messages-insight-into-transcriptional-regulation-by-sin3-isoforms
#5
REVIEW
Ashlesha Chaubal, Lori A Pile
SIN3 is a global transcriptional coregulator that governs expression of a large repertoire of gene targets. It is an important player in gene regulation, which can repress or activate diverse gene targets in a context-dependent manner. SIN3 is required for several vital biological processes such as cell proliferation, energy metabolism, organ development, and cellular senescence. The functional flexibility of SIN3 arises from its ability to interact with a large variety of partners through protein interaction domains that are conserved across species, ranging from yeast to mammals...
April 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665451/tgf-%C3%AE-1-resulting-in-differential-microrna-expression-in-bovine-granulosa-cells
#6
Yefen Xu, Jiaqiang Niu, Guangying Xi, Xuezhi Niu, Yuheng Wang, Ming Guo, Qiangba Yangzong, Yilong Yao, Suolang Sizhu, Jianhui Tian
To explore the expression profile of the cellular miRNAs in bovine ovarian granulosa cells responding to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), the effect of TGF-β1 on cell proliferation was firstly investigated by CCK-8 method and the results showed that there was a significant inhibitory effect on bovine granulosa cell proliferation treated with 5/10 ng/mL human recombinant TGF-β1 for 24 h compared to the control (P < 0.05). Then, we performed high-throughput sequencing of two small RNA libraries prepared from cultured bovine granulosa cells stimulated with or without 10 ng/mL human recombinant TGF-β1...
April 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665235/genome-wide-identification-of-long-non-coding-rnas-suggests-a-potential-association-with-effector-gene-transcription-in-phytophthora-sojae
#7
Yang Wang, Wenwu Ye, Yuanchao Wang
Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) identified and characterized in mammals, plants, and fungi have been found to play critical regulatory roles in biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in oomycete plant pathogens, which cause devastating damage to the economy and ecosystems. We used strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate a computational pipeline to identify lncRNAs in Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen. In total, 940 lncRNAs with 1,010 isoforms were identified from RNA-seq data obtained from four representative stages of P...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664943/do-non-native-species-contribute-to-biodiversity
#8
Martin A Schlaepfer
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) emphasises the role of biodiversity in delivering benefits essential for all people and, as a result, seeks to safeguard all life-forms. The indices that are used to measure progress towards international conservation and sustainability goals, however, focus solely on the 'native' component of biodiversity. A subset of non-native species can cause undesirable economic, social, or biological effects. But non-native species also contribute to regional biodiversity (species richness and biotic interactions) and ecosystem services...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664930/distinctive-variation-in-the-u3r-region-of-the-5-long-terminal-repeat-from-diverse-hiv-1-strains
#9
Christelle Mbondji-Wonje, Ming Dong, Xue Wang, Jiangqin Zhao, Viswanath Ragupathy, Ana M Sanchez, Thomas N Denny, Indira Hewlett
Functional mapping of the 5'LTR has shown that the U3 and the R regions (U3R) contain a cluster of regulatory elements involved in the control of HIV-1 transcription and expression. As the HIV-1 genome is characterized by extensive variability, here we aimed to describe mutations in the U3R from various HIV-1 clades and CRFs in order to highlight strain specific differences that may impact the biological properties of diverse HIV-1 strains. To achieve our purpose, the U3R sequence of plasma derived virus belonging to different clades (A1, B, C, D, F2) and recombinants (CRF02_AG, CRF01_AE and CRF22_01A1) was obtained using Illumina technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662499/nad-kinases-metabolic-targets-controlling-redox-co-enzymes-and-reducing-power-partitioning-in-plant-stress-and-development
#10
REVIEW
Bin-Bin Li, Xiang Wang, Li Tai, Tian-Tian Ma, Abdullah Shalmani, Wen-Ting Liu, Wen-Qiang Li, Kun-Ming Chen
NAD(H) and NADP(H) are essential co-enzymes which dominantly control a number of fundamental biological processes by acting as reducing power and maintaining the intracellular redox balance of all life kingdoms. As the only enzymes that catalyze NAD(H) and ATP to synthesize NADP(H), NAD Kinases (NADKs) participate in many essential metabolic reactions, redox sensitive regulation, photosynthetic performance and also reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis of cells and therefore, play crucial roles in both development and stress responses of plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662498/small-rna-and-degradome-deep-sequencing-reveals-the-roles-of-micrornas-in-seed-expansion-in-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#11
Xingli Ma, Xingguo Zhang, Kunkun Zhao, Fapeng Li, Ke Li, Longlong Ning, Jialin He, Zeyu Xin, Dongmei Yin
Seed expansion in peanut is a complex biological process involving many gene regulatory pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in plant growth and development, but little is known about their functions during seed expansion, or how they contribute to seed expansion in different peanut lines. We examined seed miRNA expression patterns at 15 and 35 days after flowering (DAF) in two peanut eighth-generation recombinant inbred lines (RIL8); 8106, a medium-pod variety, and 8107, a super-pod variety...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662026/the-hard-way-towards-an-antibody-based-hiv-1-env-vaccine-lessons-from-other-viruses
#12
REVIEW
Oliver Ringel, Vincent Vieillard, Patrice Debré, Jutta Eichler, Hildegard Büning, Ursula Dietrich
Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced the number of new infections worldwide, a vaccine against HIV-1 is still urgently needed. We discuss here the major reasons for the failure of "classical" vaccine approaches, which are mostly due to the biological properties of the virus itself...
April 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661138/a-coxiella-burnetii-phospholipase-a-homolog-plda-is-required-for-optimal-growth-in-macrophages-and-developmental-form-lipid-remodeling
#13
Christopher M Stead, Diane C Cockrell, Paul A Beare, Heather E Miller, Robert A Heinzen
BACKGROUND: Many gram-negative bacteria produce an outer membrane phospholipase A (PldA) that plays an important role in outer membrane function and is associated with virulence. RESULTS: In the current study, we characterized a pldA mutant of Coxiella burnetii, an intracellular gram-negative pathogen and the agent of human Q fever. The C. burnetti pldA open reading frame directs synthesis of a protein with conserved PldA active site residues. A C. burnetii ΔpldA deletion mutant had a significant growth defect in THP-1 macrophages, but not axenic medium, that was rescued by complementation...
April 16, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660809/prosopis-nigra-mesocarp-fine-flour-a-source-of-phytochemicals-with-potential-effect-on-enzymes-linked-to-metabolic-syndrome-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-process
#14
María J Pérez, Iris C Zampini, Maria R Alberto, María I Isla
This work is part of the search in native food matrices from arid regions of Argentina of interest to improve human health. Prosopis species are ethnic food resources in South America capable of growing in arid and semi-arid environments. This work was focused to determine the nutritional and phytochemical composition of Prosopis nigra fine flour and to evaluate its biological properties. Flour showed a high level of sucrose (30.35 g/100 g flour), fiber (6.34 g/100 g flour), polyphenols (0.45 g GAE/100 g flour), and minerals (potassium, calcium, and magnesium)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659948/mir156-spls-module-regulates-somatic-embryogenesis-induction-in-citrus-callus
#15
Jian-Mei Long, Chao-Yang Liu, Meng-Qi Feng, Yun Liu, Xiao-Meng Wu, Wen-Wu Guo
As a highly conserved plant miRNA, miR156 has been intensively investigated for its versatile roles in plant development. Herein we report a novel role of miR156 in regulating somatic embryogenesis (SE) of citrus, one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. SE is an important way of regeneration, but SE potential of the preserved citrus embryogenic callus always declined during long-term sub-culturing, becoming a key obstacle for citrus biotechnology. In our study, either overexpression of csi-miR156a or individual knock-down of the two target genes CsSPL3 and CsSPL14 significantly enhanced SE competence of citrus callus, indicating that the effect of miR156-SPLs module was established for the initial phases of SE induction...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659701/gain-of-function-mutation-of-atdice1-encoding-a-putative-endoplasmic-reticulum-localized-membrane-protein-causes-defects-in-anisotropic-cell-elongation-by-disturbing-cell-wall-integrity-in-arabidopsis
#16
Phi-Yen Le, Hyung-Woo Jeon, Min-Ha Kim, Eung-Jun Park, Hyoshin Lee, Indeok Hwang, Kyung-Hwan Han, Jae-Heung Ko
Background and Aims: Anisotropic cell elongation depends on cell wall relaxation and cellulose microfibril arrangement. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular function of AtDICE1 encoding a novel transmembrane protein involved in anisotropic cell elongation in Arabidopsis. Methods: Phenotypic characterizations of transgenic Arabidopsis plants mis-regulating AtDICE1 expression with different pharmacological treatments were made, and biochemical, cell biological and transcriptome analyses were performed...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659634/genome-wide-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-superfamily-members-in-peach
#17
Chunhua Zhang, Ruchao Feng, Ruijuan Ma, Zhijun Shen, Zhixiang Cai, Zhizhong Song, Bin Peng, Mingliang Yu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family is a superfamily found in all eukaryotes that plays important roles in regulating growth and development. Over the past several decades, many bHLH superfamily genes have been identified and characterized in herbaceous and woody plants. However, the genes belonging to the bHLH superfamily in peach (Prunus persica) have not yet been comprehensively identified and characterized. Here, we identified 95 members of the bHLH superfamily in the peach genome, and these genes were classified into 19 subfamilies based on a phylogenetic comparison with bHLH proteins from Arabidopsis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659599/profiling-extracellular-vesicle-release-by-the-filarial-nematode-brugia-malayi-reveals-sex-specific-differences-in-cargo-and-a-sensitivity-to-ivermectin
#18
Hiruni Harischandra, Wang Yuan, Hannah J Loghry, Mostafa Zamanian, Michael J Kimber
The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658115/generalisation-and-specialisation-in-hoverfly-syrphidae-grassland-pollen-transport-networks-revealed-by-dna-metabarcoding
#19
Andrew Lucas, Owen Bodger, Berry J Brosi, Col R Ford, Dan W Forman, Carolyn Greig, Matthew Hegarty, Penelope J Neyland, Natasha de Vere
Pollination by insects is a key ecosystem service and important to wider ecosystem function. Most species-level pollination networks studied have a generalised structure, with plants having several potential pollinators, and pollinators in turn visiting a number of different plant species. This is in apparent contrast to a plant's need for efficient conspecific pollen transfer. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of pollen transport networks at three levels of biological hierarchy: community, species and individual...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658072/circular-rna-new-regulatory-molecules
#20
E A Belousova, M L Filipenko, N E Kushlinskii
Circular RNA are a family of covalently closed circular RNA molecules, formed from pre-mRNA of coding genes by means of splicing (canonical and alternative noncanonical splicing). Maturation of circular RNA is regulated by cis- and trans-elements. Complete list of biological functions of these RNA is not yet compiled; however, their capacity to interact with specific microRNA and play a role of a depot attracts the greatest interest. This property makes circular RNA active regulatory transcription factors. Circular RNA have many advantages over their linear analogs: synthesis of these molecules is conservative, they are universal, characterized by clearly determined specificity, and are resistant to exonucleases...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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